An execution chamber, or death chamber, is a room or chamber in which a legal execution is carried out. Execution chambers are always inside the walls of a maximum-security prison, although not always at the same prison where the death row population is housed. Inside the chamber is the device used to carry out the death sentence. In the United States, an execution chamber will contain a lethal injection table. In most cases, a witness room is located adjacent to an execution chamber, where witnesses may watch the execution through glass windows. All except for one of the states which allow capital punishment are equipped with a death chamber, but many states put them to use; the sole exception is New Hampshire. Kansas, Nevada and California are the only states to have an execution chamber, equipped to execute an inmate by lethal injection, which has never been used, while the states of New Jersey and New York had lethal injection chambers which were never used while the death penalty remained legal.
Notes: a Death penalty abolished in 2012. All remaining inmates death sentences were commuted to life imprisonment by the Connecticut Supreme Court in 2015. B Death penalty abolished in 2011. All condemned prisoners sentences were commuted to life imprisonment upon abolition. C Death penalty abolished in 2013. Remaining inmate's death sentences were commuted to life imprisonment by Gov. Martin O'Malley in 2014. D Death penalty repealed in 2007.e Death penalty abolished in 2009. F Last death sentence reversed in 2007. G Closed in 2008 under David Paterson's administration.h If an execution does occur, the state will use its parole board meeting room at the state prison. In the United Kingdom, the execution chamber was part of a larger complex referred to as the "Execution Suite"; the room formed from two single prison cells, contained the large trapdoor double-leaved, but in some older chambers such as at Oxford, single-leaved, operating lever. The wooden beam from which the rope was suspended was set into the walls of the chamber above, with the floor removed.
At Wandsworth Prison the floor was retained and holes allowed the rope and chains through. Oxford's chamber was of an old 19th-century type, the beam was set into the walls of the chamber just above head height; such rooms were always built into one of the wings of a prison. The last gallows to be constructed and used in Britain, at HMP Aberdeen, was built in 1962, was used one year for the hanging of Henry John Burnett, the last person to be executed in Scotland. A freestanding execution block was never used; this was the last gallows to be constructed in the United Kingdom. The last operational gallows in the United Kingdom, at Wandsworth Prison, was removed in 1994. Salvaged parts from it are in the possession of the National Galleries of Justice, having been at the HM Prison Service museum. Japan has seven execution chambers used to kill condemned criminals. One is at the Tokyo Detention House. Hanging is Japan's method of execution; the execution chamber in Tokyo has a trap door. As the condemned dies, his or her body falls into a room below the execution chamber, in that room the death is confirmed.
In the Tokyo facility, before the condemned is executed, he or she passes a statue of Amida Nyorai, a Buddhist deity. The execution room in Tokyo is in two sections, with both of them together the size of a 15 tatami mat room. Capital punishment Prison
Port Arthur, Texas
Port Arthur is a city in Jefferson County within the Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan area of the U. S. state of Texas. A small portion extends into Orange County, it is 90 mi east of Houston. It is host to the largest oil refinery in the United States; the population of Port Arthur was 53,818 at the 2010 census, down from 57,755 at the 2000 census. Early attempts at settlements in the area had all failed. However, in 1895, Arthur Stilwell founded Port Arthur, the town grew. Port Arthur was soon developed into a seaport, it became the center of a large oil refinery network. The Rainbow Bridge across the Neches River connects Port Arthur to Bridge City. Aurora was an early settlement attempt near the mouth of Taylor Bayou on Sabine Lake, about 14 miles long and 7 miles wide, it is a saltwater estuary formed by the confluence of the Sabine rivers. Through its tidal outlet, 5-mile-long Sabine Pass, Sabine Lake drains some 50,000 sq mi of Texas and Louisiana into the Gulf of Mexico; the town was conceived in 1837, in 1840 promoters led by Almanzon Huston were offering town lots for sale.
Some were sold. The area next was known as "Sparks", after John Sparks, who moved his family to the shores of Sabine Lake near the site of Aurora; the Eastern Texas Railroad, completed between Sabine Pass and Beaumont, passed 4-mile west of Sparks. However, the American Civil War soon began, rail lines were removed. In 1886, a destructive hurricane hit the coast, causing the remaining residents to dismantle their homes and move to Beaumont. By 1895, Aurora had become a ghost town. Arthur Stilwell led the resettling of the area as part of his planned city of Port Arthur. Pleasure Island now separates the city from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway; the 18.5-mile man-made island was created between 1899 and 1908 by the Corps of Engineers to support development of the port. Arthur Stilwell founded the Port Arthur Dock Company to manage the port facilities; the port opened with the arrival of the British steamer Saint Oswald in 1899. When oil was discovered in the region, Port Arthur developed for a time as the center of the largest oil refinery network in the world.
Port Arthur is located on the eastern edge of Jefferson County at 29°53′6″N 93°56′24″W, on the west side of Sabine Lake. It is bordered to the northeast by Orange County, to the southeast, across Sabine Lake, by Cameron Parish, Louisiana; the Port Arthur city limits extend south along the west side of Sabine Pass, the outlet of Sabine Lake, as far as the Gulf of Mexico on the city's southern border. To the north the city limits extend across the Neches River into Orange County. Port Arthur is bordered to the northwest by the cities of Nederland and Port Neches, to the northeast by Bridge City in Orange County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 144.1 square miles, of which 76.9 square miles are land and 67.1 square miles, or 46.61%, are covered by water. Communities in Port Arthur include: El Vista Griffing Park Lakeview Pear Ridge Port Acres Sabine Pass Port Arthur is tied with Lake Charles and Astoria, Oregon, as the most humid city in the contiguous United States.
The average relative humidity is 90% in the morning, 72% in the afternoon. As of the 2010 census, 53,818 people, 20,183 households, 13,191 families resided in the city; the population density was 654.6 people per square mile. The 23,577 housing units averaged 284.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 41.7% African American, 37.9% White, 1.2% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 15.3% from other races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 29.6% of the population. Of the 20,183 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were not families. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.31. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $26,455, for a family was $32,143. Males had a median income of $30,915 versus $21,063 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,183. About 22.9% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Of the total people living in poverty, 35.2% were under age 18 and 14.4% were age 65 or over. Home to a large portion of United States refining capacity, Port Arthur is now seeing renewed investment in several key installations. Motiva Enterprises is undertaking a major addition to its western Port Arthur refinery, expanding capacity to 600,000 barrels per day; this $10.0 billion project is the largest US refinery expansion to occur in 30 years. Premcor Refining completed a $775 million expansion of its petrochemical plant, BASF/Fina commenced operations of a new $1.75 billion gasification and cogeneration unit on premises of its current installation, which had just completed its own $1 billion upgrade.
Lethal injection is the practice of injecting one or more drugs into a person for the express purpose of causing immediate death. The main application for this procedure is capital punishment, but the term may be applied in a broader sense to include euthanasia and other forms of suicide; the drugs cause the person to become unconscious, stops their breathing, causes a heart arrhythmia, in that order. First developed in the United States, it is now a legal method of execution in China, Guatemala, the Maldives, Vietnam, though Guatemala has not conducted an execution since 2000 and the Maldives has never carried out an execution since its independence. Although Taiwan permits lethal injection as an execution method, no executions have been carried out in this manner, most due to drug shortages. Lethal injection was used in the Philippines until the country re-abolished the death penalty in 2006. Lethal injection gained popularity in the late 20th century as a form of execution intended to supplant other methods, notably electrocution, gas inhalation and firing squad, that were considered to be less humane.
It is now the most common form of execution in the United States. Lethal injection was first proposed on January 17, 1888, by Julius Mount Bleyer, a New York doctor who praised it as being cheaper than hanging. Bleyer's idea was never used, due to a series of botched executions and the eventual rise of public disapproval in electrocutions. Nazi Germany developed the Action T4 euthanasia program as one of its methods of disposing of Lebensunwertes Leben; the British Royal Commission on Capital Punishment considered lethal injection, but ruled it out after pressure from the British Medical Association. On May 11, 1977, Oklahoma's state medical examiner Jay Chapman proposed a new, less painful method of execution, known as Chapman's protocol: "An intravenous saline drip shall be started in the prisoner's arm, into which shall be introduced a lethal injection consisting of an ultrashort-acting barbiturate in combination with a chemical paralytic." After the procedure was approved by anesthesiologist Stanley Deutsch Head of the Department of Anaesthesiology of the Oklahoma University Medical School, the Reverend Bill Wiseman introduced the method into the Oklahoma legislature, where it passed and was adopted.
Since until 2004, 37 of the 38 states using capital punishment introduced lethal injection statutes. On August 29, 1977, Texas adopted the new method of execution, switching to lethal injection from electrocution. On December 7, 1982, Texas became the first state to use lethal injection to carry out capital punishment, for the execution of Charles Brooks, Jr; the People's Republic of China began using this method in 1997, Guatemala in 1996, the Philippines in 1999, Thailand in 2003, Taiwan in 2005. Vietnam first used this method in 2013; the Philippines abolished the death penalty in 2006, with their last execution being in 2000. Guatemalan law still allows for the death penalty and lethal injection is the sole method allowed, but no penalties have been carried out since 2000 when the country experienced the live televised execution of Manuel Martínez Coronado; the export of drugs to be used for lethal injection was banned by the European Union in 2011, together with other items under the EU Torture Regulation.
Since pentobarbital followed thiopental in the European Union's ban. By early 2014, a number of botched executions involving lethal injection, a rising shortage of suitable drugs, had some U. S. states reconsidering lethal injection as a form of execution. Tennessee, which had offered inmates a choice between lethal injection and the electric chair, passed a law in May 2014 which gave the state the option to use the electric chair if lethal injection drugs are either unavailable or made unconstitutional. At the same time and Utah were considering the use of execution by firing squad in addition to other existing execution methods. In 2016, Pfizer joined over 20 American and European pharmaceutical manufacturers that had blocked the sale of their drugs for use in lethal injections closing the open market for FDA-approved manufacturers for any potential lethal execution drug. In the execution of Carey Dean Moore on August 14, 2018, the State of Nebraska used a novel drug cocktail comprising diazepam, fentanyl and potassium chloride, over the strong objections of the German pharmaceutical company Fresenius Kabi.
In the United States, the typical lethal injection begins with the condemned person being strapped onto a gurney. Only one is necessary to carry out the execution. A line leading from the IV line in an adjacent room is attached to the prisoner's IV and secured so that the line does not snap during the injections; the arm of the condemned person is swabbed with alcohol. The needles and equipment used are sterilized. Questions have been raised about why these precautions against infection are performed despite the purpose of the injection being death; the several explanations include: cannulae are sterilized and have their quality controlled during manufacture, so using sterile ones is a routine medical procedure. Secondly, the prisoner could receive a stay of execution after the cannulae have been inserted, as happened in the case of James Autry in October 1983. Third, use of unsterilized equipment would be a hazard to the prison personnel in case of an acc
A hamburger is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat beef, placed inside a sliced bread roll or bun. The patty may be grilled, or flame broiled. Hamburgers are served with cheese, tomato, pickles, bacon, or chiles. A hamburger topped with cheese is called a cheeseburger; the term "burger" can be applied to the meat patty on its own in the United Kingdom, where the term "patty" is used, or the term can refer to ground beef. Since the term hamburger implies beef, for clarity "burger" may be prefixed with the type of meat or meat substitute used, as in beef burger, turkey burger, bison burger, or veggie burger. Hamburgers are sold at fast-food restaurants and specialty and high-end restaurants. There are many regional variations of the hamburger; the term hamburger derives from Hamburg, Germany's second-largest city. In German, Burg means "castle", "fortified settlement" or "fortified refuge" and is a widespread component of place names; the first element of the name is from Old High German hamma, referring to a bend in a river, or Middle High German hamme, referring to an enclosed area of pastureland.
Hamburger in German is the demonym of Hamburg, similar to frankfurter and wiener, names for other meat-based foods and demonyms of the cities of Frankfurt and Vienna respectively. The term "burger" became a suffix back-formation, associated with many different types of sandwiches, similar to a hamburger, but made of different meats such as buffalo in the buffalo burger, kangaroo, elk, lamb or fish like salmon in the salmon burger, but with meatless sandwiches as is the case of the veggie burger. There have been many claims about the origin of the hamburger; the popular book "The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy" by Hannah Glasse included a recipe in 1758 as "Hamburgh sausage", which suggested to serve it "roasted with toasted bread under it". A similar snack was popular in Hamburg by the name "Rundstück warm" in 1869 or earlier, eaten by many emigrants on their way to America, but may have contained roasted beefsteak rather than Frikadeller. Hamburg steak is reported to have been served between two pieces of bread on the Hamburg America Line, which began operations in 1847.
Each of these may mark the invention of the Hamburger, explain the name. There is a reference to a "Hamburg steak" as early as 1884 in the Boston Journal. On July 5, 1896, the Chicago Daily Tribune made a specific claim regarding a "hamburger sandwich" in an article about a "Sandwich Car": "A distinguished favorite, only five cents, is Hamburger steak sandwich, the meat for, kept ready in small patties and'cooked while you wait' on the gasoline range." According to Connecticut Congresswoman Rosa DeLauro, the hamburger, a ground meat patty between two slices of bread, was first created in America in 1900 by Louis Lassen, a Danish immigrant, owner of Louis' Lunch in New Haven. There have been rival claims by Charlie Nagreen and Charles Menches, Oscar Weber Bilby, Fletcher Davis. White Castle traces the origin of the hamburger to Hamburg, Germany with its invention by Otto Kuase. However, it gained national recognition at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair when the New York Tribune referred to the hamburger as "the innovation of a food vendor on the pike".
No conclusive argument has ended the dispute over invention. An article from ABC News sums up: "One problem is. Another issue is that the spread of the burger happened at the World's Fair, from tiny vendors that came and went in an instant, and it is possible that more than one person came up with the idea at the same time in different parts of the country." Louis Lassen of Louis' Lunch, a small lunch wagon in New Haven, Connecticut, is said to have sold the first hamburger and steak sandwich in the U. S. in 1900. New York magazine states that "The dish had no name until some rowdy sailors from Hamburg named the meat on a bun after themselves years later", noting that this claim is subject to dispute. A customer ordered Louis was out of steaks. Taking ground beef trimmings, Louis made a patty and grilled it, putting it between two slices of toast; some critics like Josh Ozersky, a food editor for New York Magazine, claim that this sandwich was not a hamburger because the bread was toasted. One of the earliest claims comes from Charlie Nagreen, who in 1885 sold a meatball between two slices of bread at the Seymour Fair now sometimes called the Outagamie County Fair.
The Seymour Community Historical Society of Seymour, credits Nagreen, now known as "Hamburger Charlie", with the invention. Nagreen was fifteen when he was selling pork sandwiches at the 1885 Seymour Fair, made so customers could eat while walking; the Historical Society explains that Nagreen named the hamburger after the Hamburg steak with which local German immigrants were familiar. According to White Castle, Otto Kuase was the inventor of the hamburger. In 1891 he created a beef topped with a fried egg. German sailors would omit the fried egg; the family of Oscar Weber Bilby claim the first-known hamburger on a bun was served on July 4, 1891 on Grandpa Oscar's farm. The bun was a yeast bun. In 1995, Governor Frank Keating proclaimed that the first true hamburger on a bun w
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Potter County, Texas
Potter County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 121,073, its county seat is Amarillo. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1887, it is named for Robert Potter, a politician, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and the Secretary of the Texas Navy. Potter County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the LX Ranch was established in the county by W. H. "Deacon" Bates and David T. Beals by 1877. In July of 1876, along with some cowboys that included Charlie Siringo, established a herd of steers and ranch headquarters along Ranch Creek on the north bank of the Canadian River; the headquarters included a bunkhouse, storeroom, corrals, blacksmith shop, wagon sheds, a post office named Wheeler. The LX established the county's first cemetery; the ranch extended from Dumas to the Palo Duro Canyon and 35 miles east to west. By 1884, the ranch encompassed 187,000 acres, 45,000 cattle and 1000 horses, when the operation was sold to the American Pastoral Company.
In 1902, the ranch headquarters was moved on the south bank of the Canadian River. On 6 Oct. 1910, that company sold 30,354 acres south of the river to Lee Bivins, on 1 June 1911, R. B. "Ben" Masterson acquired 89,139 acres on the north side. On 19 May 1915, Bivins bought an additional 53,329 LX acres. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 922 square miles, of which 908 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. I-27 I-40 BL I-40 US 60 US 66 US 87 US 287 SH 136 SH 279 Loop 335 Moore County Carson County Randall County Oldham County Deaf Smith County Armstrong County Hartley County Hutchinson County Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument Lake Meredith National Recreation Area As of the census of 2000, there were 113,546 people, 40,760 households, 27,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 125 people per square mile. There were 44,598 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.60% White, 9.96% Black or African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.49% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 15.44% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races.
28.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 40,760 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 15.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 19.10% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 100.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,492, the median income for a family was $35,321. Males had a median income of $26,123 versus $20,275 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,947.
About 15.20% of families and 19.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.30% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice Clements Unit and Neal Unit are located in unincorporated Potter County, east of the City of Amarillo. Potter County supports Republican candidates at the federal level, it has supported Republican presidential candidates in every election since 1968 by lopsided margins. In 2004, George W. Bush received 21,401 votes in the county to just 7,489 votes for his opponent, John Kerry. In 2008, John McCain fared nearly as well. Amarillo Bishop Hills Dumas Junction Folsom Pleasant Valley Pullman Soncy List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Potter County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Potter County Potter County government’s website Potter County from the Handbook of Texas Online Historic Potter County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
Potter County, TX Genealogy Potter County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
French fries, or fries. French fries are served hot, either soft or crispy, are eaten as part of lunch or dinner or by themselves as a snack, they appear on the menus of diners, fast food restaurants and bars, they are salted and, depending on the country, may be served with ketchup, mayonnaise, tomato sauce, or other local specialties. Fries can be topped more as in the dishes of poutine or chili cheese fries. Chips can be made from other sweet potatoes instead of potatoes. A baked variant, oven chips, uses no oil. One common fast food dish is fish and chips. French fries are prepared by first cutting the potato into strips, which are wiped off or soaked in cold water to remove the surface starch, dried, they may be fried in one or two stages. Chefs agree that the two-bath technique produces better results. Potatoes fresh out of the ground can have too high a water content—resulting in soggy fries—so preference is for those that have been stored for a while. In the two-stage or two-bath method, the first bath, sometimes called blanching, is in hot fat to cook them through.
This step can be done in advance. They are more fried in hot fat to crisp the exterior, they are placed in a colander or on a cloth to drain and served. The exact times of the two baths depend on the size of the potatoes. For example, for 2–3 mm strips, the first bath takes about 3 minutes, the second bath takes only seconds. One can cook french fries using several techniques. Deep frying submerges food in hot fat, most oil. Vacuum fryers are suitable to process low-quality potatoes with higher sugar levels than normal, as they have to be processed in spring and early summer before the potatoes from the new harvest become available. In the UK, a chip pan is a deep-sided cooking pan used for deep-frying. Chip pans are named for their traditional use in frying chips. Most french fries are produced from frozen potatoes which have been blanched or at least air-dried industrially. Most chains that sell fresh cut fries use the Idaho Russet Burbank variety of potatoes, it has been the standard for french fries in the United States.
The usual fat for making french fries is vegetable oil. In the past, beef suet was recommended with vegetable shortening as an alternative. In fact, McDonald's used a mixture of 93% beef tallow and 7% cottonseed oil until 1990, when they switched to vegetable oil with beef flavoring. Starting in the 1960s, more fast food restaurants have been using frozen french fries. In the United States and most of Canada, the term french fries, sometimes capitalized as French fries, or shortened to fries, refers to all dishes of fried elongated pieces of potatoes. Variations in shape and size may have names such as curly fries, shoestring fries, etc.. In the United Kingdom, South Africa and New Zealand, the term chips is used instead, though thinly cut fried potatoes are sometimes called french fries, skinny fries, or pommes frites, to distinguish them from chips, which are cut thicker. A person from the US or Canada might instead refer to these more thickly-cut chips as steak fries or potato wedges, depending on the shape, as the word chips is more used to refer to potato chips, known in the UK and Ireland as crisps.
Thomas Jefferson had "potatoes served in the French manner" at a White House dinner in 1802. The expression "french fried potatoes" first occurred in print in English in the 1856 work Cookery for Maids of All Work by E. Warren: "French Fried Potatoes. – Cut new potatoes in thin slices, put them in boiling fat, a little salt. This account referred to thin, shallow-fried slices of potato – it is not clear where or when the now familiar deep-fried batons or fingers of potato were first prepared. In the early 20th century, the term "french fried" was being used in the sense of "deep-fried" for foods like onion rings or chicken; the French and Belgians have an ongoing dispute about where fries were invented, with both countries claiming ownership. From the Belgian standpoint the popularity of the term "french fries" is explained as a "French gastronomic hegemony" into which the cuisine of Belgium was assimilated because of a lack of understanding coupled with a shared language and geographic proximity of the countries.
Belgian journalist Jo Gérard claims that a 1781 family manuscript recounts that potatoes were deep-fried prior to 1680 in the Meuse valley, in what was the Spanish Netherlands: "The inhabitants of Namur and Dinant had the custom of fishing in the Meuse for small fish and frying among the poor, but when the river was frozen and fishing became hazardous, they cut potatoes in the form of small fish and put them in a fryer like those here." Gérard has not produced the manuscript that supports this claim due to the fact that it is unrelated to the history of the French fry, as the potato did not arrive in the region until around 1735. Given 18th century economic conditions: "It is unthinkable that a peasant could have dedicated large quantities of fat for cooking potatoes. At most they were sautéed in a pan...". At least one source says that "french fries" for deep-fried potato batons was introduced when American and British soldiers arrived in Belgium during World War I; the Belgians had been catering to the British soldiers'