Sir Ralph Abercromby was a Scottish soldier and politician. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in the British Army, was noted for his services during the Napoleonic Wars, served as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland, he twice served as MP for Clackmannanshire, he was appointed Governor of Trinidad. He was the eldest son of Mary, daughter of Ralph Dundas of Manour and George Abercromby of Tullibody, a brother of the advocate Alexander Abercromby, Lord Abercromby and General Sir Robert Abercromby, he was born at Clackmannanshire. Ralph Abercromby's education, begun by a private tutor, was continued at the school of Mr Moir at Alloa considered one of the best in Scotland despite its Jacobite leanings. After passing some time there, Ralph was sent to Rugby, where he remained till he was 18 becoming a student at the University of Edinburgh. In Edinburgh, he studied moral and natural philosophy and civil law and was regarded by his professors as sound rather than brilliant, he was sent to Leipzig University in 1754 to study civil law with a view to career as an advocate.
Abercromby was a Freemason. He was a member of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge No 2, Scotland. On returning from the continent, Abercromby expressed a strong preference for the military profession, a cornet's commission was accordingly obtained for him in the 3rd Dragoon Guards, he served with his regiment in the Seven Years' War, thus, the opportunity afforded him of studying the methods of Frederick the Great, who moulded his military character and formed his tactical ideas. He rose through the intermediate grades to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the regiment and brevet colonel in 1780, in 1781, he became colonel of the newly raised King's Irish infantry; when that regiment was disbanded in 1783, he retired upon half pay. He entered Parliament as MP for Clackmannanshire, he was a strong supporter of the American cause in the American Revolutionary War, remained in Ireland to avoid having to fight against the colonists. When France declared war against Great Britain in 1793, he resumed his duties.
He was appointed command of a brigade under the Duke of York for service in the Netherlands, where he commanded the advanced guard in the action at Le Cateau. During the 1794 withdrawal to Holland, he commanded the allied forces in the action at Boxtel and was wounded directing operations at Fort St Andries on the Waal. In 1795, he was appointed a Knight of the Bath for his services; that same year, he was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey as commander-in-chief of the British forces in the West Indies. In 1796, Grenada was attacked and taken by a detachment of the army under his orders. Afterwards, Abercromby secured possession of the settlements of Demerara and Essequibo in South America, the islands of Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Trinidad. A major assault on the port of San Juan, Puerto Rico, in April 1797 failed after fierce fighting where both sides suffered heavy losses. Abercromby returned to Europe and, in reward for his services, was appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Dragoons.
He was made Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, Governor of Fort George and Fort Augustus in the Scottish Highlands, promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-general. He again entered Parliament as member for Clackmannanshire from 1796 to 1798. From 1797 to 1798, he was Commander-in-Chief of the forces in Ireland. To quote the biographic entry in the 1888 Encyclopædia Britannica, "There he laboured to maintain the discipline of the army, to suppress the rising rebellion, to protect the people from military oppression, with the care worthy of a great general and an enlightened and beneficent statesman; when he was appointed to the command in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the French was confidently anticipated by the British government. He used his utmost efforts to restore the discipline of an army, utterly disorganized. Finding that he received no adequate support from the head of the Irish government, that all his efforts were opposed and thwarted by those who presided in the councils of Ireland, he resigned the command.
His departure from Ireland was lamented by the reflecting portion of the people, was speedily followed by those disastrous results which he had anticipated, which he so ardently desired and had so wisely endeavoured to prevent." After holding for a short period the office of commander-in-chief in Scotland, Sir Ralph, when the enterprise against the Dutch Batavian Republic was resolved upon in 1799, was again called to command under the Duke of York. The Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 ended in disaster, but friend and foe alike confessed that the most decisive victory could not have more conspicuously proved the talents of this distinguished officer. In 1801, he was sent with an army to recover Egypt from France, his experience in the Netherlands and the West Indies fitted him for this new command, as was proved when he carried his army in health, in spirits, with the requisite supplies to the destined scene of action despite great difficulties. The debarkation of the troops at Abukir, in the face of strenuous opposition, is justly ranked among the most daring and brilliant exploits of the British army.
In 1800 he commanded the expedition to the Mediterranean, after some brilliant operations defeated the French in the Battle of Alexandria, 21 M
William White (bishop of Pennsylvania)
William White was the first and fourth Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church of the United States, the first bishop of the Diocese of Pennsylvania, the second United States Senate Chaplain. He served as the first and fourth President of the House of Deputies for the General Convention of the Episcopal Church. Born in Philadelphia, White began his education at Philadelphia College, taking his B. A. in 1765 and his A. M. about three years later. In 1770, he sailed for England on the ship Britannia, for his ordination as a deacon by Philip Yonge, Bishop of Norwich, which took place in the Chapel Royal at St James's Palace on December 23, 1770, he subsequently returned to England on two occasions: once in 1772, to be ordained priest, again in 1787, when he was consecrated bishop on February 4 at Lambeth Palace Chapel by John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1781, after further theological studies, he received a Doctor of Divinity degree from the University of Pennsylvania. John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury William Markham, Archbishop of York Charles Moss, Bishop of Bath and Wells John Hinchliffe, Bishop of PeterboroughWilliam White was the second bishop consecrated for the Episcopal Church of the United States.
Rector of St. Peter's and of Christ Church for 57 years, White served as Chaplain of the Continental Congress from 1777 to 1789, subsequently as Chaplain of the Senate. Though an Anglican cleric, sworn to the king in his ordination ceremony, like all but one of his fellow Anglican clerics in Philadelphia, sided with the American revolutionary cause. After the war, White wrote The Case of The Episcopal Churches in the United States Considered, a pamphlet that laid out the foundational thinking for the emerging Episcopal Church. Among the innovations he proposed. Thus, at the founding General Convention of the Episcopal Church in 1785, the House of Deputies was composed of both lay and clergy members. After his consecration in England, White helped create an American episcopate, participating in the consecration of Thomas John Clagett as Bishop of Maryland at the General Convention in 1792, as well as serving as the Episcopal Church's first and fourth Presiding Bishop. White participated in the consecration of most American Episcopal bishops during the country's first two decades.
He consecrated two African-Americans as deacons and priests, Absalom Jones of Philadelphia, William Levington of New York. Although White did not travel extensively through his diocese, he did support missionary priests, including: Simon Wilmer, who traveled through Pennsylvania and New Jersey and settled down in what became the Maryland suburbs of Washington D. C.). The elderly White made only one trip to the western parts of his diocese. In 1825 he traveled with Kemper to western Pennsylvania confirming 212 and consecrating three buildings. On that trip, with permission of Richard Channing Moore, Bishop of Virginia, he visited Wheeling, West Virginia in what much became West Virginia to confirm parishioners and consecrate St. Matthew's Church. White took an active role in creating several charitable and educational institutions by organizing Presbyterians and other Protestants in those philanthropic enterprises. In 1785, White founded the Episcopal Academy, to educate the sons of Philadelphia's Episcopalians and others.
In 1795, White raised funds to create a school for Native American children. He helped to create a Magdalen Society in Philadelphia in 1800 for "unhappy females who have been seduced from the paths of virtue and are desirous of returning to a life of rectitude." This was the first institution of this kind in the United States. In 1820, White joined prominent Philadelphia philanthropists who, in 1820, convinced the Pennsylvania legislature to fund the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, founded by rabbi David G. Seixas, now known as the Pennsylvania School for the Deaf. White served as the school's president for the next 16 years, he ministered to Philadelphia's prisoners, becoming the first president of the Philadelphia Society for the Alleviation of Miseries of Public Prisons, which attracted the participation of numerous Quakers. Not known for his oratory, White earned Philadelphians' esteem for his erudition and ongoing charitable works during the multiple outbreaks of yellow fever in that city throughout the 1790s.
White and his friend and neighbor Benjamin Rush were among the few prominent citizens who remained to tend the ill when many other wealthy inhabitants fled to the countryside. As White aged, arranging for his successor became divisive in the diocese. Benjamin
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO3. This compound is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography, it is far less sensitive to light than the halides. It was once called lunar caustic because silver was called luna by the ancient alchemists, who believed that silver was associated with the moon. In solid silver nitrate, the silver ions are three-coordinated in a trigonal planar arrangement. Albertus Magnus, in the 13th century, documented the ability of nitric acid to separate gold and silver by dissolving the silver. Magnus noted. Silver nitrate can be prepared by reacting silver, such as a silver bullion or silver foil, with nitric acid, resulting in silver nitrate and oxides of nitrogen. Reaction byproducts depend upon the concentration of nitric acid used. 3 Ag + 4 HNO3 → 3 AgNO3 + 2 H2O + NO Ag + 2 HNO3 → AgNO3 + H2O + NO2This is performed under a fume hood because of toxic nitrogen oxides evolved during the reaction.
A typical reaction with silver nitrate is to suspend a rod of copper in a solution of silver nitrate and leave it for a few hours. The silver nitrate reacts with copper to form hairlike crystals of silver metal and a blue solution of copper nitrate: 2 AgNO3 + Cu → Cu2 + 2 AgSilver nitrate decomposes when heated: 2 AgNO3 → 2 Ag + O2 + 2 NO2Qualitatively, decomposition is negligible below the melting point, but becomes appreciable around 250 °C and decompose at 440 °C. Most metal nitrates thermally decompose to the respective oxides, but silver oxide decomposes at a lower temperature than silver nitrate, so the decomposition of silver nitrate yields elemental silver instead. Silver nitrate is the least expensive salt of silver, it is non-hygroscopic, in contrast to silver silver perchlorate. It is stable to light, it dissolves in numerous solvents, including water. The nitrate can be replaced by other ligands, rendering AgNO3 versatile. Treatment with solutions of halide ions gives a precipitate of AgX.
When making photographic film, silver nitrate is treated with halide salts of sodium or potassium to form insoluble silver halide in situ in photographic gelatin, applied to strips of tri-acetate or polyester. Silver nitrate is used to prepare some silver-based explosives, such as the fulminate, azide, or acetylide, through a precipitation reaction. Treatment of silver nitrate with base gives dark grey silver oxide: 2 AgNO3 + 2 NaOH → Ag2O + 2 NaNO3 + H2O The silver cation, Ag+, reacts with halide sources to produce the insoluble silver halide, a cream precipitate if Br- is used, a white precipitate if Cl− is used and a yellow precipitate if I− is used; this reaction is used in inorganic chemistry to abstract halides: Ag+ + X− → AgXwhere X− = Cl−, Br−, or I−. Other silver salts with non-coordinating anions, namely silver tetrafluoroborate and silver hexafluorophosphate are used for more demanding applications; this reaction is used in analytical chemistry to confirm the presence of chloride, bromide, or iodide ions.
Samples are acidified with dilute nitric acid to remove interfering ions, e.g. carbonate ions and sulfide ions. This step avoids confusion of silver sulfide or silver carbonate precipitates with that of silver halides; the color of precipitate varies with the halide: yellow. AgBr and AgI photo-decompose to the metal, as evidence by a grayish color on exposed samples; the same reaction was used on steamships in order to determine whether or not boiler feedwater had been contaminated with seawater. It is still used to determine if moisture on dry cargo is a result of condensation from humid air, or from seawater leaking through the hull. Silver nitrate is used in many ways in e.g. for deprotection and oxidations. Ag+ binds alkenes reversibly, silver nitrate has been used to separate mixtures of alkenes by selective absorption; the resulting adduct can be decomposed with ammonia to release the free alkene. Silver Nitrate is soluble in water but is poorly soluble in most organic solvents, except acetonitrile.
In histology, silver nitrate is used for silver staining, for demonstrating reticular fibers and nucleic acids. For this reason it is used to demonstrate proteins in PAGE gels, it can be used as a stain in scanning electron microscopy. Silver salts have antiseptic properties. In 1881 Credé introduced the use of dilute solutions of AgNO3 in newborn babies' eyes at birth to prevent contraction of gonorrhea from the mother, which could cause blindness. Fused silver nitrate, shaped into sticks, was traditionally called "lunar caustic", it is used as a cauterizing agent, for example to remove granulation tissue around a stoma. General Sir James Abbott noted in his journals that in India in 1827 it was infused by a British surgeon into wounds in his arm resulting from the bite of a mad dog to cauterize the wounds and prevent the onset of rabies. Silver nitrate is used to cauterize superficial blood vessels in the nose to help prevent nose bleeds. Dentists sometimes use silver nitrate-infused swabs to heal oral ulcers.
Silver nitrate is used by some podiatrists to kill cells located in the nail bed. The Canadian physician C. A. Douglas Ringrose researched the use of silver nitrate for sterilization procedures, believing that silver nitrate could be used to block and corrode the fallopian tubes; the technique was ineffective. Much research has been done in evaluating the
The Episcopal Academy, founded in 1785, is a private, co-educational school for grades Pre-K through 12 based in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Prior to 2008, the main campus was located in Merion and the satellite campus was located in Devon; the Newtown Square facility is 123-acre. Episcopal Academy has been ranked as a top private school in the nation by various media outlets, including the Wall Street Journal; the Academy is affiliated with the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. The Episcopal Academy was founded in 1785 by the Rt. Rev. William White at Old Christ Church in Philadelphia as an all-boys school focusing on education in Greek, religion and business, it was a pre-missionary school. Trustees included two signers of the Declaration of Independence, as well as bankers and reverends; the faculty was composed of notable figures like Noah Webster Jr. of Webster Dictionaries. Its first campus was located on the east side of Fourth Street and was directed by Rev. John Andrews, D.
D. the Academy's first headmaster. However, when Dr. Andrews and several of faculty members left to teach at the University of Pennsylvania in 1798, The Episcopal Academy was reconstituted as a free school. In 1816 it became a Second Classical Academy and a free school again in 1828, but at some points the Academy did not operate as an educational entity. In 1846 the school was reconstituted, this time as a Third Classical Academy, has operated continuously since. In 1850, the school moved to a building at Juniper and Locust Street, remained there until its 1921 move to the Merion, campus. Female students attended the Academy between 1789 and 1818, but a plan for permanent co-education was not implemented until 1974. In 1974, girls were admitted to kindergarten, to one higher grade each year thereafter; the class of 1984 was the first co-educational class to graduate from the Academy. Episcopal Academy was located in Merion, from 1921 until it moved to Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, in 2008. In June, 1998, the Episcopal Academy Board of Trustees directed the "active pursuit of a large tract of land in the western suburbs to serve as a long-term asset and a means of preserving future options."
With a $20 million donation the Board purchased a 123-acre tract of land in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania on Darby-Paoli Road. The $212.5 million project was opened for the 2008-2009 school year. The new campus has academic, arts and spiritual facilities. However, it features keepsakes from the Merion and Devon campuses: original stained glass windows in the Class of 1944 Chapel, the clock that stands on the Clark Campus Green, several artifacts in the Crawford Campus Center. Brailsford & Dunlavey served as the Academy's on-site program manager throughout each phase of the campus development project; the architecture firms, including Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, Gund Partnership, Bohlin Cywinski Jackson, RMJM Hillier, "coordinated the materials used as well as the landscape layout of the campus, with its pastoral central quadrangle and collegiate-village scale". The Episcopal Academy sold its Merion campus to Saint Joseph's University, who renamed it the SJU Maguire Campus; the Episcopal Academy's mission is "Challenging and nurturing mind and spirit, we inspire boys and girls to lead lives of purpose and integrity."
The school has a 100% four-year college matriculation rate, several athletics teams, a chapel program that meets every other day during the school year. The Academy is accredited by the Pennsylvania Association of Independent Schools; the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools' "Accreditation for Growth" protocol governed accreditation until the current accreditation cycle. The upper school is a college preparatory program, it operates on a 12-day, rotating block schedule designed by a committee of faculty and administrators. The basic structure of this schedule, designed to allow students to take six or seven academic courses, has been in place since 1998. There are two semesters, with each semester representing one-half of a credit. For the past 5 years, the Upper School did a J-Term following winter break where the students would participate in one course for two weeks straight; this year, the students are doing a May-Term instead. Graduation requirements are: 4 Credits of English.
The Episcopal Academy is a member of the Inter-Ac league. For boys the Inter-Ac league includes the Haverford School, Malvern Preparatory School, Chestnut Hill Academy, Penn Charter, Germantown Academy. For girls this league includes Penn Charter, Germantown Academy, Notre Dame Academy, the Baldwin School, the Agnes Irwin School, Springside School; the sports requirement requires all students to participate in athletics during each of the three seasons. Freshman and sophomores are required to participate in at least two inter-scholastic sports with the option of participating in the "Fitness" option for one season. Juniors may elect to participate in the "Fitness" option for two seasons. "Fitness" consists of organized athletic activities three days a week and community service two days a week. There is a theatre offering in the spring and the fall; this counts as a "Fitness" option as
East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30