Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Andrew Fulton (mayor)
Andrew Fulton was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1884 to 1887. The son of Samuel Magee and Agnes Rebecca Fulton, he was born in 1850 into a foundry family, he was outgoing and affable and preferred the less formal "Andy Fulton", this charismatic charm as well as his tall stature served him well in a career of politics. In 1879, Fulton was elected to the City Council followed soon by his election to the mayor's office in 1887. Mayor Fulton oversaw the completion of the Western Penitentiary during his term. After leaving office he continued to stay active in Pittsburgh politics working on both the city and county levels, with the exception of an absence to Colorado to raise horses for a number of years, he died in 1925 of pneumonia.
William J. Diehl
William J. Diehl, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1899 to 1901. Diehl was worked as a bookkeeper in his early career, he entered the public service as a Deputy Sheriff for four years followed by work in the city treasury office in the 1870s. His main fortune was in the oil and gas industries around the region and was President of the Wheeling Natural Gas Company in the 1880s. Diehl was a thirty-third degree Mason. During his two years as mayor, Diehl oversaw a city growing to its full commercial and industrial potential; the ritzy and exclusive business forum Duquesne Club was founded in the city, as well as the amalgamation of Andrew Carnegie's vast industrial empire into U. S. Steel was completed. Mayor Diehl's administration completed the rudimentary expressway Bigelow Boulevard to the east neighborhoods of the city. Mayor Diehl is buried in Allegheny Cemetery in Pittsburgh. William J. Diehl at Find a Grave
Magnus Miller Murray
Magnus Miller Murray, served as the Mayor of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1828 to 1830 and again from 1831 to 1832. Mayor Murray now rests in Section Lot 29 of Allegheny Cemetery. Murray was born to Commodore Alexander Murray and Mary Miller Murray, he was named after Magnus Miller, a local merchant. He attended Pennsylvania University, earning both bachelor's and master's degrees in an era when many statesmen had only a grade school education. On January 6, 1806 he was admitted to the Philadelphia Bar, he married Mary Wilkens, daughter of John Wilkins, Jr. and Catherine Reagan Murray, on February 23, 1810. Murray began politics as an understudy to his uncle, area judge and political insider William Wilkins. Under Murray's mayoral administration, the Western Terminus of the Pennsylvania Canal was completed along the Grant Street corridor of the city. Murray was the first of a handful of Pittsburgh mayors to serve two non-consecutive terms in office, having to cede control of the mayor's office to Matthew B.
Lowrie from 1830 to 1831, before regaining his mayoral powers. Mayor Magnus Murray's son, James Butler Murray, President of the First Exchange Bank of Pittsburgh is remembered in the naming of Murray Avenue in Pittsburgh's Squirrel Hill neighborhood. Member of The Society of the Cincinnati as the oldest male heir of Commodore Alexander Murray. Murray is an ancestor of actress Julie Bowen. Killikelly, S.. The History of Pittsburgh: Its Rise and Progress. Pittsburgh: B. C. & Gordon Montgomery Co. Martin, J.. Martin's Bench and Bar of Philadelphia, Philadelphia: R. Welsh & co
James Lowry Jr.
James Lowry Jr. was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1864 to 1866. Lowry was born in Scotland in 1820, he owned a foundry and was a Coal merchant. The city's industries were all booming during Mayor Lowry's term, he would be elected Coroner of Allegheny County. Lowry died in St. Louis, he is buried in Allegheny Cemetery. List of mayors of Pittsburgh James Lowry Jr. at Political Graveyard
William W. Irwin
William Wallace Irwin was Mayor of Pittsburgh and a Whig member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. William Irwin was born in Pittsburgh in 1803, as a boy earned the lifelong nickname "pony Irwin" because of his habit of riding a pony everywhere he went, he graduated from the Western University of Pennsylvania, now known as the University of Pittsburgh, in 1824. He was a graduate of Allegheny College, he became a member of the Allegheny County bar on May 6, 1828, by 1835 was serving as the president of the Western University's alumni association. He ran for Allegheny County District Attorney in 1838. Irwin's first wife was Frances Everallyn Rose Irwin, the niece of Illinois Supreme Court justice Theophilus W. Smith and aunt of bridge engineer Charles Shaler Smith, they were the parents of United States Navy Rear Admiral John Irwin. After his first wife's death, Irwin married again on February 28, 1839 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, his second wife was Sophia Arabella Bache, born November 14, 1815 at Philadelphia and died on March 24, 1904.
She was the daughter of Richard Bache, Jr. who served in the Republic of Texas Navy and was elected as a Representative to the Second Texas Legislature in 1847 and Sophia Burrell Dallas, the daughter of Arabella Maria Smith and Alexander J. Dallas an American statesman who served as the U. S. Treasury Secretary under President James Madison, she was granddaughter of Sarah Franklin Bache and Richard Bache, the great-granddaughter of Benjamin Franklin, a niece of George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States, serving under James K. Polk. Irwin had two children with Bache: educator Agnes Irwin and American businessman and the Kingdom of Hawaii's Minister to Japan, Robert Walker Irwin. Upon being elected mayor in 1840 Irwin oversaw the expansion of infrastructure and government in the city to catch up with the regions rapid expansion. Under his administration four additional wards were added to the city. Irwin used his term as mayor as a touchstone for his race as a representative for U.
S. Congress, he was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh Congress. He was not a candidate for reelection in 1842. After his term in Congress, Irwin was United States Ambassador to Denmark 1843-1847, he died in Pittsburgh in 1856. Interment in Allegheny Cemetery. United States Congress. "William W. Irwin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Mayors of Pittsburgh The Political Graveyard William W. Irwin at Find a Grave