The iPod Nano is a portable media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first generation model was introduced on September 7, 2005, as a replacement for the iPod Mini, using flash memory for storage; the iPod Nano went since its introduction. Apple discontinued the iPod Nano on July 27, 2017. Development work on the design of the iPod Nano started only nine months before its launch date; the Nano was launched in two colors with two available sizes: 2 GB and 4 GB. On February 7, 2006, Apple updated the lineup with the 1 GB model. Apple released some accessories, including armbands and silicone "tubes" designed to bring color to the Nano and protect it from scratches, as well as a combination lanyard-earphone accessory that hangs around the neck and avoids the problem of tangled earphone cords; the current models with Bluetooth headphones have a similar advantage. On September 7, 2005, Apple introduced the iPod Nano at a media event with Steve Jobs pointing to the small watch pocket in his jeans and asking, "Ever wonder what this pocket is for?"
Advertising emphasized the iPod Nano's small size: 40 millimetres wide, 90 millimetres long, 6.9 millimetres thick and weighing 42 grams. The stated battery life was up to 14 hours, while the screen was 176×132 pixels, 38 millimetres diagonal, displaying 65,536 colors. 1, 2, 4 GB capacities were available. On November 11, 2011, Apple announced a recall on this model of iPod nano; the recall was issued due to a battery overheat issue. This recall applied to iPod nanos sold between September 2005 and December 2006. On September 25, 2006, Apple updated the Nano line; the second-generation Nano featured scratch-resistant, anodized aluminum casing like the earlier Mini's design. However, unlike the second-generation Mini, the button labels were grey instead of matching the Nano's casing; the second-generation Nano featured a 40% brighter, "more vibrant" display, a battery life upgrade, storage sizes doubled to 2, 4, 8 GB models. The second generation introduced gapless playback of audio files, along with a new search option.
The 2 GB model was available in silver only. The 4 GB was available in green, silver, or pink, the 8 GB model was only available in black - red was added for 4 and 8 GB models. Apple claimed that the second generation iPod Nano's packaging was "32% lighter with 52% less volume than the first generation", thereby reducing environmental impact and shipping costs. On October 13, 2006, Apple announced a special edition iPod Nano. For each red iPod Nano sold in the United States, Apple donates US$10 to the Product Red initiative, while retaining the regular price. On November 3, 2006, Apple introduced a red 8 GB model, due to "outstanding customer demand", again retaining the same price point of the equivalent black model. Apple updated the Nano again on September 5, 2007; the third-generation Nano featured a 2-inch QVGA screen and a shorter, heavier design, with new colors. New features included browsing via Cover Flow, a new user interface, video playback, support for new iPod Games. Users had to repurchase games bought a month before the debut of the new iPod as they were not supported.
The Nano was announced in a 4 GB version coming in silver and an 8 GB version coming in silver, mint green and Product Red. The battery lasted for approx. 24 hours on audio playback and approx. 5 hours on video playback. On January 22, 2008, Apple released a pink version of the 8 GB iPod Nano. Combining elements from previous generations of the iPod Nano, the third-generation Nano had an aluminum front plate and a stainless steel back plate; the Nano sported a new Minimalistic hold switch, similar to the iPod Shuffle's power switch, moved to the bottom of the player. The 2-inch screen had the smallest dot pitch of any Apple product, having the same pixel count as the 2.5-inch display of the iPod Classic. On October 6, 2007, Apple released a firmware update via iTunes, said to improve Cover Flow and yield faster menu navigation; the update was released for the iPod Classic. On November 28, 2007, Apple released another firmware update via iTunes, which included unspecified bugfixes. January 15, 2008 saw the release of version 1.1, which added support for iTunes movie rentals, music song lyrics support and included more unspecified bugfixes.
Apple released update version 1.1.2 in May 2008 and version 1.1.3 in July 2008 with more bug fixes. At the Apple Let's Rock Event on September 9, 2008, the iPod Nano Fourth Generation was announced, it returned to the narrow form factor of the 1st and 2nd Generation model, while retaining and rotating the 51-millimetre screen from the 3rd gen model. It was thinner than the first and third generation Nano, measuring 90.7 millimetres tall by 38.7 millimetres wide by 6.2 millimetres thick, weighing 36.8 grams. It had a curved aluminum glass screen. Apple claimed the battery would last 24 hours of music playback, only 4 hours of video playback, compared to the 5 hours of the previous generation; the six previous colors were replaced by silver, purple, light blue, yellow, orange and pink, for a total of n
IMac is a family of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its debut in August 1998, has evolved through seven distinct forms. In its original form, iMac G3 had a gumdrop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive; the second major revision, iMac G4, moved the design to a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a moving arm attached to it. The third and fourth major revisions, iMac G5 and the Intel iMac placed all the components behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base; the fifth major revision shared the same form as the previous model, but was thinner and used anodized aluminum and a glass panel over the entire front. The sixth major revision uses a different display unit, omits the SuperDrive, uses different production techniques from the older unibody versions.
This allows it to be thinner with an edge thickness of 5.9 mm. It includes a dual microphone setup, includes solid-state drive or hard disk storage, or an Apple Fusion Drive, a hybrid of solid state and hard disk drives; this version of iMac was announced in October 2012, with the 21.5-inch version released in November and the 27-inch version in December. In October 2014, the seventh major revision of the 27-inch iMac was announced, whose main feature is a "Retina 5K" display at a resolution of 5120 × 2880 pixels; the new model includes a new processor, graphics chip, IO, along with several new storage options. The seventh major revision of the 21.5-inch iMac was announced in October 2015. Its main feature is a "Retina 4K" display at a resolution of 4096 × 2304 pixels, it has the same new processor, graphics chip, I/O as the 27-inch iMac, along with several new storage options. On June 5, 2017, Apple announced a workstation-class version of the iMac, called the "iMac Pro"; the iMac Pro shares the design and screen of the 5K iMac, but is colored in Space Gray rather than silver.
It comes with standard SSD storage. Apple began shipping the iMac Pro in December 2017; the announcement of iMac in 1998 was a source of controversy and anticipation among commentators, Mac fans, detractors. Opinions were divided over Apple's drastic changes to the Macintosh hardware. At the time, Apple had suffered a series of setbacks as consumers opted for Wintel machines instead of Apple's Performa models. Many in the industry thought that "beleaguered" Apple would soon be forced to start selling computers with a custom interface built on top of one or more potential operating system bases, such as Taligent, Solaris, or Windows 98. Part of Apple's effort to maintain the Mac platform was trying to improve its retail strategy; as these stores developed, they became a detriment to Apple sales, as CompUSA employees were unfamiliar with the Macintosh and directed customers to Wintel boxes instead. The designer behind iMac's case was Jonathan Ive. Ken Segall was an employee at an L. A. ad agency handling Apple's account who came up with the name "iMac" and pitched it to Steve Jobs.
Jobs wanted the product to be called "MacMan", but warmed to Segall's suggestion. Segall says that the "i" stands for "Internet", but represents the product as a personal and revolutionary device. Apple adopted the'i' prefix across its consumer hardware and software lines, such as iPod, iBook, iPhone, iPad and various pieces of software such as the iLife suite and iWork and the company's media player/store, iTunes. Attention was given to the out-of-box experience: the user needed to go through only two steps to set up and connect to the Internet. "There's no step 3!" was the catch-phrase in a popular iMac commercial narrated by actor Jeff Goldblum. Another commercial, dubbed "Simplicity Shootout", pitted seven-year-old Johann Thomas and his border collie Brodie, with an iMac, against Adam Taggart, a Stanford University MBA student, with an HP Pavilion 8250, in a race to set up their computers. Johann and Brodie finished in 8 minutes and 15 seconds, whereas Adam was still working on it by the end of the commercial.
By 2005, it had become more and more apparent that IBM's development for the desktop implementation of PowerPC was grinding to a halt. Apple announced at the Worldwide Developers Conference that it would be switching the Macintosh to the x86 architecture and Intel's line of Core processors; the first Intel-equipped Macs were unveiled on January 10, 2006: the Intel iMac and the introductory MacBook Pro. Within nine months, Apple had smoothly transitioned the entire Macintosh line to Intel. One of the touted side benefits of this switch was the ability to run Windows on Mac hardware. On July 27, 2010, Apple updated its line of iMacs to feature the new Intel Core "i-series" processors across the line; the 21.5" models now feature the Core i3 processor, but these are upgradable to the Core i5. The high end 27" features a Quad-Core i5 processor, upgradable to a Quad-Core i7. On this date Apple announced its new "Apple Magic Trackpad" peripheral, a trackpad similar to that of MacBook Pro for use with iMac or any other Apple computer.
Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Apple Watch is a line of smartwatches designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It incorporates fitness tracking and health-oriented capabilities with integration with iOS and other Apple products and services. Apple Watch relies on a wireless connection to an iPhone to perform many of its default functions such as calling and texting. However, Wi-Fi chips in all Apple Watch models allow the smartwatch to have limited connectivity features away from the phone anywhere a Wi-Fi network is available. Series 3 LTE Apple Watches are able to be used without needing to be connected to an iPhone, though an iPhone is still required to set up the device. Most Apple Watches that are produced require an iPhone 5s or with iOS 11; the Apple Watch was released on April 24, 2015 and became the best-selling wearable device with 4.2 million sold in the second quarter of the 2015 fiscal year. The second generation of Apple Watches were released in two tiers in September 2016: the Apple Watch Series 1 and Apple Watch Series 2, while the first generation was discontinued.
The Apple Watch Series 3 was released on September 22, 2017 alongside the discontinuation of the Apple Watch Series 2. The Apple Watch Series 4 was announced on September 12, 2018, with the Apple Watch Series 1 no longer being produced; the goal of the Apple Watch was to enhance the uses of an iPhone while providing the user with some additional new features. Kevin Lynch was hired by Apple to make wearable technology for the wrist, he said: "People are looking at the screen so much. People want that level of engagement, but how do we provide it in a way that's a little more human, a little more in the moment when you’re with somebody?" Apple's development process was held much under wraps until a Wired article revealed how some internal design decisions were made. Rumors surrounded an Apple-developed wearable device back as far as 2011, which conceptualized the device as a variation of the iPod that would curve around the user's wrist, feature Siri integration. On February 10, 2013, both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was beginning to develop an iOS-based smartwatch with a curved display.
On February 12, 2013, Bloomberg reported that Apple's smartwatch project was "beyond the experimentation phase in its development", had a team of at least 100 designers working on the project. Further reports in March 2013 indicated that Apple planned to release the device by the end of the year. In July 2013, Financial Times reported that Apple had begun hiring more employees to work on the smartwatch, that it was targeting a possible retail release in late 2014. In April 2014, Apple CEO Tim Cook told The Wall Street Journal that the company was planning to launch new product categories that year, but did not reveal any specifics. In June 2014, Reuters reported that production was expected to begin in July for a release in October. On September 9, 2014, during a press event where the iPhone 6 was presented, the new product was introduced by Tim Cook as "the next chapter in Apple's story" with a video that focused on its design and the various combinations of bands and case styles that would be available to the consumers.
After the reveal video, the auditorium was filled with prolonged applause and a standing ovation as Tim Cook reappeared onstage wearing an Apple Watch. Cook explained that Apple Watch was "a precise timepiece, a new intimate way to communicate from your wrist, a comprehensive health and fitness device."In comparison to other Apple products and competing smartwatches, marketing of Apple Watch focused more on advertising the device as a fashion accessory. Apple focused upon its health and fitness-oriented features, competing against dedicated activity trackers, with watchOS 3, expanded on them with fitness tracking for wheelchair users, social sharing in the Activity app, a Breathe app to encourage mindfulness. Pre-orders for the Apple Watch began on April 10, 2015, with the official release on April 24; the device was not branded as "iWatch" due to trademark conflicts in certain territories. In July 2015, Probendi sued Apple Inc. for trademark infringement, arguing that through keyword advertising on the Google search engine, it caused advertising for the Apple Watch to appear on search results pages when users searched for the trademarked term "iWatch".
The Apple Watch was not available at the Apple Store. Beginning on April 10, 2015, customers could make appointments for demonstrations and fitting, but the device was not in-stock for walk-in purchases and had to be reserved and ordered online. CNET felt that this distribution model was designed to prevent Apple Store locations from having long line-ups due to the high demand. Selected Apple Watch models were available in limited quantities at luxury boutiques and authorized Apple resellers. On June 4, 2015, Apple announced that it did plan to stock Apple Watch models at its retail locations. On August 24, 2015, Best Buy announced that it would begin stocking Apple Watch at its retail stores by the end of September. Both T-Mobile US and Sprint announced plans to offer Apple Watch through its retail stores. On September 9, 2015, Apple launched a new subset of Apple Watch
Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company referred to as Dow, was an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, United States, the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont. In 2017, prior to the merger, it was the second-largest chemical manufacturer in the world by revenue and the third-largest chemical company in the world by market capitalization, it ranked second in the world by chemical production in 2014. Dow manufactures plastics and agricultural products. With a presence in about 160 countries, it employs about 54,000 people worldwide; the company has seven different major operating segments, with a wide variety of products made by each one. Dow's 2012 sales totaled $57 billion. Dow has been called the "chemical companies' chemical company" in that most of its sales are to other industries rather than end-users. Dow sells directly to end-users in the human and animal health and consumer products markets. Dow is a member of the American Chemistry Council; the company tagline is "Solutionism".
On September 1, 2017, it merged with DuPont to create DowDuPont. In March 2018, it was announced that Jeff Fettig would become executive chairman of DowDuPont on July 1, 2018, Jim Fitterling would become CEO of Dow Chemical on April 1, 2018. On April 1, 2019, Dow completed separation from DowDuPont. Dow is a large producer of plastics, including polystyrene, polyethylene and synthetic rubber, it is a major producer of ethylene oxide, various acrylates and cellulose resins. It produces agricultural chemicals including the pesticide Lorsban and consumer products including Styrofoam; some Dow consumer products including Saran wrap, Ziploc bags and Scrubbing Bubbles were sold to S. C. Johnson & Son in 1997. Performance plastics make up 25 percent of Dow's sales, with many products designed for the automotive and construction industries; the plastics include polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, as well as polystyrene used to produce Styrofoam insulating material. Dow manufactures epoxy resin intermediates including bisphenol epichlorohydrin.
Saran resins and films are based on polyvinylidene chloride The Performance Chemicals segment produces chemicals and materials for water purification, paper coatings and advanced electronics. Major product lines include nitroparaffins, such as nitromethane, used in the pharmaceutical industry and manufactured by Angus Chemical Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Co. Important polymers include Dowex ion exchange resins and polystyrene latex, as well as Carbowax polyethylene glycols. Specialty chemicals are used as starting materials for production of agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Dow Water and Process Solutions is a business unit which manufactures Filmtec reverse osmosis membranes which are used to purify water for human use in the Middle East; the technology was used during 2008 Summer Olympics. Agricultural Sciences, or, provides 7 percent of sales and is responsible for a range of insecticides and fungicides. Seeds from genetically modified plants are an important area of growth for the company.
Dow AgroSciences sells seeds commercially under the following brands: Mycogen, PhytoGen and Hyland Seeds in Canada. Basic plastics end up in everything from diaper liners to beverage bottles and oil tanks. Products are based on the three major polyolefins – polystyrene and polypropylene. Basic chemicals are used internally by Dow as raw materials and are sold worldwide. Markets include dry cleaning and coatings, snow and ice control and the food industry. Major products include ethylene glycol, caustic soda and vinyl chloride monomer. Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide and the derived alcohols ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are major feedstocks for the manufacture of plastics such as polyurethane and PET; the Hydrocarbons and Energy operating segment oversees energy management at Dow. Fuels and oil-based raw materials are procured. Major feedstocks for Dow are provided by this group, including ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and styrene. Dow was founded in 1897 by chemist Herbert Henry Dow, who invented a new method of extracting the bromine, trapped underground in brine at Midland, Michigan.
Dow sold only bleach and potassium bromide, achieving a bleach output of 72 tons a day in 1902. Early in the company's history, a group of British manufacturers tried to drive Dow out of the bleach business by cutting prices. Dow survived by cutting its prices and, although losing about $90,000 in income, began to diversify its product line. In 1905, German bromide producers began dumping bromides at low cost in the U. S. in an effort to prevent Dow from expanding its sales of bromides in Europe. Instead of competing directly for market share with the German producers, Dow bought the cheap German-made bromides and shipped them back to Europe; this undercut his German competitors. In its early history, Dow set a tradition of diversifying its product line. Within twenty years, Dow had become a major producer of agricultural chemicals, elemental chlorine and other dyestuffs, magnesium metal. During World War I, Dow Chemical supplied many war materials the United States had imported from Germany. Dow produced magnesium for incendiary flares, monochlorobenzene and