University of Delaware
The University of Delaware is a public research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware is the largest university in Delaware. UD offers more than 135 undergraduate degrees. At the graduate level, it offers 67 doctoral, 142 master’s degree programs, 14 dual degrees, 15 interdisciplinary programs, 12 on-line programs, 28 certificate programs across its seven colleges and more than 82 research centers and institutes. UD is one of the top 100 institutions for federal obligations in science and engineering and interdisciplinary initiatives in energy science and policy, the environment, in human health; the main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, Wilmington and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with 18,500 undergraduate and 4,500 graduate students. UD is a governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant and urban-grant state-supported research institution. UD is classified as a research intensive university with high research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
The university's programs in engineering, business, hospitality management, urban affairs and public policy, public administration, history and biomolecular engineering and biochemistry have been ranked with some positive impact from the strong presence of the nation's chemical and pharmaceutical industries in the state of Delaware, such as DuPont and W. L. Gore and Associates, it is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, UD was the first American university to offer a study abroad program; the school from which the university grew was founded in 1743, making it one of the oldest in the nation. However, UD was not chartered as an institution of higher learning until 1833, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, James Smith, all three of whom would go on to sign the Declaration of Independence. The University of Delaware traces its origins to 1743, when Presbyterian minister Francis Alison opened up his "Free School" in his home in New London, Pennsylvania.
During its early years, the school was run under the auspices of the Philadelphia Synod of the Presbyterian Church. The school changed its location several times, it moved to Newark around 1763, received a charter from the colonial Penn government as the Academy of Newark in 1769. In 1781 the academy trustees petitioned the Delaware General Assembly to grant the academy the powers of a college, but no action was taken on this request. In 1818 the Delaware legislature authorized the trustees of the Newark Academy to operate a lottery in order to raise funds with which to establish a college. Commencement of the lottery, was delayed until 1825, in large part because some trustees, several of whom were Presbyterian ministers, objected to involvement with a lottery on moral grounds. In 1832 the academy trustees selected the site for the college and entered into a contact for the erection of the college building. Construction of that building began in late 1832 or in 1833. On February 5, 1833 the Delaware legislature incorporated Newark College, charged with instruction in languages and sciences, granted the power to confer degrees.
All the trustees of the academy became trustees of the college, the college absorbed the academy, which became the preparatory department of the college. Newark College commenced operations on May 8, 1834 with a collegiate department and an academic department. In January 1835 the Delaware legislature passed legislation authorizing the academy trustees to suspend operations and to allow the educational responsibilities of the academy to be performed by the academic department of the college. If, the college ceased to have an academic department, the trustees of the academy were required to revive the academy. In 1843, the name of the college was changed to Delaware College; the school closed from 1859 until 1870. It reopened in 1870 due to the support of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts. In 1921, Delaware College was renamed the University of Delaware, it became a coeducational institution in 1945 when it merged with the nearby Women's College of Delaware. On October 23, 2009 the University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a 272-acre closed vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for expansion for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler's bankruptcy restructuring plan.
Plans call for this facility to be repurposed into a "world-class research facility". Initial plans include the new home of the College of Health Science and the east coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2010–11, the university conducted a feasibility study in support of plans to add a law school focused on corporate and patent law. At its completion, the study suggested that the planned addition was not within the university's funding capability given the nation's economic climate at the time. Capital expenses were projected at $100 million, the operating deficit in the first ten years would be $165 million; the study assumed an initial class of two hundred students entering in the fall of 2015. Widener University has Delaware's only law school as of 2011; the university is organized into seven colleges: College of Agriculture and Natural Resources College of Arts and Sciences Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics College of Earth and Environment College of Education and Human Development College of Engineering College of Health SciencesThere are three schools: Schoo
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
Delaware Historical Society
The Delaware Historical Society began in 1864 as an effort to preserve documents from the Civil War. Since it has expanded into a statewide historical institution with several venues and a major museum in Wilmington and the historic Read House & Gardens in New Castle; the society participates in joint marketing with the Delaware Tourism Office, the Greater Wilmington Convention & Visitors Bureau, the Brandywine Museums & Gardens Alliance. The Society's Wilmington Campus is located between 5th and 6th Streets on Lower Market Street in Wilmington; this row is the historic shopping district and markets itself as the LoMa Design District to promote urban redevelopment. The complex includes an arch over the street; the main museum consists of two permanent exhibit halls in a converted 1941 art deco Woolworth's store, one of two that used to operate on Market Street. Exhibits include “Delaware: One State, Many Stories,” Discover Delaware and the Jane and Littleton Mitchell Center for African American Heritage.
The Old Town Hall served as the city hall for the Burough and City of Wilmington. Constructed in 1798 in the federal style, the building included the jail and library; the Marquis de Lafayette received a reception there and President Andrew Jackson was the guest of honor at a dinner. In 1851, the body of Senator Henry Clay was laid in state. Willingtown Square is a collection of buildings relocated from other sections of downtown to make way for high rise construction. Started as part of the bicentennial celebration in 1976, the square is named after Thomas Willing, the founder of Wilmington; the buildings interiors serve as office and meeting space for the society but patrons can access the courtyard and grounds. The society provides free access to a research library with unique special collections; the collection includes work on Delaware genealogy and underground railroad as well as a letter from George Washington to Caesar Rodney. Senator William V. Roth's widow donated all of his papers to the library.
The library is open Mondays from 1pm to 9pm, Tuesdays and Thursdays from 9am to 1pm, Fridays from 9am to 5pm, the third Saturday of every month from 10am to 4pm. Located at 505 North Market Street, a former Artisans Savings Bank branch location houses the library. Tilghman Ware Company built the art deco structure in 1930–31. Located in New Castle on the Strand, the George Read II House was built in 1801 by George Read, Jr. the son of George Read, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The house was the largest in the state at the time it was built with 22 rooms covering 14,000 square feet; the house includes a rathskeller in the basement that served as a speakeasy. This dates from the 1920s when the Laird family were bootleggers; the house was restored in 1986. Hagley Museum and Library History of Delaware Stonum List of museums in Delaware National Register of Historic Places listings in Wilmington, Delaware Delaware Art Museum Delaware Historical Society Brandywine 10 Downtown Wilmington The LoMa Design District NRHP District Listing with Photos NRHP Town Hall Listing with Photos NRHP Jacob Dingee House with Photos NRHP Obidiah Dingee House with Photos
Pete du Pont
Pierre Samuel "Pete" du Pont IV is an American lawyer and politician from Rockland, in New Castle County, near Wilmington. He was the United States Representative for Delaware from 1971 to 1977 and subsequently served as the 68th Governor of Delaware from 1977 to 1985, he is a member of the Republican Party. A member of the Du Pont family, du Pont was born in Wilmington, the son of Pierre S. du Pont III and Jane Holcomb du Pont, great nephew of Pierre S. du Pont, the developer of Longwood Gardens. After an education at the Phillips Exeter Academy, Princeton University, Harvard Law School, he served in the U. S. Naval Reserve from 1957 until 1960, he is married to Elise Ravenel Wood and has four children, Pierre S. du Pont V, Benjamin Franklin du Pont, Eleuthère I. du Pont. From 1963 until 1970 du Pont was employed by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. In 1968 he was elected to the 1969–70 session of the Delaware House of Representatives, he considered a bid for a United States Senate seat in 1972, but realized he faced a primary election against former U.
S. Representative Harry G. Haskell, Jr, he bowed to the desire of Republican leaders, including President Richard Nixon, to have a reluctant incumbent U. S. Senator J. Caleb Boggs seek a third term. In 1970 du Pont was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, defeating Democrat John D. Daniello, a New Castle County Councilman and labor leader, he won election to the U. S. House of Representatives two more times, defeating Democrats Norma Handloff in 1972 and University of Delaware professor James R. Soles in 1974. In Congress, du Pont supported an attempt to limit presidential authority through the War Powers Act of 1973, but was one of the last to remain loyal to U. S. President Richard M. Nixon during the impeachment process. Du Pont did not seek another term in the U. S. House of Representatives, having been elected Governor of Delaware in 1976, defeating incumbent Democratic Governor Sherman W. Tribbitt, he was elected to a second term as governor in 1980, defeating Democratic State House leader William J. Gordy, served two terms from January 18, 1977 until January 15, 1985.
Du Pont's two terms as governor were the major divide in the modern history of the state. Following a desperate initial confrontation with the Democratic Delaware General Assembly over the budget, both du Pont and the Delaware General Assembly developed the consensus approach to decision making that remains characteristic of Delaware politics; as a result of this cooperation, du Pont signed into law two income tax reduction measures and a constitutional amendment that restrained future tax increases and limited government spending. The Wilmington News Journal praised these policies, saying that du Pont "revived business climate and set the stage for prosperity." In 1979, he founded the nonprofit "Jobs for Delaware Graduates," an employment counseling and job placement program for high school seniors not bound for college. This program was the model for other programs functioning in many states and foreign countries. In 1981, Du Pont helped establish the credit card industry in Delaware, in a race against South Dakota, which the year before had abolished its usury law limiting the interest rates that banks can charge consumers for credit.
At the time, du Pont's cousin Nathan Hayward III advocated that tiny Delaware aspire to become the "financial Luxembourg of America" - a tax haven for corporations, yacht owners and credit card companies permitted to charge unlimited interest. Former Du Pont Chairman Irving Shapiro, a lobbyist for Citigroup, helped Gov. du Pont pass the Financial Center Development Act in 1981 with the cooperation of the leadership of both parties and others in state and local government. Intended to attract two New York state banks that would hire at least 1,000 employees, the law drew more than thirty banks to Delaware, creating 43,000 new finance related jobs and leading the state away from its previous dependence on the chemical industry in general and the Du Pont Company in particular. With his term as governor forced by law to end in 1985, du Pont, as the dominant Delaware politician, was expected by many to challenge the incumbent Democratic U. S. Senator Joe Biden, but du Pont had little interest in legislative politics and declined to run, preparing instead for a long shot bid for the Republican U.
S. presidential nomination in the 1988 election. He declared his intent on September 1986, before anyone else. Biden sought his party's nomination. Running in the 1988 Republican presidential primaries, du Pont presented an unconventional program; as described by Celia Cohen in her book, Only in Delaware, du Pont, "wanted to reform Social Security by offering recipients private savings options in exchange for a corresponding reduction in government benefits. He proposed phasing out government subsidies for farmers, he said he would wean welfare clients off their benefits and get them into the workforce if government had to provide entry level jobs to get them started. He suggested students be subjected to mandatory, random drug tests with those who flunked losing their drivers licenses." After finishing next to last in the New Hampshire primary, du Pont left the race. In 1984, du Pont served as chairman of the Education Commission of the States, a national organization of educators dedicated to improving all facets of American education.
He has served as chairman of the Hudson Institute from 1985 until 1987 and the National Review Institute from 1994 until 1997. Presently, du Pont is the chairman of the b
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Lieutenant Governor of Delaware
The Lieutenant Governor of Delaware is the second ranking executive officer of the U. S. state of Delaware. Lieutenant governors are elected for a term of four years in the same general election as the U. S. President and take office the following January; as in many other U. S. state legislatures, the lieutenant governor serves as the President of the Delaware Senate, though he or she can only issue a vote if there is a tie on any vote. Although in practice the candidate for lieutenant governor is nominated as a ticket with the candidate for governor, the offices of governor and lieutenant governor are voted on separately in Delaware. In 1972, 1976, 1984, the governor and lieutenant governor were elected from different parties. Bethany Hall-Long is the current lieutenant governor, having taken office January 17, 2017; the offices of the lieutenant governor are at the state capital of Dover. List of Lieutenant Governors of Delaware Rubenstein, Harvey Bernard; the Delaware Constitution of 1897. The Delaware State Bar Association
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa