The Mahsud or Mehsud spelled Maseed, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe inhabiting the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. A minor number of Maseed lineages are settled in the Logar Province of Afghanistan in Charkh District, Baraki barak and Muhammad Agha, but in Wardak and Kunduz Provinces; the Maseeds inhabit the center and north of South Waziristan valley, surrounded on three sides by the Darweshkhel Wazirs, being shut off by the Bettanis on the east from the Derajat and Bannu districts. Two Pashtun tribes, the Ahmadzai Wazirs and the Maseeds and dominate South Waziristan. Within the heart of Maseed territory in South Waziristan lies the influential Ormur tribe's stronghold of Kaniguram; the Ormurs are considered by other tribes of South Waziristan to be close brethren of the Maseeds due to marital and other ties and the fact that the Ormurs have lived in and controlled Kaniguram for over a thousand years. There are some Maseeds living in the UAE, Germany and the United Kingdom.
The Maseeds pronounce their name Māsīd. They are divided into three great clans or subtribes, namely Manzai and Shamankhel. Maseeds call these Drei Māsīd, meaning the "Three Maseeds"; each tribe has his own Khan. In the words of Sir Olaf Caroe, who acted as the former governor of the British Indian Frontier, "The Maseed tribe are a people who can never think of submitting to a foreign power." From 1860 to 1937, the English forces attacked Maseed positions, but never got a foothold in the area. The Maseeds lived in the centre of waziristan area of FATA. In the 14th century, they migrated eastwards, fell into dispute with the Bannuchi and Khattak tribes settled in the Shawal area; the Maseeds and the Wazirs succeeded to defeat the Khattaks and pushed them northeastwards towards Bannu and Kohat. The Mahsuds settled at the center of Waziristan, in the Makeen and Lada area. During the British colonial period, the Maseeds were invaded several times by the British Empire, in 1860, 1881, 1894–95, 1900–01, 1919–20 and in 1925's Pink's War.
The Maseed tribe inhabits a large portion of the center of Waziristan, drained by the Tank Zam and Shahur Rivers. The Maseed territory is a rough triangle between Jandola, the hills north of Razmak, from Shuidar to Janimela, north of Wana. No portion of their territory touches the "settled" districts, the tribe is surrounded on the north and west by the Wazirs, on the east by the Bhittanis, on the south by the Wazirs and Shranis. With the exception of a few Shabi Khel in the Bannu District, some land near Gumal in the Tank Tehsil, the colonies at Chark and elsewhere in the Logar Valley in Afghanistan, none of the Maseed own land outside of South Waziristan Agency. To escape the severe cold in the higher hills during the winter, a large number move down to the lower valleys but always keep within the Maseed territorial limits. Many of these people live in tents. "South Waziristan is mountainous with several high peaks. The Gomal is the main river, in addition to which there are many hill torrents, which…remain dry for most of the year."
The mountains and valleys geographically isolate the Maseed from large scale movements of invaders and provide excellent opportunities to conduct effective ambushes on enemies. The cave villages along the Shahur River near Barwand and along the Split Toi provide excellent hiding places and defensive positions. Many Maseed inhabit in the lower valleys during the winter, they return to family compounds at higher elevations during the summer. Valleys: Wacha Khwara, Baddar, Darra Algad, Mastang, Sheranna, Split Toi, Tak Zam Plains: Razmak Mountains: Kundeygaar, Pre Ghal, Spin Ghar, Spinkamar Rivers: Tak Zam, Shahur, Shinkai Toi, Baddar Toi, Split Toi, Lower Khaisara Toi, Tauda China, Osspass, Torwam, Thangi Parkhai The climate in the region is hot in summer, with high temperatures around 110 degrees Fahrenheit, cool in winter, with low temperatures around 35 degrees Fahrenheit. There is modest rainfall in January and February. On many occasions the Afghan throne was saved with the help of the Maseed, Burki/Baraki, Wazirs from Waziristan, Pakistan.
Of those who fought during this time, most came back to their homeland, but those who stayed were given high ranks of office, such as Faiz Muhammad Maseed, appointed as an interior minister during the Reign of Daud Khan in the 1970s. Today the majority of Maseeds are still in Logar Province, with the title of Waziri, but by caste, they are Maseeds; the majority of these are with a sub-caste of Malik Denai, Faridi, Shamirai شمیرائی, Shabi khel, etc. When the Soviet–Afghan War started, some of these families came back to Waziristan but could not stay there, so they moved to cities like Peshawar and Karachi; some of them stayed in waziristan and D. I. Khan; the Maseed helped to defeat the British invading troops and saved Afghanistan, they contributed a lot because Afghanistan was nearly in the hands of British. John Ayde described the Maseeds: They are poor but brave… and although turbulent and difficult to deal with, still have a great love of their country and cherish their independence, possessing qualities that we admire ourselves, which deserve consideration and respect.
Maseed are good marksmen and have the reputation of trustworthiness. Maseed is the most independent of all the tribes, their own maliks have a limited control over them. However, Maseed hav
Sir Donald Stewart, 1st Baronet
Field Marshal Sir Donald Martin Stewart, 1st Baronet, was a senior Indian Army officer. He fought on the Aka Khel Expedition to the North-West Frontier in 1854, took part in the response to the Indian Rebellion in 1857 and, after serving as commandant of the penal settlement of the Andaman Islands, fought in the Second Anglo-Afghan War as Commander of the Quetta Army. In that role, he advanced through the Bolan Pass to Quetta, on to Kandahar in January 1879. In March 1880, he made a difficult march from Kandahar to Kabul, fighting on the way the Battle of Ahmed Khel and Battle of Arzu, holding supreme military and civil command in northern Afghanistan, he became Commander-in-Chief, India in April 1881 and a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India in 1893. Born the son of Robert Stewart and Flora Stewart at Mount Pleasant, near Forres, Moray in Scotland, Stewart was educated at schools at Findhorn and Elgin and at the University of Aberdeen. Stewart was commissioned as an ensign in the 9th Bengal Native Infantry on 12 October 1840 and was promoted to lieutenant on 3 January 1844 and to captain on 1 June 1854.
That year he served on the Aka Khel Expedition to the North-West Frontier. During the Indian Rebellion, after a famous ride from Agra to Delhi with dispatches, Stewart served as the deputy assistant adjutant-general at the Siege of Delhi in Summer 1857 and as assistant adjutant-general at the Siege of Lucknow in Autumn 1857. After serving through the campaign in Rohilkhand he was promoted to major on 19 January 1858 and to lieutenant-colonel on 20 July 1858, he became deputy-adjutant-general of the Bengal Army in 1862 and, having been promoted to colonel on 20 July 1863, he commanded the Bengal brigade in the Abyssinian expedition in 1867. Promoted to major-general on 24 December 1868, he became commandant of the penal settlement of the Andaman Islands, was present when one of the inmates assassinated Lord Mayo, British Viceroy of India, in 1872. After being exonerated in the subsequent inquiry, he was appointed Commander of the troops at Lahore in 1876. Promoted to lieutenant-general on 1 October 1877, Stewart commanded the Quetta Army during the Second Anglo-Afghan War advancing through the Bolan Pass to Quetta, on to Kandahar in January 1879.
In March 1880, he made a difficult march from Kandahar to Kabul, fighting on the way the Battle of Ahmed Khel and Battle of Arzu, holding supreme military and civil command in northern Afghanistan. On hearing of the Maiwand disaster, he despatched Sir Frederick Roberts with a division on his celebrated march from Kabul to Kandahar, while he led the rest of the army back to India through the Khyber Pass. For this he was created a baronet. Stewart became Military member of the Council of the Governor-General of India in October 1880 and, having been promoted to full general on 1 July 1881, he became Commander-in-Chief, India in April 1881. In order to achieve efficiency savings he proposed merging the Bengal Army, Madras Army and Bombay Army into a single military force but this was rejected by the India Office. During the Panjdeh Incident in March 1885 he secured a significant increase in the number of British troops in India, he returned to London to become a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India in 1893 and, in that role, again argued - this time - for the creation of a single Indian Army.
He was promoted to field marshal on 26 May 1894 and became a member of the Royal Commission on Indian civil and military expenditure as well as Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea from 1895 until his death on 26 March 1900. He died at Algiers in Algeria, is buried in Brompton Cemetery in London. In 1847 Stewart married Davina Marine. Lady Stewart was invested as a Companion of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India by Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle on 6 March 1900. Stewart's honours included: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath - 21 September 1880 Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India - 7 December 1885 Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire - 24 May 1881 Elsmie, George Robert. Field-Marshal Sir Donald Stewart: G. C. B. G. C. S. L. C. I. E.. London, John Murray. Heathcote, Tony; the British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. Vetch, Robert Hamilton. "Stewart, Donald Martin". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Stewart, Sir Donald Martin". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 913
The Anglo-Egyptian War occurred in 1882 between Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi and the United Kingdom. It ended a nationalist uprising against the Khedive Tewfik Pasha, it established firm British influence over Egypt at the expense of the Egyptians, the French and the Ottoman Empire, which retained only nominal authority. In 1878, an Egyptian army officer, Ahmed ‘Urabi and initiated a coup against Tewfik Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, because of grievances over disparities in pay between Egyptians and Europeans, as well as other concerns. In January 1882 the British and French governments sent a "Joint Note" to the Egyptian government, declaring their recognition of the Khedive's authority. On 20 May 1882, French warships arrived off the coast of Alexandria. On 11 June 1882, an anti-Christian riot occurred in Alexandria. Colonel ‘Urabi ordered his forces to put down the riot, but Europeans fled the city and ‘Urabi's army began fortifying the town; the French fleet was recalled to France.
A British ultimatum was rejected and its warships began a 10½-hour bombardment of Alexandria on 11 July 1882. The reasons why the British government sent a fleet of ships to the coast of Alexandria is a point of historical debate. In their 1961 essay Africa and the Victorians, Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher argue that the British invasion was ordered in order to quell the perceived anarchy of the ‘Urabi Revolt, as well as to protect British control over the Suez Canal in order to maintain its shipping route to the Indian Ocean. A. G. Hopkins rejected Robinson and Gallagher's argument, citing original documents to claim that there was no perceived danger to the Suez Canal from the ‘Urabi movement, that ‘Urabi and his forces were not chaotic "anarchists", but rather maintained law and order, he alternatively argues that British Prime Minister William Gladstone's cabinet was motivated by protecting the interests of British bondholders with investments in Egypt as well as by pursuit of domestic political popularity.
Hopkins cites the British investments in Egypt that grew massively leading into the 1880s as a result of the Khedive's debt from construction of the Suez Canal, as well as the close links that existed between the British government and the economic sector. He writes that Britain's economic interests occurred with a desire within one element of the ruling Liberal Party for a militant foreign policy in order to gain the domestic political popularity that enabled it to compete with the Conservative Party. Hopkins cites a letter from Edward Malet, the British consul general in Egypt at the time, to a member of the Gladstone Cabinet offering his congratulations on the invasion: "You have fought the battle of all Christendom and history will acknowledge it. May I venture to say that it has given the Liberal Party a new lease of popularity and power."John Galbraith and Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid-Marsot make a similar argument to Hopkins, though their argument focuses on how individuals within the British government bureaucracy used their positions to make the invasion appear as a more favourable option.
First, they describe a plot by Edward Malet in which he portrayed the Egyptian government as unstable to his superiors in the cabinet. On Galbraith and al-Sayyid-Marsot's reading, Malet naïvely expected he could convince the British to intimidate Egypt with a show of force without considering a full invasion or occupation as a possibility, they dwell on Admiral Beauchamp Seymour, who hastened the start of the bombardment by exaggerating the danger posed to his ships by ‘Urabi's forces in his telegrams back to the British government. The British fleet bombarded Alexandria from 11–13 July and occupied it with marines; the British did not lose a single ship, but much of the city was destroyed by fires caused by explosive shells and by ‘Urabists seeking to ruin the city that the British were taking over. Tewfik Pasha, who had moved his court to Alexandria during the unrest, declared ‘Urabi a rebel and formally deposed him from his positions within the government. ‘Urabi reacted by obtaining a fatwa from Al Azhar shaykhs which condemned Tewfik as a traitor to both his country and religion, absolving those who fought against him.
‘Urabi declared war on the United Kingdom and initiated conscription. The British army tried to see if it was possible reach Cairo through Alexandria, so they launched a probing/scouting attack at Kafr El Dawwar. Afterwards, they determined it would not be possible to reach Cairo from this direction as Egyptian defences were too strong. In August, a British army of over 40,000, commanded by Garnet Wolseley, invaded the Suez Canal Zone, he was clear the country of all other rebels. The engineer troops had left England for Egypt in July and August 1882; the engineers included pontoon and telegraph troops. Wolseley saw the campaign as a logistical challenge as he did not believe the Egyptians would put up much resistance. Order of battle of the British Expeditionary ForceCommander: Lieutenant General Sir Garnet Wolseley Chief of Staff: Lieutenant General Sir John Adye This battle took place on 5 August 1882 between an Egyptian army, headed by Ahmed Orabi, British forces headed by Sir Archibald Alison.
Seeking to ascertain the strength of the Egyptian's Kafr El Dawwar position, to test local rumours that the Egyptians were retreating, Alison ordered a probing attack on the evening of the 5th. This action was reported by Orabi as a battle, Cairo was full of the news that the advancing British had been repulsed. While, most historians describe the action as a reconnaissance in force, n
British Indian Army
The Indian Army known since 1947 as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could have their own armies; the Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad during the First World War and the Second World War. The term "Indian Army" appears to have been first used informally, as a collective description of the Presidency armies of the Presidencies of British India after the Indian Rebellion; the first army called the "Indian Army" was raised by the government of India in 1895, existing alongside the three long-established presidency armies. However, in 1903 the Indian Army absorbed these three armies; the Indian Army should not be confused with the "Army of India", the Indian Army itself plus the "British Army in India". The Indian Army has its origins in the years after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 called the Indian Mutiny in British histories, when in 1858 the Crown took over direct rule of British India from the East India Company.
Before 1858, the precursor units of the Indian Army were units controlled by the Company and were paid for by their profits. These operated alongside units of the British Army, funded by the British government in London; the armies of the East India Company were recruited from Muslims in the Bengal Presidency, which consisted of Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, high caste Hindus recruited from the rural plains of Oudh. Many of these troops took part in the Indian Mutiny, with the aim of reinstating the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II at Delhi as a result of insensitive treatment by their British officers; the meaning of the term "Indian Army" has changed over time: The officer commanding the Army of India was the Commander-in-Chief, India who reported to the civilian Governor-General of India. The title was used before the creation of a unified British Indian Army. By the early 1900s the Commander-in-Chief and his staff were based at GHQ India. Indian Army postings were less prestigious than British Army positions, but the pay was greater so that officers could live on their salaries instead of having to have a private income.
Accordingly, vacancies in the Indian Army were much sought after and reserved for the higher placed officer-cadets graduating from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. British officers in the Indian Army were expected to learn to speak the Indian languages of their men, who tended to be recruited from Hindi speaking areas. Prominent British Indian Army officers included Lord Roberts, Sir William Birdwood, Sir Claude Auchinleck and Sir William Slim. Commissioned officers and Indian, held identical ranks to commissioned officers of the British Army. King's Commissioned Indian Officers, created from the 1920s, held equal powers to British officers. Viceroy's Commissioned Officers were Indians holding officer ranks, they were treated in all respects as commissioned officers, but had authority over Indian troops only, were subordinate to all British King's Commissioned Officers and KCIOs. They included Subedar Major or Risaldar-Major, equivalents to a British Major. Recruitment was voluntary. Non-Commissioned Officers included Company Havildar Majors equivalents to a Company Sergeant Major.
Soldier ranks included Sowars, equivalent to a British private. British Army ranks such as gunner and sapper were used by other corps. In the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny of 1857 called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British, the three armies of the former Presidencies of the East India Company passed to the British Crown. After'the Mutiny', recruitment switched to what the British called the "martial races," Sikhs, Awans and other Punjabi Musulmans, Pashtuns, Bunts, Rajputs, Kumaonis, Garhwalis, Dogras, Gurjar and Sainis; the three Presidency armies remained separate forces, each with its own Commander-in-Chief. Overall operational control was exercised by the Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, formally the Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies. From 1861, most of the officer manpower was pooled in the three Presidential Staff Corps. After the Second Afghan War a Commission of Enquiry recommended the abolition of the presidency armies; the Ordnance and Transport, Pay branches were by unified. The Punjab Frontier Force was under the direct control of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab during peacetime until 1886, when it came under the C-in-C, India.
The Hyderabad Contingent and other local corps remained under direct governmental control. Standing higher formations – divisions and brigades – were abandoned in 1889. No divisional staffs were maintained in peacetime, troops were dispersed throughout the sub-continent, with internal security as their main function. In 1891 th
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, Punjab province to the north. Sindh borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port; the remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture, influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu, a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly; the Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus.
The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh; this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems; the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world, it flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered.
The ruins of the well planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a organized community. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite; the grand and holy site might have been the great bath, built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE; the cause may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Moan Jo Daro were thought to indicate that the city was attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence; the ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.
In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of the northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under the reign of Menander I, many Indo-Greeks converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the P
Battle of Tell El Kebir
The Battle of Tel El Kebir was fought between the Egyptian army led by Ahmed Urabi and the British military near Tell El Kebir. After discontented Egyptian officers under Urabi rebelled in 1882, the United Kingdom reacted to protect its interests in the country, in particular the Suez Canal. On May 20, 1882, a combined Franco - British fleet arrived at Alexandria. At the same time, Egyptian troops were reinforcing the coastal defenses of the city in anticipation of an attack; these events heightened tension in Alexandria, triggered tumultuous rioting with loss of life on both sides. As a result of the riots, an ultimatum was sent to the Egyptian government demanding they order Urabi's officers in Alexandria to dismantle their coastal defence batteries; the Egyptian government refused. Meanwhile, tension increased between Britain and France over the crisis, as most of the losses had been non-French, the principal European beneficiaries of the revolution would be the French. Thus, the French government refused to support this ultimatum and decided against armed intervention.
When the ultimatum was ignored, Admiral Seymour gave the order for the Royal Navy to bombard the Egyptian gun emplacements at Alexandria. On July 11 at 7:00 am, the first shell was fired on Fort Adda by HMS Alexandra and by 7:10, the entire fleet was engaged; the coastal defenses returned fire soon after, with minimal effect and minimal casualties to the British fleet. No British ships were sunk. On July 13, a large naval force landed in the city. Despite heavy resistance from the garrison for several hours, the overwhelming superiority of the smaller British forces forced the Egyptian troops to withdraw from the city. Lieutenant General Garnet Wolseley was placed in charge of a large force with the aim of destroying Urabi's regime and restoring the nominal authority of the Khedive Tawfiq; the total force was 24,000 British troops, which concentrated in Malta and Cyprus, a force of 7,000 Indian troops which staged through Aden. Wolseley first tried to reach Cairo directly from Alexandria.'Urabi deployed his troops at Kafr El Dawwar between Cairo and Alexandria and prepared substantial defences.
There, attacks by British troops were repelled for five weeks at the Battle of Kafr El Dawwar. Wolseley decided to approach Cairo from a different route, he resolved to attack from the direction of the Suez canal.'Urabi knew that Wolseley's only other approach to Cairo was from the canal, he wanted to block it. Ferdinand de Lesseps, upon knowing of Urabi's intentions, assured him the British would never risk damaging the canal, would avoid involving it in operations at all costs according to Lutsky, he "gave his word of honour to Urabi not to permit the landing of British troops in the Canal Zone, Urabi trusted de Lesseps. By so doing, Urabi committed a grave military and political mistake".'Urabi listened to his advice and did not block the canal, leaving it open for an invasion by British forces. When Wolseley had arrived at Alexandria on 15 August he began to organise the movement of troops through the Suez Canal to Ismaïlia; this was accomplished so Ismailia was occupied on 20 August without resistance.
Ismailia was reinforced with 9,000 troops, with the engineers put to work repairing the railway line from Suez. A small force was pushed along the Sweet Water Canal to the Kassassin lock arriving on 26 August.'Urabi attempted to repel the advance and attacked the British forces near Kassassin on 28 August. The British troops were caught by surprise. Fighting was intense but the two British battalions, with their 4 artillery pieces, held their position; the British Heavy Cavalry, composed of the Household Cavalry and the 7th Dragoon Guards had been following the infantry and were encamped 4 miles away. When the cavalry arrived, the British went onto the offensive and causing heavy casualties on the Egyptians, forced them to retreat 5 miles. A further attack by Egyptian forces at Kassassin was repulsed and the Egyptians retired to their lines to build defences.'Urabi had redeployed to defend Cairo against Wolseley. His main force dug in at Tel El Kebir, north of the railway and the Sweetwater Canal, both of which linked Cairo to Ismailia on the canal.
The defences included trenches and redoubts. Urabi's forces possessed 60 pieces of artillery and breech loading rifles. Wolseley made several personal reconnaissances, determined that the Egyptians did not man outposts in front of their main defences at night, which made it possible for an attacking force to approach the defences under cover of darkness. Rather than make an outflanking movement around Urabi's entrenchments, which would involve a long march through waterless desert, or undertake formal bombardment and assault, Wolseley planned to approach the position by night and attack frontally at dawn, hoping to achieve surprise. Wolseley began his advance from Ismailia on the night of 12 September, with two infantry divisions and a cavalry brigade. A brigade of Indian troops covered the flank on the southern bank of the Sweetwater Canal; the approach march of the main forces was made easier because the desert west of Kassassin was flat and unobstructed, making it look like a gigantic parade ground.
Though there were repeated halts to maintain dressing and alignment, the British troops reached the Egyptian position at the time Wolseley intended. At 5.45 a.m. Wolseley's troops were six hundred yards from the entrenchments and dawn was just breaking, when Egyptian sentries saw them and fired; the first shots were followed by multiple volleys by the artillery. British troops, led by the Highland Brigade on the left flank, the 2nd Brigade
The Indus River is one of the longest rivers in Asia. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, India towards the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and the Hindukush ranges, flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh, it is the longest river and national river of Pakistan. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2, its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3, twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it one of the largest rivers in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Panjnad which itself has five major tributaries, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej, its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal, the Kurram.
Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests and arid countryside. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region, while the lower course of the Indus is known as Sindh and ends in a large delta; the river has been important to many cultures of the region. The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. During the 2nd millennium BC, the Punjab region was mentioned in the hymns of the Hindu Rigveda as Sapta Sindhu and the Zoroastrian Avesta as Hapta Hindu. Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra; the Indus River came into the knowledge of the West early in the Classical Period, when King Darius of Persia sent his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river, ca. 515 BC. This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu and the Persians as Hindu, regarded by both of them as "the border river".
The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change *s > h, which occurred between 850–600 BCE according to Asko Parpola. From the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name passed to the Greeks as Indós, it was adopted by the Romans as Indus. The meaning of Sindhu as a "large body of water, sea, or ocean" is a meaning in Classical Sanskrit. A Persian name for the river was Darya, which has the connotations of large body of water and sea. Other variants of the name Sindhu include Assyrian Sinda, Persian Ab-e-sind, Pashto Abasind, Arab Al-Sind, Chinese Sintow, Javanese Santri. India is a Greek and Latin term for "the country of the River Indus"; the region through which the river drains into sea owes its name to the river. Megasthenes' book Indica derives its name from the river's Greek name, "Indós", describes Nearchus's contemporaneous account of how Alexander the Great crossed the river; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as "Indói" meaning "the people of the Indus".
The Rigveda describes several rivers, including one named "Sindhu". The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river, it is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, most used in the generic sense of "river". In the Rigveda, notably in the hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g. in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except the Bramhaputra and the "Sindhu" which carry the masculine gender; this gender usage could mean that the Sindhu river was believed to be a warrior, thus one of the greatest among all the rivers in the whole world. In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु in Hindi and Nepali, سنڌو in Sindhi, سندھ in Shahmukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ in Gurmukhī Punjabi, اباسين in Pashto, نهر السند in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། in Tibetan, 印度 in Chinese, Nilab in Turki; the Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, Sindh.
The word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej, all of which flow into the Indus. The Indus supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan; the ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet. The Indus flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range; the Shyok and Gilgit rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. It bends to the south and descends into the Punjab plains at Kalabagh, Pakistan; the Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. It is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir; the Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and braided, it is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one tim