Pennsylvania's 3rd congressional district
Pennsylvania's third congressional district includes several areas of the city of Philadelphia, including West Philadelphia, most of Center City, parts of North Philadelphia. It has been represented by Dwight Evans since 2019. Prior to 2018, the district was located in the northwestern part of the state and included the cities of Erie, Hermitage and Meadville; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania redrew this district in February 2018 after ruling the previous map unconstitutional. The new third district is similar to the old second district and was Democratic for the 2018 election and representation thereafter. Dwight Evans, the incumbent from the old 2nd district, ran for re-election in the new 3rd District; the district supported President George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004 as well as John McCain in 2008. Prior to redistricting in 2002, the district was located in Northeast Philadelphia and was represented by Rep. Robert Borski. Most of the territory in the 2003–2019 3rd district had been the 21st district before 2002.
The district was organized from Pennsylvania's At-large congressional district in 1791 The district was organized from Pennsylvania's At-large congressional district in 1795. Two additional seats were added in 1803, elected on a general ticket. One of those seats was eliminated in 1813; the district was reorganized in 1823 to have one seat. List of United States congressional districts Pennsylvania's congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present District map Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
James E. Van Zandt
James Edward Van Zandt was a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. James Van Zandt was born in Pennsylvania. In 1917 he served two years, he was a member of the United States Naval Reserve from 1919 to 1943, rising to the rank of Lieutenant. In December 1933 he toured the country with Smedley Butler to recruit members for the Veterans of Foreign Wars, he was the national commander of the Veterans of Foreign Wars from 1934 to 1936. He corroborated Butler's testimony regarding the Business Plot, stating that'agents of Wall Street' had attempted to recruit him for a planned coup to overthrow Franklin Delano Roosevelt, shortly after Butler warned him against them, he was elected in 1938 as a Republican to the 76th, 77th, 78th United States Congresses, served from January 3, 1939, until his resignation September 24, 1943, when he re-entered the service. While a Member of Congress he was called to active duty in September 1941 and served until January 1942 with the Pacific Fleet and in escort convoy duty in the North Atlantic.
He reentered the service in September 1943 as a lieutenant commander and was assigned to the Pacific area until discharged as a captain in 1946, retired as rear admiral in United States Naval Reserve in 1959. He was elected to the seven succeeding Congresses. Van Zandt, while a member of the House Armed Services Committee, made an impassioned speech on the House floor leveling charges against Secretary of Defense Louis A. Johnson and Air Force Secretary Stuart Symington in regard to the procurement of the B-36 bomber; this speech brought into public view the "Revolt of the Admirals". The basis of these charges was a bogus document from Cedric Worth, the special assistant to the Under Secretary of the Navy Dan Kimball. On June 9, 1948, the HASC voted to investigate the charges. In the 1954 attack on the House of Representatives by Puerto Rican nationalists, he tackled and disarmed one of the shooters. In 1962, he unsuccessfully challenged United States Senator Joe Clark, who won re-election to a second term by a 51 to 49 percent margin.
He was a Special Representative of the Governor of Pennsylvania until 1971. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Business Plot United States Congress. "James E. Van Zandt". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-07 The Political Graveyard Media related to James E. Van Zandt at Wikimedia Commons A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with James E. Van Zandt" is available at the Internet Archive
William T. Granahan
William Thomas Granahan was a Democratic politician from the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, most prominently serving in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1945–47 and 1949-56. Granahan was born in Philadelphia, all four of his grandparents were Irish immigrants, he attended La Salle Extension University in Chicago, Illinois. During World War I, he was a private in the U. S. Army, serving in the Army of Occupation in Germany. After the war, he entered the building business. In the late 1930s, he entered the world of Democratic politics, serving as a member of the state party committee from 1938-42. In 1940, he entered the state government, becoming the state supervisor of the inheritance tax, in 1941 he moved up to become chief disbursing officer of the state's treasury. After being sent to Congress in the 1944 elections, he lost a bid for reelection, defeated by Republican Robert N. McGarvey. However, he took back the seat from Congressman McGarvey two years and went on to serve four more terms until dying from a heart seizure following a minor abdominal surgery at Fitzgerald Mercy Hospital in Darby, Pennsylvania.
He was succeeded after his death by Kathryn E. Granahan. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "William T. Granahan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on May 15, 2009 The Political Graveyard William T. Granahan at Find a Grave
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Hugh Doggett Scott Jr. was an American lawyer and politician. A member of the Republican Party, he represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, he served as Senate Minority Leader from 1969 to 1977. Born and educated in Virginia, Scott moved to Philadelphia to join his uncle's law firm, he was appointed as Philadelphia's assistant district attorney in 1926 and remained in that position until 1941. Scott won election to represent Northwest Philadelphia in the U. S. House of Representatives in 1940, he lost re-election in 1944, but won his seat back in 1946 and served in the House until 1959. Scott established a reputation as an moderate Republican Congressman. After helping Thomas E. Dewey win the 1948 Republican presidential nomination, Scott held the position of Chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1948 to 1949, he served as Dwight D. Eisenhower's campaign chairman in the 1952 presidential election. Scott won election to the Senate in 1958, narrowly prevailing over Democratic Governor George M. Leader.
He was a strong advocate for civil rights legislation, he voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Civil Rights Act of 1968. He won election as Senate Minority Whip in January 1969 and was elevated to Senate Minority Leader after Everett Dirksen's death that year; as the Republican leader in the Senate, Scott urged President Richard Nixon to resign in the aftermath of the Watergate Scandal. Scott declined to seek another term in 1976 and retired in 1977; the son of Hugh Doggett and Jane Lee Scott, Hugh Doggett Scott Jr. was born on an estate in Fredericksburg, once owned by George Washington. His grandfather served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War under General John Hunt Morgan, his great-grandmother was the niece of President Zachary Taylor. After attending public schools in Fredericksburg, he studied at Randolph–Macon College in Ashland, from which he graduated in 1919, he enrolled in the Student Reserve Officers Training Corps and the Students' Army Training Corps during World War I.
In 1922, Scott earned his law degree from the University of Virginia School of Law at Charlottesville, where he was a member of the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society and the Alpha Chi Rho fraternity. His interest in politics was established after he attended committee hearings in the Virginia House of Delegates. Scott was admitted to the bar in 1922 and moved to Philadelphia, where he joined his uncle's law firm. Two years he married Marian Huntington Chase to whom he remained married until her death in 1987; the couple had Marian. Scott, who had become a regular worker for the Republican Party, was appointed assistant district attorney of Philadelphia in 1926 and served in that position until 1941, he claimed to have prosecuted more than 20,000 cases during his tenure. From 1938 to 1940, he served as a member of the Governor's Commission on Reform of the Magistrates System. In 1940, after longtime Republican incumbent George P. Darrow decided to retire, Scott was elected to the US House of Representatives from Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district.
The district was based in Northwest Philadelphia. He defeated Democratic candidate Gilbert Cassidy by a margin of 3,362 votes. In 1942, he was re-elected to a second term after defeating Democrat Thomas Minehart, a former member of the Philadelphia City Council and future Pennsylvania Treasurer. In 1943, he became a member of the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati. In 1944, Scott was defeated for re-election by Democrat Herb McGlinchey, he served in the US Navy for the remainder of World War II. In 1946, after his military service, Scott ran to reclaim his House seat. During the campaign, he spoke out against both President Franklin Roosevelt's "betrayal at Yalta" and communists in Washington, DC, he handily defeated McGlinchey by a margin of more than 23,000 votes. He was re-elected to five more terms. During his tenure in the House, Scott established himself as a strong internationalist by voting in favor of the Lend-Lease Act of 1941, foreign aid to both Greece and Turkey, the Marshall Plan, he earned a reputation as a moderate Republican by supporting public housing, rent control, the abolition of the poll tax as well as other legislation sought by the Civil Rights Movement.
From 1948 to 1949, he served as chairman of the Republican National Committee. Facing staunch opposition from Ohio Senator Robert A. Taft, Scott survived a no-confidence ballot but still resigned as RNC chairman, he served as campaign chairman for Dwight Eisenhower during the 1952 presidential election. In 1958, after fellow Republican Edward Martin declined to run for re-election, Scott was elected to the US Senate, he narrowly defeated his Democratic opponent, Governor George M. Leader, by a margin of 51 to 48 percent. Scott continued his progressive voting record in the Senate by opposing President Eisenhower's veto of a housing bill in 1959 and a redevelopment bill in 1960, he voted to end segregationist Democratic senators' filibuster of the Civil Rights Act of 1960, he sponsored 12 bills to implement the recommendations of the Civil Rights Commission. A memorable quote from Scott came during the U-2 Incident in 1960, when he said, "We have violated the eleventh Commandment — Thou Shall Not Get Caught."In 1962, Scott threatened to run for Governor of Pennsylvania if the Republican Party did not nomi
Leon H. Gavin
Leon Harry Gavin was a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. Leon H. Gavin was born in Buffalo, New York, moved to Oil City, Pennsylvania, in 1915. During the First World War he served in the United States Army as a sergeant in the Fifty-first Infantry Regiment of the 6th Infantry Division, he served on the Defense Council of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the State Board of Appeals of the Selective Service System, the executive secretary of the Oil City Chamber of Commerce, a member of the National Migratory Bird Conservation Commission from 1958 to 1963, he was elected as a Republican to the 78th United States Congress and to the ten succeeding Congresses and served from January 3, 1943 until his death from a cerebral hemorrhage in Washington, D. C. on September 15, 1963. He is interred in Arlington National Cemetery. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Leon H. Gavin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
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