Blackwood, New Jersey
Blackwood is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located within Gloucester Township, in Camden County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 4,545, it is located 14.6 miles away from Philadelphia. Blackwood is the home of the main campus of Camden County College, in addition to other campus locations in Camden and Cherry Hill. Blackwood is home to Camden County College's radio station WDBK. Blackwood known as Blackwoodtown, was settled about 1750 by John Blackwood in an area known as "head of Timber Creek." Blackwood was a fuller who established mills in Blackwoodtown. The area was a crossroads village along the Black Horse Pike well into the nineteenth century, that served as a local government and transportation center by the 1830s, when Uriah Norcross established a stage coach line between Camden and Woodbury with a stop at a tavern in Blackwoodtown; the arrival of the Camden County Railroad in 1891 led to further development.
Blackwood Lake operated as a summer resort from 1891 until 1932. The Blackwood Historic District and Solomon Wesley United Methodist Church are listed in the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, Blackwood had a total area of 1.235 square miles, including 1.226 square miles of land and 0.009 square miles of water. Bodies of water include Farrows Run stream. Gloucester Township Health and Fitness Trail Kiwanis's Baseball Fields Al Raw's Field Harwan Park State Street Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,545 people, 1,687 households, 1,209.579 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 3,706.4 per square mile. There were 1,800 housing units at an average density of 1,467.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.71% White, 5.21% Black or African American, 0.04% Native American, 2.53% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.63% from other races, 1.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.94% of the population.
There were 1,687 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.19. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.2 years. For every 100 females there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 95.1 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 4,692 people, 1,721 households, 1,261 families residing in the section; the population density was 1,461.0/km2. There were 1,840 housing units at an average density of 572.9/km2. The racial makeup of the section was 91.30% White, 3.94% African American, 0.11% Native American, 2.11% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.19% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.15% of the population. There were 1,721 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.16. In the section the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. The median income for a household in the section was $49,707, the median income for a family was $60,136. Males had a median income of $41,274 versus $30,677 for females; the per capita income for the section was $21,815.
About 0.9% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.6% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Public schools, that are part of the Gloucester Township Public Schools district, include Blackwood Elementary School, Gloucester Township Elementary School as well as Charles W. Lewis Middle School Highland Regional High School is part of the Black Horse Pike Regional School District; the Kingdom Charter School of Leadership is a charter school that serves students in Kindergarten through sixth grade residing in Gloucester Township, who are accepted by lottery on a space-available basis. Our Lady of Hope Regional School is a Roman Catholic elementary school that operates under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden. Our Lady of Hope Regional School was renamed following the 2008 merger of St. Jude's Regional School with St. Agnes School. Higher education in Blackwood includes Camden County College. People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with Blackwood include: Jersey Bakley was a Major League Baseball pitcher, 19 years old when he broke into the big leagues in
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Rowan University is a public research university in Glassboro, New Jersey, United States, with a satellite campus in Camden, New Jersey. The school was founded in 1923 as Glassboro Normal School on a 25-acre site donated by 107 local residents; the school became New Jersey State Teachers College at Glassboro in the 1930s, Glassboro State College in 1958. Starting in the 1970s, it grew into a multi-purpose institution, adding programs in business and communications, it was renamed Rowan College of New Jersey in 1992, after industrialist Henry Rowan and his wife, gave the school $100 million, at the time the largest gift to a public college. The investment set in motion decades of growth including the establishment of the Henry M. Rowan College of Engineering and vast expansion, including a $400 million downtown public-private redevelopment project known as Rowan Boulevard. Rowan College became Rowan University on March 21, 1997, when it won approval for university status from the New Jersey Commission on Higher Education.
In the fall of 2012, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University opened in Camden. It acquired the School of Osteopathic Medicine, when UMDNJ was dissolved on July 1, 2013, became, at the time, just the second university in the United States to offer both an M. D. and a D. O. medical program. As of 2018, the university includes 12 colleges and schools plus the Division of Global Learning & Partnerships which manages the graduate program, online learning and other creative educational programming; the university has a total enrollment of 18,560 students. Rowan offers 74 bachelor's, 51 master's degrees, four doctoral degrees, two professional degrees, seven undergraduate certificates, 38 post-baccalaureate certificates. In the early part of the 20th century, there was a shortage of properly trained teachers in the state of New Jersey, it was decided to build a two-year Normal school in the southern part of the state to counter the trend. Among the candidate towns, Glassboro became the location due in no small part to its easy access to passenger rail as well as its offer to donate 25 acres of land to the state for the purpose of building the Normal school.
The 1917 purchase price of the land was raised by the residents of the town and used to purchase a tract that belonged to the Whitney family, who owned the local glassworks during the 19th century. In 1923 the Glassboro Normal School opened, with a class of 236 female students arriving at the train station in front of Bunce Hall. With the evolution of teacher training the school became a four-year program in 1934; the college was one of the first in the country to begin programs for teachers for reading disabilities and physical therapy in 1935 and 1944, respectively. Glassboro State began to develop a reputation as a leader in special education and after several years and the return of soldiers from World War II the college was able to expand its enrollment from a wartime low of 170 in 1943 to an expansion of several additional campus buildings and academic programs over the next 15 years and became Glassboro State College in 1958; the Cold War Glassboro Summit Conference between U. S. President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin took place from June 23–25, 1967, in Hollybush Mansion on the campus of then-Glassboro State College.
The college was chosen because of its location equidistant between New York City, where Kosygin was making a speech at the U. N. and Washington, D. C. Then-college president Dr. Thomas E. Robinson was given just 16 hours' notice of the decision to hold the summit at GSC and, despite the lack of advance notice, converted his on-campus home into a secure location for the leaders of the world's superpowers; the campus was quiet during the following decade though it included hard rock band Black Sabbath's first U. S. concert on October 30, 1970. Peaceful student protests occurred during the Vietnam war as they did at other campuses, but never required the college to close the campus; the college made national news following an annual event, Spring Weekend, in 1986, due to a loud party atmosphere off campus around the Beau Rivage townhouses and The Crossings apartment complex in which police from several municipalities were called in to break up the parties. The event lead to Glassboro State College's ranking as the #28 Party School in the nation in the January 1987 issue of Playboy magazine.
Coincidentally, in the Greek section of that same issue of Playboy, the Epsilon Eta chapter of Zeta Beta Tau was named one of the Animal House Contenders. Though the alcohol-fueled Spring Weekend was cancelled by then-President Herman James, Glassboro State College remained known for its hard partying culture. However, in 1988, there began one of the biggest crackdowns in school history; as result of the drinking death of freshman James Callahan at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, Herman James decided to make GSC an example for the rest of the state colleges and universities to follow. He invited the New Jersey Alcoholic Beverage Control commission to the school and began shutting down off-campus parties, placing undercover agents in the local liquor establishments; this prompted Morton Downey Jr., based in Secaucus, New Jersey, popular at the time, to do an untelevised show focusing on the drinking age and the classic argument that an eighteen-year-old can go off to war and die for their country, but they cannot
Voorhees Township, New Jersey
Voorhees Township is a township in Camden County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 29,131, reflecting an increase of 1,005 from the 28,126 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,567 from the 24,559 counted in the 1990 Census. Voorhees is a New Jersey suburb in the Greater Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Voorhees Township was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 1, 1899, from portions of Waterford Township. Portions of the township were taken on March 1924, to form Gibbsboro; the township is named for Foster McGowan Voorhees, the Governor of New Jersey who authorized its creation. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 11.644 square miles, including 11.492 square miles of land and 0.152 square miles of water. Echelon is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in the western part of the township between Cherry Hill and Gibbsboro.
Other unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Ashland, Brighton Heights, Kirkwood and Osage. Voorhees borders the Camden County communities of Berlin Township, Cherry Hill Township, Gibbsboro and Somerdale. To the east is Evesham Township in Burlington County. Voorhees has a Humid Continental/Humid Subtropical transition climate according to with mild to cold winters and hot, humid summers. Temperatures have ranged from 104 °F to -7 °F; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,131 people, 11,470 households, 7,432.560 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,534.9 per square mile. There were 12,260 housing units at an average density of 1,066.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 71.77% White, 8.70% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 16.13% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.43% of the population. There were 11,470 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families.
29.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.14. In the township, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 30.1% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 86.8 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $82,146 and the median family income was $107,000. Males had a median income of $72,430 versus $51,322 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $44,169. About 4.0% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 28,126 people, 10,489 households, 7,069 families residing in the township.
The population density was 2,424.0 people per square mile. There were 11,084 housing units at an average density of 955.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 78.26% White, 8.00% African American, 0.14% Native American, 11.44% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 1.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.47% of the population. There were 10,489 households out of which 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.23. In the township the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the township was $68,402, the median income for a family was $86,873. Males had a median income of $58,484 versus $38,897 for females; the per capita income for the township was $33,635. About 3.7% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. New Jersey American Water, based in Voorhees Township, is the largest water utility in New Jersey, serving over two million people in 176 communities throughout the state. New Jersey American Water is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Water. Voorhees is the home of the Skate Zone, a training facility for the Philadelphia Flyers of the NHL. Current and former players of the team become residents of Voorhees. Voorhees includes a community park that includes a running track, children's playground and dedicated areas for dogs.
The Philadelphia Soul of the Arena Football League practiced at the Coliseum in Voorhees. The Township of Voorhees is governed under the Township form of New Jersey municipal government; the fi
New Jersey Senate
The New Jersey Senate was established as the upper house of the New Jersey Legislature by the Constitution of 1844, replacing the Legislative Council. There are 40 legislative districts, representing districts with average populations of 210,359; each district has one senator and two members of the New Jersey General Assembly, the lower house of the legislature. Prior to the election in which they are chosen, senators must be a minimum of 30 years old and a resident of the state for four years to be eligible to serve in office. From 1844 until 1965, each county was an electoral district, with each county electing one senator. Under the 1844 Constitution the term of office was three years; the 1947 Constitution changed the term to four years. Since 1968 it has consisted of 40 senators. Senators serve a two-year term at the beginning of each decade, with the rest of the decade divided into two four-year terms; the "2-4-4" cycle was put into place so that Senate elections can reflect the changes made to the district boundaries on the basis of the decennial United States Census.
If the cycle were not put into place the boundaries would sometimes be four years out of date before being used for Senate elections. Rather, with the varied term, the boundaries are only two years out of date, thus elections for Senate seats take place in years ending with a "1", "3" or "7". Interim appointments are made to fill vacant legislative seats by the county committee or committees of the party of the vacating person; the office is on the ballot for the next general election, unless the vacancy occurred within 51 days of the election. The appointment stands until the following general election. Senatorial courtesy is a senate tradition that allows home county legislators to intercede to prevent consideration of a local resident nominated by the Governor for a position that requires Senate confirmation. Any of the senators from the nominee's home county can invoke senatorial courtesy to block a nomination, temporarily or permanently, without any obligation to justify the basis of their actions.
Governor Corzine nominated Stuart Rabner on June 4, 2007, to be the next Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, replacing James R. Zazzali, nearing mandatory retirement age. Shortly after the nomination, two members of the Senate from Essex County, where Rabner resides, blocked consideration of his confirmation by invoking senatorial courtesy. State Senator Ronald Rice had blocked the nomination, but relented on June 15, 2007, after a meeting with the governor. Nia Gill dropped her block on June 19, 2007, but did not explain the nature of her concerns, though anonymous lawmakers cited in The New York Times indicated that the objection was due to Rabner's race and Governor Corzine's failure to consider a minority candidate for the post. In June 2007, Loretta Weinberg used senatorial courtesy privileges to hold up consideration of a new term in office for Bergen County Prosecutor John Molinelli; until 2010, in the event of a gubernatorial vacancy, the New Jersey Constitution had specified that the President of the Senate would assume the role of Acting Governor and retain their role in the Senate.
An Acting Governor would assume the governorship while retaining the reins of power in their house of the legislature. The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey took office for the first time on January 19, 2010, following conjoint election with the Governor of New Jersey; the position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005. While the amendment itself took effect as of January 17, 2006, made some interim changes to the succession to the governorship, the first lieutenant governor was not elected until November 3, 2009. District 1: Bob Andrzejczak District 2: Chris A. Brown District 3: Stephen M. Sweeney District 4: Fred H. Madden District 5: Nilsa Cruz-Perez District 6: James Beach District 7: Troy Singleton District 8: Dawn Marie Addiego District 9: Christopher J. Connors District 10: James W. Holzapfel District 11: Vin Gopal District 12: Samuel D. Thompson District 13: Declan O'Scanlon District 14: Linda R. Greenstein District 15: Shirley Turner District 16: Christopher Bateman District 17: Bob Smith District 18: Patrick J. Diegnan District 19: Joseph Vitale District 20: Joseph Cryan District 21: Thomas Kean, Jr. District 22: Nicholas Scutari District 23: Michael J. Doherty District 24: Steve Oroho District 25: Anthony Bucco District 26: Joseph Pennacchio District 27: Richard Codey District 28: Ronald Rice District 29: Teresa Ruiz District 30: Robert Singer District 31: Sandra Bolden Cunningham District 32: Nicholas Sacco District 33: Brian P. Stack District 34: Nia Gill District 35: Nellie Pou District 36: Paul Sarlo District 37: Loretta Weinberg District 38: Joseph Lagana District 39: Gerald Cardinale District 40: Kristin Corrado Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Budget and Appropriations - Paul Sarlo Commerce - Nellie Pou Community and Urban Affairs - Jeff Van Drew Economic Growth - Nilsa Cruz-Perez Education - Teresa Ruiz Environment and Energy - Bob Smith Health, Human Services and Senior Citizens - Joseph Vitale Higher Education - Sandra Bolden Cunningh
Pamela Rosen Lampitt
Pamela Rosen Lampitt is an American Democratic Party politician, who serves in the New Jersey General Assembly, where she represents the 6th legislative district, having taken office on January 10, 2006. Lampitt was elected to the Assembly on November 8, 2005, filling the seat of fellow Democrat Mary Previte, who did not run for re-election and had held the seat in the Assembly since 1998. Lampitt serves in the Assembly as chair of the Women and Children Committee, vice-chair of the Financial Institutions and Insurance Committee, the Appropriations Committee. In 2007, Lampitt was the lead sponsor of the Comprehensive Statewide Transfer Agreement that allows community college students to "seamlessly" transfer credits to four-year public universities; the law is known as "the Lampitt law". Education Financial Institutions and Insurance, Vice-Chair Joint Committee on Housing Affordability New Jersey Legislative Select Oversight Lampitt was born in Natick, Massachusetts, she graduated from Wales University with a degree in Culinary Arts and Management.
Lampitt has worked at the University of Pennsylvania for 25 years and is the General Manager for Conference Services. She has served on a number of steering committees on the campus, working on the Committee for Manufacturer Responsibility, which ensures university products are manufactured under fair labor standards. Lampitt and her husband, have two children, a daughter, a son, Andrew; each of the 40 districts in the New Jersey Legislature has one representative in the New Jersey Senate and two members in the New Jersey General Assembly. The other representatives from the 6th District for the 2014-2015 Legislative Session are: Senator James Beach, Assemblyman Louis Greenwald, Assemblywoman Pamela Rosen Lampitt Assemblyman Rosen Lampitt's legislative web page, New Jersey Legislature New Jersey Legislature financial disclosure forms 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Greenwald and Rosen Lampitt Assembly campaign website Assembly Member Pamela R. Lampitt, Project Vote Smart
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –