Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking. The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including politics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU re
Draper was a term for a retailer or wholesaler of cloth, for clothing. A draper may additionally operate as a haberdasher. Drapers were an important trade guild during the medieval period, when the sellers of cloth operated out of draper's shops; however the original meaning of the term has now fallen out of use. In 1724, Jonathan Swift wrote a series of satirical pamphlets in the guise of a draper called the Drapier's Letters. A number of notable people who have at one time or another worked as drapers include: Sir Thomas Adams, 1st Baronet William Barley Norman Birkett Margaret Bondfield Eleanor Coade, successful businesswoman with Coade stone Harry S. Truman, haberdasher before he became a Senator, Vice President and President Antonie van Leeuwenhoek John Spedan Lewis Anthony Munday Thomas Burberry, Founder of fashion brand "Burberry" H. G. Wells Edward Whalley, cousin of Oliver Cromwell George Williams, founder of the YMCA John Woodward and physician to King Charles II John Graunt, founder of the science of demography A draper is now defined as a skilled role within the fashion industry.
The term is used within a fashion design or costume design studio for people tasked with creating garments or patterns by draping fabric over a dress form. This is an alternative method to drafting, when the garment is worked out from measurements on paper. A fashion draper may be known as a "first hand" because they are the most skilled creator in the workshop and the "first" to work with the cloth for a garment; however a first hand in a costume studio is an assistant to the draper. They are responsible for assisting in costume fittings. Draper – a surname taken from the occupation Drapery Kraków Cloth Hall – Renaissance landmark of Kraków, Poland Millinery Worshipful Company of Drapers
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
1922 New South Wales state election
The 1922 New South Wales state election was held on 25 March 1922. This election was for all of the 90 seats in the 26th New South Wales Legislative Assembly and it was conducted in multiple member constituencies using the Hare Clark single transferable vote; the 25th parliament of New South Wales was dissolved on 17 February 1922 by the Governor, Sir Walter Edward Davidson, on the advice of the Premier James Dooley. "Former members of the New South Wales Parliament, 1856-2006". New South Wales Parliament. Retrieved 2012-07-08. Antony Green. "NSW Elections Analysis". New South Wales Parliament. Retrieved 2012-07-08. Candidates of the 1922 New South Wales state election Members of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, 1922–1925
A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally suits and men's clothing. Although the term dates to the thirteenth century, tailor took on its modern sense in the late eighteenth century, now refers to makers of men's and women's suits, coats and similar garments of wool, linen, or silk; the term refers to a set of specific hand and machine sewing and pressing techniques that are unique to the construction of traditional jackets. Retailers of tailored suits take their services internationally, traveling to various cities, allowing the client to be measured locally. Traditional tailoring is called "bespoke tailoring" in the United Kingdom, where the heart of the trade is London's Savile Row tailoring, "custom tailoring" in the United States and Hong Kong; this is unlike made to measure pre-existing patterns. A bespoke garment or suit is original and unique to each customer. Famous fictional tailors include the tailor in The Tailor of Gloucester, The Emperor's New Clothes and The Valiant Little Tailor.
A more recent example is John le Carré. As the tailoring profession has evolved, so too have the methods of tailoring. There are a number of distinctive business models. While some may practice many, there are others who will practice only two. Local tailoring is; the tailor is met locally and the garment produced locally. This method enables the tailor to take professional measurements, assess posture and body shape to make unique modifications to the garment. Local tailors will have a showroom or shopfront allowing clients to choose fabrics from samples or return the garment should it require further modification; this is the most traditional form of tailoring. Hong Kong Tailors and London are the most famous for high quality bespoke tailoring, in average it takes about 2 to 3 fittings and about 50 to 70 working hours to handmake one suit. Distance tailoring involves ordering a garment from an out-of-town tailor enabling cheaper labour to be used. In practice this can now be done on a global scale via e-commerce websites.
Unlike local tailoring, customers must take their own measurements, fabric selection must be made from a photo and if further alterations are required the garment must be shipped. Today, the most common platform for distance tailoring is via online tailors. Online tailors sometimes offer to pay for needed alterations at a local tailor. Another new option is the concept where a free test suit is made to the provided measurements and shipped to the customer first; the test suit can be worn to see where any adjustments are wanted. The final suit is tailored to the new specifications provided by the test suit fitting. Unlike tailors who do distance tailoring, traveling tailors provide a more personal service to their customers and give the customers an opportunity to see the fabric samples and meet the tailor in person. Traveling tailors travel between cities and station in a local luxury hotel for a short period of time to meet and provide the same tailoring services they would provide in their local store.
In the hotel, the customer will be able to select the fabric from samples and the tailor will take the measurements himself. The order will be shipped to the customer within 3–4 weeks time. Unlike local tailoring, if further alterations are required the garment must be shipped. Today, most traveling tailors are from Hong Kong, traveling to the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Japan. A tailor-made is a man's suit consisting of pants; as an adjective, tailor-made refers to clothing made by or in the style of clothes made by a tailor, characterized by simplicity of cut and trim and fine finishing. Rodeo tailor is a term for a creator of the flamboyant costumes typical of country and western musicians, characterized by extensive hand embroidery, an abundance of rhinestones, cowboy details such as pearl snaps and arrowhead pockets. In some documents, tailor means adjust, tailoring means adjusting. Sewing professional is the most general term for those who make their living by sewing, writing about sewing, or retailing sewing supplies.
They may work out of their home, a studio, or retail shop, may work part-time or full-time. They may be any or all or the following sub-specialties: A custom clothier makes custom garments one at a time, to order, to meet an individual customer's needs and preferences. A custom dressmaker specializes in women's custom apparel, including day dresses, evening or bridal wear, sportswear, or lingerie. A tailor makes custom menswear-style trousers. A cutter cuts out, from lengths of the panels that make up a suit. In bespoke tailoring, the cutter may measure the client, advise them on style choices, commission craftsmen to sew the suit. An alterations specialist, or alterationist adjusts the fit of completed garments ready-to-wear, or restyles them. Note that while all tailors can do alterations, not all alterationists can do tailoring. Designers conceive combinations of line, proportion and texture for intended garments, they may or may not have sewing or patternmaking skills, may only sketch or conceptualize garments.
They work with people who know how to construct the garment. Patternmakers flat draft the shapes and sizes of the numerous pieces of a garment by hand, using paper and measuring tools or by computer using AutoCAD based software, or by draping muslin onto a dress
County Longford is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster, it is named after the town of Longford. Longford County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 40,873 at the 2016 census. The county is based on the historic Gaelic territory of Annaly known as Teffia. With an area of 1,091 km2 and a population of 40,873, Longford is the fourth smallest of the 32 counties in area and second smallest in terms of population, it is the fourth smallest of Leinster's 12 counties by size and smallest by population. It borders counties Cavan to the northeast, Westmeath to the southeast, Roscommon to the southwest and Leitrim to the northwest. Most of Longford lies in the basin of the River Shannon with Lough Ree forming much of the county's western boundary; the north-eastern part of the county, drains towards the River Erne and Lough Gowna. Lakeland, bogland and wetland typify Longford's low-lying landscapes: the highest point of the county is in the north-west - Carn Clonhugh near Drumlish at 279 m.
Cairn Hill is the site of a television transmitter broadcasting to much of the Irish midlands. In the list of Irish counties by highest point, Longford ranks third lowest. Only Meath and Westmeath have lower maxima. In general, the northern third of the county is hilly, forming part of the drumlin belt and Esker Riada stretching across the northern midlands of Ireland; the southern parts of the county are low-lying, with extensive areas of raised bogland and the land being of better quality for grazing and tillage. The River Shannon marks the county's border with Roscommon while the Rivers Inny and Tang form much of the boundary with Westmeath; the Royal Canal flows through the south of the county terminating at Cloondara at the Shannon. The canal was refurbished and reopened in 2010. Notable lakes include Kinale Lough and Lough Gowna on the Cavan border, Lough Forbes on the Roscommon border and of course Lough Ree in the south where Longford and Roscommon meet. With a population of 10,310, Longford Town is the largest town in the county followed by Ballymahon, Edgeworthstown and Granard.
The county is one half of the Dáil constituency of Longford–Westmeath. The territory corresponding to County Longford was a frontier colony of the Kingdom of Meath in the first millennium. Between the fifth and twelfth centuries the territory was called the kingdom of Tethbae ruled by various tuath such as the Cairpre Gabra in the north. Tethbae referred to an area north of the River Inny approximating to present day County Longford. In the year AD 1070, Tethbae was conquered by the Ó Cuinns, Ó Fearghails, other Conmhaícne tribes, henceforth being known as Muintir Annaly, so named after "Anghaile" the great-grandfather of Fearghail O'Farrell. Furthermore County Longford was called Upper Conmaicne, to distinguish it from south Leitrim called Lower Conmaicne, because both districts were ruled by the descendants of Conmac, son of Fergus and Queen Meadbh of Connacht. Following the Norman invasion of the 12th century, Annaly was granted to Hugh de Lacy as part of the Liberty of Meath. An English settlement was established at Granard, with Norman Cistercian monasteries being established at Abbeylara and Abbeyshrule, Augustinian monasteries being established at Abbeyderg and at Saints' Island on the shore of Lough Ree.
Monastic remains at Ardagh, Abbeyderg, Inchcleraun Island in Lough Ree, Inchmore Island in Lough Gowna are reminders of the county's long Christian history. However, by the 14th century, English influence in Ireland was on the wane; the town of Granard was sacked by Edward Bruce's army in 1315, the O'Farrells soon recovered complete control over the territory. Annaly became Longphoirt, now Longford, after O'Farrell's fortress of this name; the county was shired in 1586 in the reign of Elizabeth I from the northern portion of Westmeath, but English control was not established until the aftermath of the Nine Years' War. County Longford was added to Leinster by James I in 1608, with the county being divided into six baronies and its boundaries being defined; the county was planted by English and Scottish landowners in 1620, with much of the O'Farrell lands being confiscated and granted to new owners. The change in control was completed during the Cromwellian plantations of the 1650s. On these lands in County Longford, are the historic ruins of the Coolamber Hall House, besieged by one of the Cromwells.
The county was a centre of the 1798 rebellion, when the French expeditionary force led by Humbert which had landed at Killala were defeated outside the village of Ballinamuck on 8 September by a British army led by Cornwallis. Considerable reprisals were inflicted by the British on the civilian inhabitants of the county in the aftermath of the battle. A revolutionary spirit was again woken in the county during the Irish War of Independence when the North Longford flying column, led by Seán Mac Eoin, became one of the most active units on the Irish side during that war. There are many national and secondary schools located in the county such as Moyne Community School, St. Mels and the Convent. Longford’s population growth during the period 2002-2006 has been stronger than the National average. Agriculture is an important facet for the economy in County Longford. There are 73,764 hectares of area farmed in the county. There are ap