Marrickville, New South Wales
Marrickville is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney 7 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest suburb in the Inner West Council local government area, Marrickville sits on the northern bank of the Cooks River, opposite Earlwood and shares borders with Stanmore, Newtown, St Peters, Tempe, Dulwich Hill, Hurlstone Park and Petersham. The southern part of the suburb, near the river, is known as Marrickville South, Marrickville is a diverse suburb consisting of both low and high density residential and light industrial areas. The name Marrickville comes from the 24.3 ha Marrick estate of Thomas Chalder and he named it after his native village Marrick, North Yorkshire, England. The estate centred on the intersection of Victoria Road and Chapel Street, William Dean, the publican of the Marrick Hotel, in Illawarra Road is credited with adding the ville to Marrick when it was gazetted in 1861. The first land grant in the area was 100 acres to William Beckwith in 1794, Thomas Moore received 470 acres in 1799 and another 700 acres in 1803.
Dr Robert Wardell purchased most of land for his estate that stretched from Petersham to the Cooks River. His estate was broken up after he was murdered by escaped convicts in September 1834, Thomas Holt was a Sydney business tycoon who built a castellated Victorian Gothic mansion named ‘The Warren’ in 1857 in Marrickville South. It was designed by architect George Mansfield, and contained an art gallery filled with paintings. It had elaborate stables built into imposing stone walls, and large landscaped gardens filled with urns overlooking the Cooks River, Holt gave it that name because he bred rabbits on the estate for hunting, as well as the grounds being stocked with alpacas and other exotics. The Warren was a landmark in the district for some decades, there were bathing sheds and a Turkish Bath built on the river. The 100-acre property was south of Wardell’s and covered the area from today’s Unwins Bridge Road to Illawarra Road and Warren Road. Thomas Holt was a land holder in Sydney with another mansion at the edge of Gwawley Bay, Sylvania Waters, New South Wales in 1881.
The Warren became a nunnery when the mansion and 12 acres of land were purchased by a French order of Carmelite nuns, the Carmelites were evicted from The Warren in 1903 for outstanding debts. By this stage the grounds appear to be bare with a wood fence installed on the western side of the building about this time. It was used during WWI for a training range. It was resumed in 1919 by the New South Wales government was finally demolished in around 1922 - the land subdivided to build an estate for returned soldiers. Sir John Sulman was engaged to build this, other remains are garden paths with flags and liners, one or two of the original stone blocks from the walls, and the base of what was probably a garden feature such as an urn or fountain
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
On November 22,1963, John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was fatally shot in Dallas, Texas while riding in a motorcade in Dallas Dealey Plaza, at 12,30 p. m. Fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald, he was traveling with his wife, Texas Governor John Connally, Kennedys death marked the fourth and most recent assassination of an American President. The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved with the conspiracy, in addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were seriously flawed in respect of information-sharing and the possibility of conspiracy. As recommended by the HSCA, the evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently re-examined and rejected. However, Kennedys assassination is still the subject of debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories. Polling in 2013 showed that 60% of Americans believe that a group of conspirators was responsible for the assassination, President Kennedy traveled to Texas to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough and Don Yarborough and conservative John Connally.
A presidential visit to the state of Texas was first agreed upon by Lyndon B. Johnson, President John F. Kennedys vice president, and Texas native, President Kennedys trip to Dallas was first announced to the public in September 1963. The exact motorcade route was finalized on November 18 and announced to the public a few days before November 22, the White House staff informed the Secret Service that the President would arrive there via a short flight from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth to Dallas Love Field. Leaving from Dallas Love Field,45 minutes had been allotted for the motorcade to reach the Trade Mart at an arrival time of 12,15 p. m. The actual route was chosen to be a meandering 10-mile route between the two places, which could be driven slowly in the allotted time, on November 14, both men attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route that Sorrels believed best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a portion of Dallas, through Downtown along Main Street.
The planned route to the Trade Mart was widely reported in Dallas newspapers several days before the event, for the benefit of people who wished to view the motorcade. The route on Main Street precluded a direct turn onto the Fort Worth Turnpike exit, the Texas School Book Depository was situated at this corner of Houston and Elm. Three vehicles were used for Secret Service and police protection in the Dallas motorcade, the first car, an unmarked white Ford, carried Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry, Secret Service Agent Win Lawson, Sheriff Bill Decker and Dallas Field Agent Forrest Sorrels. The second car, a 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible, held driver Agent Bill Greer, SAIC Roy Kellerman, Governor John Connally, Nellie Connally, President Kennedy, Secret Service agents Clint Hill, Jack Ready, Tim McIntyre and Paul Landis rode on the running boards. By the time the motorcade reached Dealey Plaza, they were five minutes away from their planned destination. At 12,30 p. m. President, you cant say Dallas doesnt love you and those were the last words ever spoken by John F.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American, landed the lunar module Eagle on July 20,1969, at 20,18 UTC. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours on July 21 at 02,56,15 UTC and they spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material to bring back to Earth. Michael Collins piloted the command module Columbia alone in lunar orbit while they were on the Moons surface and Aldrin spent just under a day on the lunar surface before rendezvousing with Columbia in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 was launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center in Merritt Island, Florida, on July 16, and was the fifth manned mission of NASAs Apollo program. After being sent toward the Moon by the Saturn Vs upper stage and Aldrin moved into the lunar module Eagle and landed in the Sea of Tranquility. They stayed a total of about 21.5 hours on the lunar surface, the astronauts used Eagles upper stage to lift off from the lunar surface and rejoin Collins in the command module.
They jettisoned Eagle before they performed the maneuvers that blasted them out of orbit on a trajectory back to Earth. They returned to Earth and landed in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, broadcast on live TV to a worldwide audience, Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface and described the event as one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. Apollo 11 was the second all-veteran multi-person crew in human spaceflight history, a previous solo veteran flight had been made on Soyuz 1 in 1967 by Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov. Collins was originally slated to be the Command Module Pilot on Apollo 8 but was removed when he required surgery on his back and was replaced by Jim Lovell, his backup for that flight. In early 1969, Anders accepted a job with the National Space Council effective August 1969, charlie Duke, Capsule Communicator Ronald Evans Owen K. Garriott Don L. Low to suggest the Apollo 11 crew be less flippant in naming their craft. During early mission planning, the names Snowcone and Haystack were used and put in the news release, the Command Module was named Columbia after the Columbiad, the giant cannon shell spacecraft fired by a giant cannon in Jules Vernes 1865 novel From the Earth to the Moon.
The Lunar Module was named Eagle for the bird of the United States, the bald eagle. The Apollo 11 mission insignia was designed by Collins, who wanted a symbol for peaceful lunar landing by the United States and he chose an eagle as the symbol, put an olive branch in its beak, and drew a lunar background with the Earth in the distance. NASA officials said the talons of the eagle looked too warlike and after some discussion, All colors are natural, with blue and gold borders around the patch. When the Eisenhower dollar coin was released in 1971, the design provided the eagle for its reverse side. The design was used for the smaller Susan B
ABC (TV station)
ABC is the Australian Broadcasting Corporations television station in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The station began broadcasting on 18 December 1962 and broadcasts from studios in Dickson and its main transmitter is at Black Mountain. ABC News Canberra is presented by Dan Bourchier on weeknights and Craig Allen on weekends, the weeknight bulletins incorporate a national finance section presented by Alan Kohler in Melbourne. A new studio set was introduced in mid-2014 to match the rest of the ABC News network, the weekly current affairs program,7.30 ACT was presented by Chris Kimball until its cancellation in 2014
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 381,488, it is Australias largest inland city, the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory,280 km south-west of Sydney, and 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran, the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nations capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australias two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being a planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States. Following an international contest for the design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected. The Griffins plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, the citys design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation that have earned Canberra the title of the bush capital. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority, the Australian Armys officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital.
The ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power, the ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, and has its own independent Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states. Compared to the averages, the unemployment rate is lower. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivans Creek floodplain between two mountains as Nganbra. Nganbra or Nganbira could readily have been anglicised to the name Canberry, survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. Although popularly pronounced /ˈkænbərə/ or /ˈkænbɛrə/, the pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was /ˈkæn. brə/. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians, archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements.
Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in the area 21,000 years previously, European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as early as the 1820s. There were four expeditions between 1820 and 1824, white settlement of the area probably dates from 1823, when a homestead or station was built on what is now the Acton peninsula by stockmen employed by Joshua John Moore. He formally applied to purchase the site on 16 December 1826, on 30 April 1827, Moore was told by letter that he could retain possession of 1,000 acres at Canberry. The European population in the Canberra area continued to grow throughout the 19th century
Darwin, Northern Territory
Darwin /ˈdɑːrwᵻn/ is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia. Situated on the Timor Sea, Darwin is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory and it is the smallest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, and acts as the Top Ends regional centre. Darwins proximity to South East Asia makes it a link between Australia and countries such as Indonesia and East Timor, the Stuart Highway begins in Darwin, ending at Port Augusta in South Australia. The city itself is built on a low bluff overlooking the harbour and its suburbs spread out over some area, beginning at Lee Point in the north and stretching to Berrimah in the east. Past Berrimah, the Stuart Highway goes on to Darwins satellite city, the Darwin region, like the rest of the Top End, has a tropical climate, with a wet and a dry season. Prone to cyclone activity during the wet season, Darwin experiences heavy monsoonal downpours, during the dry season, the city is met with blue skies and gentle sea breezes from the harbour.
The greater Darwin area is the home of the Larrakia people. On 9 September 1839, HMS Beagle sailed into Darwin harbour during its surveying of the area, John Clements Wickham named the region Port Darwin in honour of their former shipmate Charles Darwin, who had sailed with them on the ships previous voyage which had ended in October 1836. The settlement there became the town of Palmerston in 1869, and was renamed Darwin in 1911. The city has been almost entirely rebuilt four times, following devastation caused by the 1897 cyclone, the 1937 cyclone, Japanese air raids during World War II, the Aboriginal people of the Larrakia language group are the traditional custodians and the first inhabitants of the greater Darwin area. They had trading routes with Southeast Asia, and imported goods from as far afield as South, established songlines penetrated throughout the country, allowing stories and histories to be told and retold along the routes. The extent of shared songlines and history of multiple groups within this area is still contestable.
The Dutch visited Australias northern coastline in the 1600s and landed on the Tiwi Islands only to be repelled by the Tiwi peoples, the Dutch created the first European maps of the area. This accounts for the Dutch names in the area, such as Arnhem Land, the first British person to see Darwin harbour appears to have been Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle on 9 September 1839. The ships captain, Commander John Clements Wickham, named the port after Charles Darwin, in 1863, the Northern Territory was tranferred from New South Wales to South Australia. In 1864 South Australia sent B. T. Finniss north as Government Resident to survey, Finniss chose a site at Escape Cliffs, near the entrance to Adelaide River, about 60 km northeast of the modern city. This attempt was short-lived and the settlement abandoned by 1865, on 5 February 1869, George Goyder, the Surveyor-General of South Australia, established a small settlement of 135 people at Port Darwin between Fort Hill and the escarpment.
Goyder named the settlement Palmerston, after the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, in 1870, the first poles for the Overland Telegraph were erected in Darwin, connecting Australia to the rest of the world
ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public broadcaster, the ABC provides four non-commercial channels within Australia. ABC is one of five main networks in Australia. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABCs own ABN-2 Sydney, six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne. The ABCs first television broadcast was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November, at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, outside broadcasting was initiated on 5 November, from the ABCs first outside broadcast van. The van, now in the collection of the National Museum of Australia, was instrumental in the production of thousands of outside broadcasts. It was restored in time to be displayed at the Sydney Olympic Games and was used to film the visit of Queen Elizabeth II to the site of the National Museum in 2000. Although radio programs could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s.
This meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually. A purpose-built television studio was built in Sydney, and opened on 29 January 1958, in the same year, technical equipment was moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958, respectively. Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease, aBQ-2 Brisbane was the third ABC TV station to launch and was followed a year by counterparts in Perth and Adelaide. ABC-3 Canberra opened a year later, with ABD-6 Darwin finally completing the ABCs coverage of state in 1971. Teletext services were introduced to ABC in 1983 to allow hearing-impaired viewers access to closed captions, International television service Australia Television International was established in 1993. Australia Television was sold to the Seven Network in 1998, however the continued to show content from ABC News up until its closure in 2001.
The ABCs television operations joined its radio and online divisions at the Corporations Ultimo headquarters in 2000, in 2002, the ABC launched ABC Asia Pacific, the replacement for the defunct Australia Television channel operated previously by the Seven Network. Much like its predecessor, and companion radio network Radio Australia, funding cuts in 2003, led to the closure of Fly and the ABC Kids Channel. ABC2, an attempt at a digital-only television channel, was launched on 7 March 2005. Minister for Communications Helen Coonan inaugurated the channel at Parliament House three days later, the new channel, titled ABC3 would aim to provide at least 50% Australian-made content
De La Salle College Ashfield
De La Salle College is a Catholic systemic, day school for boys, located in Ashfield, an inner-western suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Established in 1916 by the De La Salle Brothers and Vincentian Fathers, the College is under the patronage of the Archbishop of Sydney, George Pell. De La Salle College is one of 18 Lasallian Schools in Australia, the school is affiliated with the Catholic Secondary Schools Association NSW/ACT, and the Metropolitan Catholic Colleges Sports Association. The foundation stone for the school was laid on 10 December 1916, despite the effects of the Great Depression, enrolments continued to increase, with 300 on the role in 1931. Through the efforts of Father Macken, a provincial of the Vincentian Fathers, further, a tech was established in 1937 for boys who would not be going on to university or office jobs. The two-stream system of pros and techs continued until 1955, lay staff were employed in 1956 as the number of brothers had declined. The 1960s saw further change with the Wyndham scheme introduced in 1962 necessitating the addition of new subjects to the curriculum, with support from the parish and the Old Boys Union, the principal of the time, Br Peter, began to expand the College.
The main building of the College opened in 1966 during the celebration of its Golden Jubilee, in 1972, Peter Donnan became the first lay principal of the school, thus making the school the first Catholic high school in Australia administered by a lay principal. The Colleges primary section closed in 1988, sport has traditionally been an important part of college life, notwithstanding the schools own limited sporting facilities. The college excels in debating and public speaking, through the Catholic Schools Debating Association and other public speaking competitions
Narrabeen is a beachside suburb in northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Narrabeen is 23 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district and this area was named Broken Bay by James Cook as he sailed by. There are a number of theories on the origins of the name Narrabeen, one is that it derived from the Aboriginal word Narrabine meaning swan. Another involves Captain Henry Reynolds, a first fleeter who settled in the area with his family and they were killed during an attack by bushrangers and his homestead burned. The popular belief is that the location was named after a young Aboriginal girl Narrabine, who lived near the lake. The first land grants were made to John Lees, Philip Schaffer, alex Macdonald was granted 80 acres at the beach in 1815 and west of this land JT Collins had 93.5 acres by 1857. During the nineteenth century, travellers had to ford the lake until 1880 when the first bridge opened, a second bridge at the mouth of the lagoon in Ocean Street was built in 1925.
Narrabeen Post Office opened on 1 August 1898, Narrabeen North Post Office opened on 19 August 1926 and closed in 1984. With the extension of the tram to Narrabeen in 1913 providing easier transport, a large camping ground became established on the north shore of the lagoon. In 1946 the Wakehurst Parkway was opened to North Narrabeen connecting the whole Pittwater area directly to Frenchs Forest, Narrabeen East Post Office opened on 2 June 1947, was renamed Narrabeen Peninsula in November that year and closed in 1965. In January 2005, workmen excavating beside the bus shelter on Ocean Street at Octavia Street found a skeleton and he has become known as Narrabeen Man. There are four beaches along the Narrabeen stretch of beach, North Narrabeen, South Narrabeen, although Collaroy is a separate suburb, its beach lies along the same stretch. All beaches have their own Surf Life Saving Club, there is a lagoon at Narrabeen. Narrabeen beach is mentioned in the Beach Boys song Surfin U. S. A. which in their concert on 28 November 1992 at North Narrabeen Reserve they performed at the end of the encore.
The Sydney Institute of Sport is based in Narrabeen and has become the headquarters of the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles rugby league club. North Narrabeen beach is used for surfing competitions