Earl of Mar
The title Mormaer or Earl of Mar has been created several times, all in the Peerage of Scotland. Owing to a 19th-century dispute, there are two Earls of Mar as both the first and seventh creations are extant; the first creation of the earldom was the provincial ruler of the province of Mar in north-eastern Scotland. First attested in the year 1014, the "seat" or "caput" became Kildrummy Castle, although other sites like Doune of Invernochty were just as important; the title evolved into a peerage title, was made famous by John Erskine, the 23rd/6th Earl of Mar, an important Jacobite military leader during the 1715 Jacobite rising. Margaret of Mar, 31st Countess of Mar holds the first creation, James Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar and 16th Earl of Kellie holds the seventh; the Earl of Mar and Kellie is the hereditary Clan Chief of Clan Erskine. The Earldom of Mar, one of the seven original Scottish earldoms, is thought to be the oldest peerage in Great Britain, Europe; the family seat of Earl of Mar is St Michael's Farm, near Great Witley, of Earl of Mar is Hilton Farm, near Alloa, Clackmannanshire.
The first Mormaer of Mar is regarded as Ruadrí, mentioned in the Book of Deer. Some modern sources give earlier mormaers, i.e. Muirchertach and Gartnait, mentioned in charters of the reigns of king Máel Coluim III and king Alexander I, though in these cases certain identification with a particular province is difficult; the accounts of the Battle of Clontarf in some of the Irish annals name "Domnall son of Eimen son of Cainnech", Mormaer of Mar in Alba", as among those killed in 1014 alongside Brian Boru. The Mormaerdom comprised the larger portion of modern Aberdeenshire, extending from north of the River Don southward to the Mounth hills, its principal seats were Doune of Invernochty. The Mormaerdom may have alternated between two kin-groups, represented by Morggán, by Gille Críst. Gilchrist succeeded Morgund, but was himself succeeded by Donnchadh, son of Morgund. On the other hand, we do not know Gilchrist's parentage, chronologically he could have been an elder brother of Donnchadh. No definite succession of earls appears till the 13th century, from the middle of the 13th century the earls were recognized as among "the seven earls of Scotland".
There was a settlement in around 1230 between Donnchadh and Thomas Durward, grandson of Gilchrist, by which Durward had, it is said, £300 of land, a large amount, scattered around the earldom at Fichlie, near Kildrummy, Lumphanan in the lowland area. He had Urquhart, but that had nothing to do with the earldom. Donnchadh got the title of Mormaer and the wealthier and militarily more useful upland parts of Mar. Earl Thomas died childless in 1374, but the earldom passed via Donnchadh's daughter Margaret to her husband William, Earl of Douglas. While the eleventh holder of the title and Margaret's daughter Isabel Douglas, Countess of Mar, was alone at the Kildrummy Castle, Alexander Stewart entered it and forced her to sign a charter on 12 August 1404 yielding the earldom to him and his heirs, she revoked the charter that year, but on marrying him, she gave him the earldom for life with remainder to her heirs. The King confirmed her last action the next year. In 1426, Stewart resigned the title so that he could be granted a new one by the King, the new title being more "legitimate".
The King did so, but specified that the earldom and associated lands would revert to the Crown upon the death of the Earl. In 1435, the Earl died, Robert, Lord Erskine claimed the title, but the King claimed its lands under the specifications of reversion made in the patent; the issue remained unresolved until 1457, when James II obtained a court order declaring the lands as crown possessions. Thereafter, he bestowed the title on his son John, who died without heirs in 1479, it was next granted to James' other son, Duke of Albany, but the title was declared forfeit because of Alexander's alliances with the English. James III created his son John Earl of Mar in 1486, upon whose death in 1503 the title became extinct again; the title was once again created in 1562, for James, Earl of Moray, son of James V, but he, could not produce a qualified heir. Moray rebelled in 1565 in protest at the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Queen Mary restored the earldom of Mar for John, Lord Erskine, heir to the Lord Erskine, heir of the ancient Earls through a cousin of Isabel, who quarrelled with James II about the Earldom.
His son named John, recovered the Mar estates, alienated by the Crown during the long period that his family had been out of possession. John, the 23rd was attainted for rebellion in 1716, the Earldom remained forfeit for over a century. In 1824, the Earldom was restored by Act of Parliament to John Francis Erskine, the heir of the attainted Earl, in his 83rd year, his grandson, the ninth Earl claimed inheritance the earldom of Kellie and associated titles in 1835. At the death of the 26th Earl of Mar and eleventh Earl of Kellie in 1866, the Earldom of Kellie and the family's estates passed to Walter Erskine, the cousin
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Cockermouth is an ancient market town and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England, so named because it is at the confluence of the River Cocker as it flows into the River Derwent. The mid-2010 census estimates state that Cockermouth has a population of 8,204, increasing to 8,761 at the 2011 Census. A part of Cumberland, Cockermouth is situated outside the English Lake District on its northwest fringe. Much of the architectural core of the town remains unchanged since the basic medieval layout was filled in the 18th and 19th centuries; the regenerated market place is now a central historical focus within the town and reflects events during its 800-year history. The town is prone to flooding and has experienced severe floods in 2005, 2009, 2015. Cockermouth, is "the mouth of the River Cocker", it has been noted on lists of unusual place names. Cockermouth owes its existence to the confluence of the rivers Cocker and Derwent, being the lowest point at which the resultant fast flowing river powered by the Lake District could be bridged.
Cockermouth is situated a few minutes travelling distance from lakes such as Buttermere, Crummock Water and Bassenthwaite. Cockermouth has a temperate climate, influenced by the Irish Sea and its low-lying elevation. Cockermouth receives below average rainfall compared with the UK average. Temperatures are round about average compared with other parts of the UK; the nearest weather station for which online records are available is Aspatria, about 7 miles north-northeast of the town centre. The hottest temperatures recorded in the area were 31.3 °C at Lorton on 19 July 2006 and 31.1 °C at Aspatria during August 1990, with the coldest being −13.9 °C during January 1982 at Aspatria and −13.8 °C at Lorton on 8 December 2010. West Cumbria gets little snow in comparison with the Lake District and Eastern Cumbria. Owing to its proximity to the Irish Sea and its low height above sea level; the Romans built a fort at Derventio Carvetiorum, now the adjoining village of Papcastle, to protect the river crossing on a major route for troops heading towards Hadrian's Wall.
The main town developed under the Normans who, after occupying the former Roman fort, built Cockermouth Castle closer to the river crossing: little remains today of the castle thanks to the efforts of Robert the Bruce. The market town developed its distinctive medieval layout, of a broad main street of burgesses' houses, each with a burgage plot stretching to a "back lane": the Derwent bank on the north and Back Lane, on the south; the layout is preserved, leading the British Council for Archaeology to say in 1965 that it was worthy of special care in preservation and development. The town market pre-dates 1221. Market charters were granted in 1221 and 1227 by King Henry III, although this does not preclude the much earlier existence of a market in the town. In recent times, the trading farmers market now only occurs seasonally, replaced by weekend continental and craft markets. In the days when opening hours of public houses were restricted, the fact that the pubs in Cockermouth could open all day on market days made the town a popular destination for drinkers on Bank Holiday Mondays.
The Market Bell remains as a reminder of this period. While the 1761 and Castle pub have been renovated to reveal medieval stonework and 16th and 18th-century features. Much of the centre of the town is of medieval origin rebuilt in Georgian style with Victorian infill; the tree lined Kirkgate offers examples of unspoilt classical late 17th and 18th-century terraced housing, cobbled paving and curving lanes which run steeply down to the River Cocker. Most of the buildings are of traditional slate and stone construction with thick walls and green Skiddaw slate roofs. Many of the facades lining the streets are frontages for historic housing in alleyways and lanes to the rear. Examples of Georgian residences may be found near the Market Place, St. Helens Street, at the bottom of Castlegate Drive and Kirkgate. Cockermouth lays claim to be the first town in Britain to have piloted electric lighting. In 1881 six powerful electric lamps were set up to light the town, together with gas oil lamps in the back streets.
Service proved intermittent, there was afterwards a return to gas lighting. In 1964, Cockermouth was named one of 51'Gem Towns' in the UK, by the Council for British Archaeology; this recognised the importance of the historic buildings, the need to manage traffic management and the urban development. The centre of Cockermouth retains much of its historic character and the renovation of Market Place has been completed, now with an artistic and community focus; the Kirkgate Centre is the town's major cultural focus and offers regular historical displays by the Cockermouth Museum Group in addition to holding major cultural events including theatre, international music and world cinema. The tree-lined main street boasts a statue of Lord Mayo an MP for Cockermouth, who became British Viceroy of India and whose subsequent claim to fame was that he was assassinated; the renovated arts and cultural zone in the 13th century Market Place has undergone something of a "regeneration" following European Union funding, is now pedestrian-friendly adorned with stone paving and roadways, underground lighting and controversial seating in bright colours to reflect the area's facades.
Pavement art and stonework commemorate eclectic histori
The Auld Alliance was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France. The alliance was formed for the purpose of controlling England's numerous invasions; the Scots word auld, meaning old, has become a affectionate term for the long-lasting alliance between the two countries. It remained until the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560; the alliance played a significant role in the relations between Scotland and England from its beginning in 1295 to 1560. The alliance was renewed by all the French and Scottish monarchs of that period except Louis XI. By the late 14th century, the renewal occurred regardless of whether either kingdom was in a war with England at the time; the alliance dates from the treaty signed by John Balliol and Philip IV of France in 1295 against Edward I of England. The terms of the treaty stipulated that if either country was attacked by England, the other country would invade English territory, as seen in the 1513 Battle of Flodden, where the Scots invaded England in response to the English campaign against France.
The alliance played an important role in conflicts between both countries and England, such as the Wars of Scottish Independence, the Hundred Years' War, the War of the League of Cambrai and the Rough Wooing. The dynastic turmoil caused by the death of Scotland's seven-year-old queen, left the covetous king Edward I of England with an irresistible opportunity to assert his authority over Scotland. By 1295 it was clear. In response the Council of Twelve who had taken over the government of Scotland temporarily, sought alliances wherever they could be found. With France and England close to war following Philippe IV's declaration of England's possession of Gascony forfeit in 1293, alliance with France was a clear course to take. In October 1295, a Scottish embassy to Philippe agreed to the Treaty of Paris; as with all subsequent renewals of what became the Auld Alliance, the treaty favoured France more than Scotland. The French were required to do no more than continue their struggle against the English in Gascony.
However, the cost of any outright war between Scotland and England was to be borne by the Scots. Scotland, as remote and impoverished as it was, was now aligned to a major European power. If more symbolic than actual, the benefits of the alliance mattered to Scotland. In the short term however, the treaty proved to have no protection against Edward, whose swift and devastating invasion of Scotland in 1296 all but eradicated its independence. Furthermore, the cessation of hostilities between England and France in 1299, followed by the treaty of "perpetual peace and friendship," allowed Edward to devote all of his attention and forces to attack the Scots. Scotland, in the end, owed its eventual survival to the military acumen and inspiration of Robert the Bruce and the mistakes of Edward II, rather than its Auld Alliance with France. In 1326, Robert the Bruce renewed the alliance, with the Treaty of Corbeil; the motive for this renewal was precautionary more than anything: neither realm seemed to have much to fear from England at the time.
This, however changed after 1330 when Edward III set out to complete his conquest of Scotland and to reassert his power in France. For the first time the Franco-Scottish alliance had been given a sense of emergency. In 1346, Edward overwhelmed French forces at the Battle of Crécy. Two months David II of Scotland was captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross, in a botched invasion of Northern England, his 11-year absence as Edward's prisoner only increased the internal turmoil and power struggles of Scotland. David II was forced to reach a deal with Edward III to gain his freedom. After his release in 1357, David spent most of his remaining reign attempting to further English interests in Scotland; the alliance was renewed between the two kingdoms in 1371, with the embassy of the Bishop of Glasgow and the Lord of Galloway to France. The treaty was signed by Charles V at the Château de Vincennes on 30 June, at Edinburgh Castle by Robert II on 28 October; the accession of pro-French Robert II led to the immediate renewal of the alliance.
Plans were drawn up in 1385 for a Franco-Scottish invasion of England. This included the dispatch of a small French force to Scotland for the first time; these plans never came to any form of action. The deteriorating relations between France and Scotland were summed up by the French Chronicler Jean Froissart who "wished the King of France would make a truce with the English for two or three years and march to Scotland and utterly destroy it", yet it was necessity that had driven the two kingdoms together and the need to resist aggressive new Lancastrian Kings of England that kept the alliance together in the 15th century. In 1418, with France on the brink of surrendering to the forces of Henry V, the Dauphin, Charles VII, called on his Scottish allies for help. Between 1419 and 1424 as many as 15,000 Scottish troops were sent to France. French and Scottish forces together won against the English at the Battle of Baugé in 1421; as it marked the turning point of the Hundred Years War, the significance of this battle was great.
However, their victory was a short-lived one: at Verneuil in 1424, the Scots army was defeated. Despite this defeat, the Scots had given France a valuable breathing space saving the country from English domination. In addition, in 1429 Scots came to the aid of Joan of Arc in her famous relief of Orléans. Scottish soldiers served in the Garde Écossaise, the loyal bodyguard of the F
Perth is a city in central Scotland, on the banks of the River Tay. It is the administrative centre of Perth and Kinross council area and the historic county town of Perthshire, it has a population of about 47,180. Perth has been known as The Fair City since the publication of the story Fair Maid of Perth by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott in 1828. During the medieval period the city was called St John's Toun or Saint Johnstoun by its inhabitants in reference to the main church dedicated to St John the Baptist; this name is preserved by the city's football teams, St Johnstone F. C. There has been a settlement at Perth since prehistoric times, on a natural mound raised above the flood plain of the Tay, where the river could be crossed at low tide; the area surrounding the modern city is known to have been occupied since Mesolithic hunter-gatherers arrived more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles exist, dating from about 4000 BC, following the introduction of farming in the area.
The presence of Scone Abbey, home of the Stone of Scone where the King of Scots was crowned, enhanced the early importance of the city. Perth became known as a ` capital' of Scotland. Royal Burgh status was soon given to the city by King William the Lion in the early 12th century; the city became one of the richest burghs in the country, doing trade with France, the Low Countries and Baltic Countries for goods such as Spanish silk and French wine. The Scottish Reformation played a big role in the city with the sacking of the Houses of the Greyfriars and Blackfriars, after a sermon given by John Knox in St John's Kirk in 1559; the Act of Settlement brought about Jacobite uprisings. The city was occupied by Jacobite supporters on three occasions; the founding of Perth Academy in 1760 helped to bring major industries, such as linen, leather and whisky, to the city. Given its location, Perth was placed to become a key transport centre with the coming of the railways, its first station was built in 1848.
Today, Perth serves as a retail centre for the surrounding area. Following the decline of the whisky industry locally, the city's economy has now diversified to include insurance and banking. Due to its location, the city is referred to as the "Gateway to the Highlands". Perth in Australia and Perth in Canada are both named after Perth in Scotland. Perth is twinned with Aschaffenburg in the German state of Bavaria; the name Perth derives from a Pictish word for copse. During much of the medieval period it was known colloquially by its Scots-speaking inhabitants as "St John's Toun" or "Saint Johnstoun" because the church at the centre of the parish was dedicated to St John the Baptist. Perth was referred to as "St Johns ton" up until the mid-1600s with the name "Perthia" being reserved for the wider area. At this time, "Perthia" became. Perth's Pictish name, some archaeological evidence, indicate that there must have been a settlement here from earlier times at a point where a river crossing or crossings coincided with a raised natural mound on the west bank of the Tay, thus giving some protection for settlement from the frequent flooding.
Finds in and around Perth show that it was occupied by the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who arrived in the area more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles followed the introduction of farming from about 4000 BC, a remarkably well preserved Bronze age log boat dated to around 1000 BC was found in the mudflats of the River Tay at Carpow to the east of Perth; the presence of Scone two miles northeast, the main royal centre of the Kingdom of Alba from at least the reign of Kenneth I mac Ailpín the site of the major Augustinian abbey of the same name founded by Alexander I, enhanced Perth's early importance. Perth was considered the effective'capital' of Scotland, due to the frequent residence of the royal court. Royal Burgh status was soon awarded to the city from King William the Lion in the early 12th century. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Perth was one of the richest trading burghs in the kingdom, residence of numerous craftsmen, organised into guilds. Perth carried out an extensive trade with France, The Low Countries and the Baltic Countries with luxury goods being brought back in return, such as Spanish silk and French pottery and wine.
The royal castle, was destroyed by a flood of the Tay in 1209, one of many that have afflicted Perth over the centuries. It was never rebuilt and Perth was protected at this time only by partial walls and an inventive water system consisting of a Mill lade from the River Almond which divided and flowed to the North on one side and the West and South on the other joining the Tay. King Edward I brought his armies to Perth in 1296 and with only a ditch for defence and little fortification, the city fell quickly. Stronger fortifications were implemented by the English, plans to wall the city took shape in 1304, they remained standing until Robert the Bruce's recapture of Perth in 1312. As part of a plan to make Perth a permanent English base within Scotland, Edward III forced six monasteries in Perthshire and Fife to pay for the construction of stone defensive walls and fortified gates around the city in 1336; these defences were the strongest of any city in Scotland in
Geoffroi de Charny
This article is about the French knight who died in 1356 at the Battle of Poitiers. For the Knight Templar of similar name who may or may not have been his uncle, and, burned at the stake in 1314, see Geoffroi de Charney. Geoffroi de Charny was a French author of at least three works on chivalry, he was born around 1300. His father, Jean de Charny was the Lord of Lirey in Burgundy and his mother was Margaret de Joinville, his grandfather on his mother's side, Jean de Joinville, was a close friend of King Louis IX and author of his biography. Geoffroi was a knight in the service of King Jean II of France and a founding member of the Order of the Star, an order of chivalry founded on 6 November 1351 by Jean II of France similar to the Order of the Garter by Edward III of England, he was the carrier of the Oriflamme, the standard of the crown of France, an immensely privileged, not to mention dangerous, honour, as it made the holder a key target of enemy forces on the battlefield. Geoffroi de Charny was one of Europe's most admired knights during his lifetime, with a widespread reputation for his skill at arms and his honour.
It was said that in his time he was known as a "true and perfect Knight". Geoffroi de Charny fought at Hainault and in Flanders, participated in a crusade under Humbert II of Viennois in the late 1340s. Humbert was a terrible soldier and leader and the crusaders signed a treaty with the Turks in 1348, despite the capture of Smyrna under a previous commander. We know from the Chronicles of Froissart that de Charny traveled to Scotland by order of the French King on at least two occasions and was well known to the Scottish nobles of the time; the chronicle describes the French Knight's visit and de Charny in this passage written in Middle English:.. "Mctray Duglas and the erle Morette knewe of their comynge, they wente to the havyn and mette with them, receyved them swetely, sayeng howe they were right welcome into that countrey. And the barons of Scotlande knewe ryght well sir Geffray de Chamey, for he had been the somer before two monethes in their company: sir Greffray acquaynted them with the admyrall, the other knyghtes of France".
It is recorded and translated that Geoffroi was taken prisoner on two occasions. Once was at the battle of Morlaix, it is further recorded that in 1342 Geoffroi was taken prisoner in Brittany taken to Goodrich Castle in England, where his captor was Richard Talbot, 2nd Baron Talbot. An English letters patent of October 1343 describes him as having'gone to France to find the money for his ransom', it was a rare occurrence that a man would be thus trusted and since he went on to fight other battles, someone paid Geoffroi's ransom, he was knighted the next year. Another incident which provides insight into Geoffroi's mind is the retribution exacted upon Lombardy-born Aimery of Pavia, the man who betrayed him in his attempted recapture of Calais on New Year's Eve, 1349. Geoffroi conducted a dangerous raid on Aimery's castle. Geoffroi took Aimery captive to St. Omer, decapitated him, quartered his body, displayed it on the town gates; as Professor Kaeuper adds:'To show that all this was a private matter and not a part of the business of war, Charny took possession only of Aimery himself, not his castle.'
Shortly before his death, Sir Geoffroi's dire predictions proved to be prophetic and his recorded words exemplify what only a "true and perfect" medieval knight might be expected to say. They are recorded in the writings of the life of Sir John Chandos and were made in the final moments of a meeting of both sides in an effort to avoid the bloody conflict at Poitiers during The Hundred Years' War; the extraordinary narrative occurred just before that battle and reads as follows: Sir Geoffroi de Charny was killed at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, a great defeat for the French in which the French king was taken prisoner to England. The French nobility lost here as well as at Crecy, thus their most capable were completely wiped out. Froissart’s words vividly describe Geoffroi’s last actions, his bravery to his King and Country and his dedication to the Oriflamme at the Battle of Poitiers on September 19, 1356: “There Sir Geoffroi de Charny fought gallantly near the king; the whole press and cry of battle were upon him because he was carrying the king’s sovereign banner, the Oriflamme.
Geoffroi had before him his own banner, three escutcheons argent. So many English and Gascons came around him from all sides that they cracked open the king’s battle formation and smashed it. Sir Geoffroi de Charny was killed with the banner of France in his hand, as other French banners fell to earth.” The Brass Effigy is of the son, French Knight Geoffroi de Charny II. It is presented for historical reference, it is said to be an authentic likeness to the father as the son. The Effigy translation was generously provided by author Ian Wilson, it states as follows: ‘Here lies the noble man Monsieur Geoffroy de Charny at one time seigneur of Thory, in the district of Beauvais, who died the 22nd day of the month of May 1398. Pray God for his soul.’. The Effigy is represented elsewhere as being of the father but the translation shows it is of Geoffroi II, the son. Geoffroi de Charny and his wife Jeanne de Vergy are the first reliably recorded owners of the Turin Shroud; the first public exhibition of the Shroud is memorialized in The Pilgrimage Medal shown here and dating from that time.
The medal shows the image of the Shroud with very
Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas
Archibald Douglas, Earl of Douglas and Wigtown, Lord of Galloway and Bothwell, called Archibald the Grim or Black Archibald, was a late medieval Scottish nobleman. Archibald was the bastard son of Sir James "the Black" Douglas, Robert I's trusted lieutenant, an unknown mother. A first cousin of William 1st Earl of Douglas, he inherited the earldom of Douglas and its entailed estates as the third earl following the death without legitimate issue of James 2nd Earl of Douglas at the Battle of Otterburn, he was an infant when his father went on crusade and was killed at the Battle of Teba whilst fighting the Moors. According to Walter Bower, "He was dark and ugly more like a coco than a Noble." Jean le Bel in his chronicle describes Douglas, as an adult, as a large man capable of wielding a huge sword. It has been suggested that the young Archibald spent time with his cousin William at the court in exile of King David II at Château Gaillard in Normandy, it was only natural. This was in keeping with the spirit of the Auld Alliance.
Archibald's first major appearance in history is recorded in 1356 at the Battle of Poitiers where he was captured by the English. Archibald had accompanied his cousin, William Lord of Douglas, to serve King John II of France in his wars against the Black Prince. Edward III of England had concluded truce negotiations with the Scots lasting from 25 March until Michaelmas, following the Burnt Candlemas of 2 February. During the truce, Earl William had secured safe passage to travel to Château Gaillard to visit David II. Once in France, in the chivalric spirit of the age the Douglases joined the French army, to prevent their harnesses rusting through inactivity; the battle was a disastrous defeat for the French. It was suggested by Froissart that part of the blame lay with Earl William, for his suggestion to the French king that his knights dismount and fight on foot. Whatever the cause, King John was captured along including Black Archibald. Earl William evaded capture. Archibald's armour and harness were of fine construction, he was thought to be a valuable prisoner by his captors.
His escape from English hands in 1356 was aided by one Sir William Ramsay of Colluthie a prisoner of the English. In the presence of one of the guards, Ramsay pretended to be furious with Archibald and accused him of the theft of his cousin's armour. Furthermore, he stated that his cousin had been felled by an English arrow and had died as a result of his lack of protection. Ramsay insisted that Archibald take off his boots. Archibald concurred and by the time he had removed one, Ramsay started beating him around the head with it. One of the guards intervened to stop Ramsay, insisting that Archibald was the son of a great noble and should be respected. Ramsay retorted, "Not he, I tell you, he is a scullion and a rogue" to Archibald, "Go you rascal, seek your master's body amongst the slain, so that we may at least give him a decent burial". Ramsay paid the fee of 40 shillings, the ransomable rate of an esquire. Ramsay cuffed Archibald bade him begone. Archibald made his way back to Scotland, deprived the Black Prince's army of what would have been a considerable ransom.
Black Archibald was appointed Constable of Edinburgh Castle in 1361, which along with the office of Sheriff of Edinburgh, he held until 1364. In that year, he was appointed Warden of the Western March; this was an uneasy appointment, as the English held Annandale, which formed the greater part of his new jurisdiction. In the following years, he carried out numerous raids against the English. In 1368, Douglas was appointed Lord Warden of the Marches and was successful in ousting the English from Annandale by 1383. Archibald further increased his power by his marriage to the widow and heiress Joanna de Moravia in 1362. Joanna de Moravia was granddaughter of Sir Andrew Murray. Archibald is said to have offered to fight five English knights in single combat for her hand; the Lady of Bothwell and heiress to the de Moravia dynasty, Joanna brought with her large estates and lordships throughout Scotland, which Archibald claimed de jure uxoris. This included the semi-ruined Bothwell Castle; the marriage was a device of the king to ensure that the Moray inheritance would be passed into safe hands.
Since the death of Joanna's first husband, Sir Thomas de Moravia, the Lord of Bothwell, in 1361, she and her widowed mother had been wards of the court. Joanna was declared to be not only heiress of her father's unentailed lands, but those of her first husband; the estates stretched from Aberdeenshire and Ross in the north, to Lanarkshire and Roxburghshire in the south. Although Douglas did not inherit his wife's father's Earldom of Strathearn, Douglas would be able to use his newfound kindred ties to the advantage of the King in the centre of the kingdom. Archibald was sent on two embassies to France, in 1369 and 1371; the first of these was to protest against the appeal launched by the newly divorced Queen Margaret at the court in Avignon of Pope Urban V. The second embassy was with a view to renewing the Auld Alliance; this embassy was ordered by Robert II, three days after his accession. The result of this diplomacy resulted in the Treaty of Vincennes, the first ratification of the alliance since the Treaty of Corbeil, 55 years before.
In 1369, Archibald had been appointed Lord of Galloway by King David, "becaus he tuke git trawell to purge the cuntrey of Englis blude". Galloway was a difficult fiefdom to rule. Prior to his assumption of the title, it had been the patrimony of the Balliols, both t