Menands, New York
Menands /mᵻˈnændz/ is a village in Albany County, New York, United States. The population was 3,990 at the 2010 census, the village is named after Louis Menand. The village lies inside the town of Colonie and borders the city line of Albany. Menands would have been first spotted by Europeans around 1609 when Henry Hudson dropped anchor somewhere near Cuyler or Pleasure Island during his voyage on the to be named after him. This would be the furthest north on the river that Hudson would go in the Half Moon, today those islands are connected to the mainland, and are the site of Interstate 787 exits 6 and 7, which includes the cloverleaf interchange with NY378 and the Troy-Menands Bridge. Louis Menand settled in the village in 1842 and established an important horticultural business, when the Albany and Northern Railroad was built in 1856 it established a stop in present-day Menands and named the stop Menands Crossing since Menand was the only landowner in that area at the time. When the Albany and Northern became part of the Delaware and Hudson a station was built at that stop, the boundaries of the new village were those of the 15th School District of the town of Colonie.
When the Erie Canal was originally constructed it passed through what would become Menands, bridges spanned the canal to allow access to the land between the canal and the Hudson. From north to south they were- Richardson, Leary, Kanes, Island Park and Hudson Railroad, most of the names of the bridges were those of the neighboring farm owners. In 1938 the first large scale Federal Housing Administration multiple housing project in Upstate New York was conceived by Harry D. Yates on 13 acres of land in Menands, the land was purchased for $20,000, from the Van Rensselaer family who had owned it since 1639. Original plans called for 30 buildings, but cost overruns trimmed it to 13, in 1940 the now-defunct New York Herald Tribune declared Dutch Village to be one of the most interesting scale housing developments in the East. The steeped roofs and brick construction were designed to reflect early Dutch architecture, one of the largest printing plants in the eastern USA existed in Menands in the forties and fifties.
Williams Press at its prime employed more than 1,000 people, built on Broadway with rail tracks behind, Williams printed many of todays magazines such as Business Week, Sports Illustrated and many others, plus most of the New England telephone directories. They were forced to close because of issues, location constraints. The villages current motto, Urban-Suburban Village, and its official seal, the motto and seal were chosen based on contest entries submitted by local school children at Menands Elementary school. Two boys came up with the design for the seal, in the mid-late 19th and early 20th centuries Menands was a popular destination for entertainment and amusement. Pleasure Island and Park Island had trotting tracks and various entertainment venues, in 1884 the Island Park Association leased the race course, Island Park, directly north of Pleasure Island, it was considered one of the fastest and safest in the nation. Among the festivities and activities at Pleasure Island were a bicycle race, a sack race, barrell race, swimming exhibition, trotter race
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Yale College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Yale University. Founded in 1701, it is the school of the university. Originally established to train Congregationalist ministers, the college began teaching humanities, at the same time, students began organizing extracurricular organizations, first literary societies, and publications, sports teams, and singing groups. By the mid-19th century, it was the largest college in the United States, in 1847, it was joined by another undergraduate degree-granting school at Yale, the Sheffield Scientific School, which was absorbed into the college in the mid-20th century. The most distinctive feature of life is the schools system of residential colleges, established in 1932. All undergraduates live in these colleges after their year, when most live on the schools Old Campus. The Collegiate School was founded in 1701 by a charter drawn by ten congregationalist ministers led by James Pierpont, originally situated in Abraham Piersons home in Killingworth, the college moved to New Haven in 1718 and was renamed for Elihu Yale, an early benefactor.
Founded as a school to train ministers, original curriculum included only coursework in theology, in the century, William Graham Sumner, the first professor of sociology in the United States, introduced studies in the social sciences. The relaxation of curriculum came in tandem with expansion in the extracurriculum and leadership in these groups was an important social signifier and a route to induction into prestigious senior societies. Thus extracurricular participation became central to student life and social advancement, by 1870, Yale was the largest undergraduate institution in the country. Two additional colleges were built by 1940, and two more in the 1960s, for most of its history, study at Yale was almost exclusively restricted to white Protestant men, often the children of alumni. Documented exceptions to this paradigm include Hawaiian native Henry ʻŌpūkahaʻia, who became a student of Yale President Timothy Dwight in 1809, who was allowed to audit theology courses in 1837. Moses Simons, a descendent of a slave-holding South Carolinian family, has suggested to be the first Jew to graduate from Yale.
Though his maternal ancestry is disputed, he may have been the first person of African American descent to graduate from any American college. In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified. Enrollment at Yale only became competitive in the early 20th century, as late as the 1950s, tests and demographic questionnaires for admission to the college worked to exclude non-Christian men, especially Jews, as well as non-white men. By the mid-1960s these processes were becoming more meritocratic, focusing on recruitment of a racially and geographically diverse student body and this meritocratic transition encouraged the university to establish the first need-blind admissions policy in the United States. After several decades of debate about coeducation, Yale College admitted its first class of women in 1969, in recent years, the college has focused on international recruitment, quadrupling the fraction of international students admitted between 1993 and 2013
Frank M. Boyce
Frank Marcellus Boyce was an American physician and politician from New York. He was born on August 3,1851, in Schodack, Rensselaer County, New York and he attended the public schools in Saratoga Springs. He graduated from Albany Medical College in 1872, was licensed to practice madicine by the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1873, on February 5,1874, he married Kate Payne, and they had three children. In 1891, he returned to Schodack where he lived on a farm, on August 9,1896, he married Emma Van Buren. He was Supervisor of the Town of Schodack in 1896, and he was again a member of the State Senate in 1907 and 1908. He died in 1931, and was buried at the Woodlawn Cemetery in Schodack and his son, Frank Marcellus Boyce, Jr. wrote a book on Womens Suffrage in 1913. The book is titled Governor Jane, a story of the new woman
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Roughly 150 miles north of New York City, Albany developed on the west bank of the Hudson River, the population of the City of Albany was 97,856 according to the 2010 census. With a Census-estimated population of 98,4242013, the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state and 38th in the United States. Fortune 500 companies that have offices in Albany include American Express, J. P. Morgan and Chase, Merrill Lynch, General Electric, Goldman Sachs, International Paper, and Key Bank. In the 21st century, the Capital District has emerged as an anchor of Tech Valley. This was the first European settlement in the state, settled by Dutch colonists who built Fort Nassau for fur trading in 1614 and they formed successful relations with both the Mahican and the Mohawk peoples, two major Native American nations in the region. The fur trade attracted settlers who founded a village called Beverwijck near Fort Orange, in 1664 the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York State in 1797, following the United States gaining independence in the American Revolutionary War, Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. Its charter is possibly the longest-running instrument of government in the Western Hemisphere. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade, Albanys main exports at the time were beer, published works, and ironworks. Beginning in 1810, Albany was one of the ten most populous cities in the United States, in the 20th century, the city opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, the precursor of todays Albany International Airport. During the 1920s a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in the state capital and it marshalled the power of immigrants and their descendants in both cities.
In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, Albany has been a center of higher education for over a century, with much of the remainder of its economy dependent on state government and health care services. The city has rebounded from the decline of the 1970s and 1980s. Albany is known for its history, culture, architecture. Albany won the All-America City Award in both 1991 and 2009, Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw
120th New York State Legislature
The 120th New York State Legislature, consisting of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly, met from January 6 to April 24,1897, during the first year of Frank S. Under the provisions of the New York Constitution of 1894,50 Senators and 150 assemblymen were elected in districts, senators for a two-year term. The senatorial districts were made up of counties, except New York County, Kings County, Erie County. The Assembly districts were made up of area, all within the same county. At this time there were two political parties, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. The Socialist Labor Party, the Prohibition Party, and the Peoples Party nominated tickets, the New York state election,1896 was held on November 3. Congressman Frank S. Black was elected Governor, and Timothy L. Woodruff was elected Lieutenant Governor, the only other statewide elective office up for election was carried by a Republican. The Legislature met for the session at the State Capitol in Albany on January 6,1897.
James M. E. OGrady was elected Speaker with 112 votes against 34 for Daniel E. Finn, on January 19, the Legislature elected Thomas C. Platt to succeed David B. Senator from New York, for a term beginning on March 4,1897. Note, There are now 62 counties in the State of New York, the counties which are not mentioned in this list had not yet been established, or sufficiently organized, the area being included in one or more of the abovementioned counties. The asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued in office as members of this Legislature, For brevity, the chairmanships omit the words. the Committee on. Clerk, John S. Kenyon Sergeant-at-Arms, Garret J. Benson Doorkeeper, Nathan Lewis Stenographer, Edward Shaughnessy Journal Clerk, gleason Index Clerk, Ernest A. Fay Note, For brevity, the chairmanships omit the words. the Committee on. Clerk, Archie E. Baxter Sergeant-at-Arms, James C. Crawford Doorkeeper, Joseph Bauer Second Assistant Doorkeeper, Eugene L. Demers Stenographer, Henry C
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, oxygen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time, throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change.
Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, since 1983, the worlds top coal producer has been China. In 2015 China produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal –47. 7% of 7,861 million tonnes world coal production, in 2015 other large producers were United States, European Union and Australia. The word originally took the col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula. In Old Turkic languages, kül is ash, cinders, öčür is quench, the compound charcoal in Turkic is öčür kül, literally quenched ashes, coals with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas, due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed, the temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation and this trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply buried by sediments.
Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was slowly converted to coal, as coal contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, the exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants — this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae, in its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is used as a conditioner for soil to make it able to retain. Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal, jet, a compact form of lignite, is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Curtis N. Douglas
Curtis Noble Douglas was an American businessman and politician from New York. He was the son of John Pettit Douglas and Henrietta Douglas and he attended Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute from 1864 to 1870, and John C. Overheisus Classical School from 1871 to 1873 and he graduated B. A. from Rochester University in 1877. Then he became secretary of his father, a land owner in Jefferson County. In 1882, he established his own college preparatory school there, in 1886, he married Nancy Sherman Thomson, and they had three children. Upon his marriage, he abandoned teaching, and instead engaged with his father-in-law in the business in Albany. Douglas was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1894 and his seat was contested by Republican Amos J. Ablett, and the Committee on Elections shortly before the end of the session reported in favor of Ablett, but no action was taken by the Assembly. Douglas was a member of the New York State Senate in 1899 and 1900, Douglas was appointed on November 6,1912, by his brother-in-law, Gov.
John Alden Dix, to the Public Service Commission, and remained in office until March 1914. The office carried a salary of $15,000, one of the highest salaries for State officers in New York. He died on February 9,1919, and was buried at the Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands
123rd New York State Legislature
Under the provisions of the New York Constitution of 1894,50 Senators and 150 assemblymen were elected in single-seat districts, senators for a two-year term, assemblymen for a one-year term. The senatorial districts were made up of counties, except New York County, Kings County, Erie County. The Assembly districts were made up of area, all within the same county. At this time there were two political parties, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. The New York state election,1899, was held on November 7, no statewide elective offices were up for election. The Legislature met for the session at the State Capitol in Albany on January 3,1900. S. Frederick Nixon was re-elected Speaker, with 92 votes against 57 for J. Franklin Barnes, Note, In 1897, New York County, Kings County, Richmond County and the Western part of Queens County were consolidated into the present-day City of New York. The Eastern part of Queens County was separated in 1899 as Nassau County, parts of the 1st and 2nd Assembly districts of Westchester County were annexed by New York City in 1895, and became part of the Borough of the Bronx in 1898.
The asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued in office as members of this Legislature, For brevity, the chairmanships omit the words. the Committee on. Clerk, James S. Whipple Sergeant-at-Arms, Henry Jacquilard Doorkeeper, John E. Gorss Stenographer, gleason Index Clerk, Ernest A. Fay Clerk to the Committee on Finance, Girvease A. Matteson Note, For brevity, the chairmanships omit the words. the Committee on. Lammert Assistant Clerk, Ray B. Smith Librarian, John R. Yale Assistant Doorkeeper, Eugene L. Demers The New York Red Book by Edgar L
New York State Senate
The New York State Senate is considered the upper house in the New York State Legislature. It has 63 members each elected to two-year terms, there are no limits on the number of terms one may serve. The New York Constitution provides for a number of members in the Senate. The current format for apportionment has followed the Supreme Court decision in Baker v. Carr, Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New Yorks upper chamber in the 2008 General Election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades. Previously, the Republicans had held the chamber for all but one year from 1939 to 2008, however, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators—Rubén Díaz, Sr. Carl Kruger, Pedro Espada, Jr. the self-named Gang of Four refused to back Malcolm Smith as the chambers majority leader and sought concessions. Monserrate soon reached an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee, though there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate, on June 8,2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.
The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein unilaterally moved to recess, they were unable to stop the session. All 30 Republicans plus two Democrats and Espada, voted in favor of the resolution, in accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader. Monserrate had backed out of the Gang at the time, being the first of the four to back Smith, the apparent Republican seizure of power was tenuous in any event. Smith claimed the vote was illegal because of Kleins motion to adjourn, Smith and most of the Democrats walked out before an actual vote to adjourn could be taken. Smith still asserted he was majority leader and would challenge the vote in court and he locked the doors of the state senate chambers in an effort to prevent any further legislative action.
The scheduled session was eventually postponed, both Monserrate and Espada faced accusations of unethical or criminal conduct. Monserrate was indicted for assault in March and would have automatically lost his seat if convicted. New York, like most states, has a provision in its constitution which bars convicted felons from holding office. Espada was the target of an investigation into whether he funded his campaign with money siphoned from a nonprofit health care agency he controls. The Bronx County District Attorneys office was investigating charges that Espada actually resided in Mamaroneck