Augustus Saint-Gaudens was an American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts generation who embodied the ideals of the American Renaissance. Raised in New York City, he traveled to Europe for further training and artistic study, returned to New York, where he achieved major critical success for his monuments commemorating heroes of the American Civil War, many of which still stand. In addition to his works such as the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common, the outstanding grand equestrian monuments to Civil War Generals, John A. Logan in Chicago's Grant Park, William Tecumseh Sherman, at the corner of New York's Central Park. Saint-Gaudens created Classical works such as the Diana, employed his skills in numismatics. Most notably, he designed the $20 "double eagle" gold piece for the US Mint, considered one of the most beautiful American coins issued as well as the $10 "Indian Head" gold eagle, both of which were minted from 1907 until 1933. In his years he founded the "Cornish Colony", an artistic colony that included notable painters, sculptors and architects.
His brother Louis Saint-Gaudens, with whom he collaborated, was a well-known sculptor. Saint-Gaudens was born in Dublin to a French father, Bernard Paul Ernest Saint-Gaudens, a shoemaker by trade from a small village in the French Pyrenees, Aspet, 15 kilometers from Saint-Gaudens, an Irish mother, he was raised in New York. In 1861, he became an apprentice to a cameo-cutter, Louis Avet, took evening art classes at the Cooper Union in New York City. Two years he was hired as an apprentice of Jules Le Brethon, another cameo cutter, enrolled at the National Academy of Design. At age 19, his apprenticeship was completed and he traveled to Paris in 1867, where he studied in the atelier of François Jouffroy at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1870, he left Paris for Rome to study art and architecture, worked on his first commissions. There he met a deaf American art student, Augusta Fisher Homer, whom he married on June 1, 1877; the couple had a son named Homer Saint-Gaudens. In 1874, Edwards Pierrepont, a prominent New York reformer, hired Saint-Gaudens to create a marble bust of himself.
Pierrepont, a phrenologist, proved to be a demanding client, insisting that Saint-Gaudens make his head larger. Saint-Gaudens said that Pierrepont's bust "seemed to be affected with some dreadful swelling disease" and he told a friend that he would "give anything to get hold of that bust and smash it to atoms". In 1876, he won a commission for a bronze David Farragut Memorial, he rented a studio at 49 rue Notre Dame des Champs. Stanford White designed the pedestal, it was unveiled on May 1881, in Madison Square Park. He collaborated with Stanford White again in 1892–94 when he created Diana as a weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden building in New York City; the statue stood on a 300-foot-high tower. It was the first statue in that part of Manhattan to be lit at night by electricity; the statue and its tower was a landmark until 1925. In New York, he was a member of the Tilers, a group of prominent artists and writers, including Winslow Homer, William Merritt Chase and Arthur Quartley.
He was a member of the Salmagundi Club in New York. In 1876, Saint-Gaudens received his first major commission: a monument to Civil War Admiral David Farragut, in New York's Madison Square; the commissions followed fast, including the colossal Standing Lincoln in Lincoln Park, Chicago in a setting by architect White, 1884–1887, considered the finest portrait statue in the United States, a long series of memorials, funerary monuments and busts, including the Adams Memorial, the Peter Cooper Monument, the John A. Logan Monument. Arguably the greatest of these monuments is the bronze bas-relief that forms the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common, 1884–1897, which Saint-Gaudens labored on for 14 years. Two grand equestrian monuments to Civil War generals are outstanding: to General John A. Logan, atop a tumulus in Chicago, 1894–1897, to William Tecumseh Sherman at the corner of Central Park in New York, 1892–1903, the first use of Robert Treat Paine's pointing device for the accurate mechanical enlargement of sculpture models.
The depictions of the African-American soldiers on the Shaw memorial is noted as a rare example of true-to-life, non-derogatory, depictions of Afro-ancestral physical characteristics in 19th-century American art. For the Lincoln Centennial in 1909, Saint-Gaudens produced another statue of the president. A seated figure, Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State, is in Chicago's Grant Park. Saint-Gaudens completed the design work and had begun casting the statue at the time of his death—his workshop completed it; the statue's head was used as the model for the commemorative postage stamp issued on the 100th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. Saint-Gaudens created the statue for the monument of Charles Stewart Parnell, installed at the north end of Dublin's O'Connell Street in 1911
Arlington Memorial Bridge
The Arlington Memorial Bridge is a Neoclassical masonry and stone arch bridge with a central bascule that crosses the Potomac River at Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. First proposed in 1886, the bridge went unbuilt for decades thanks to political quarrels over whether the bridge should be a memorial, to whom or what. Traffic problems associated with the dedication of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in November 1921 and the desire to build a bridge in time for the bicentennial of the birth of George Washington led to its construction in 1932. Designed by the architectural firm McKim and White, decorated with monumental statues depicting valor and sacrifice by sculptor Leo Friedlander, cast by Ferdinando Marinelli Artistic Foundry, Italy, Arlington Memorial Bridge defines the western end of the National Mall; the bridge's draw span was permanently closed in 1961. The bridge has received minor repairs, but as of 2013 has never had a major overhaul and is deteriorating; the bridge is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Bridge's Draw Span will be restored in August 2016 and the bridge will be operated after restoration. Congress first proposed a bridge at the site of the current structure on May 24, 1886; the resolution required that the United States Department of War study the feasibility of a bridge at the site, a 24-foot wide design was proposed that year. The following year, the War Department suggested a "Lincoln-Grant Memorial Bridge"; the Washington Post supported the idea of naming the bridge after Grant. Congress again passed a resolution requesting another design, in late 1887 the department proposed a "General Ulysses S. Grant Memorial Bridge"; the new bridge would be a suspension bridge 105 feet high, with 98 feet of clearance below it. Designs for the bridge at this time included a bare steel truss bridge, a low masonry arch bridge, a Romanesque Revival structure by Paul J. Pelz with two massive central towers, two barbicans on each end, exuberant ornamentation. Senator John W. Daniel sponsored legislation in 1897 funding a survey of the bedrock in the Potomac River.
Congress approved the legislation the same year, the United States Army Corps of Engineers began the survey in July. The survey was delivered in March 1898; because the bridge was conceived as a memorial to Grant, Congress blocked funding for the bridge. But after the Corps' survey was complete, Congress authorized the Secretary of War to expend $5,000 on a bridge design competition. To help improve the prospects for a bridge, a "National Memorial Bridge Association" was formed. In July, four prominent bridge engineers from New York City — George S. Morrison, Leffert L. Buck, William H. Burr, William R. Hutton — were invited to submit designs for a memorial bridge to honor American war dead. A five-member board appointed by the Secretary of War selected a design by William H. Burr and architect Edward P. Casey, their design, based on the 1887 winning plan, called for a drawbridge made of steel and stone with 36 arches. A "classical" tower sat over each end of the draw span, on top of which would stand bronze statues of Victory.
Statues of famous generals and statesmen would line both sides of the bridge. Senator George F. Hoar blocked the bridge from being built in June 1900 because he opposed the design; the National Memorial Bridge Association began pushing again for a bridge in October 1900, commissioned Connecticut architect George Keller to design plans. Keller's design went on display in Washington in November. Contrary to all previous designs, his bridge was low to the water and eliminated a draw span, his design featured a monumental Romanesque Revival arch for the D. C. approaches and a memorial column celebrating the Union on the Virginia side, both to be placed in traffic circles. Keller's design was published in architectural magazines, by 1901 was seen as the appropriate design for the bridge. In 1901, the American Institute of Architects proposed that the bridge extend New York Avenue NW over the Potomac to Arlington National Cemetery, but once more, Congress did not act. In 1900, the U. S. Senate created the Senate Park Commission to reconcile competing visions for the development of Washington, D.
C. and the National Mall and nearby areas. Popularly known as the McMillan Commission after its chairman, Senator James McMillan of Michigan, the commission issued its report on January 15, 1902; the McMillan Plan proposed siting a major new bridge and memorial at the western end of the National Mall, an area known as West Potomac Park. None of the National Mall west of the Washington Monument grounds and below Constitution Avenue NW existed prior to 1882. After terrible flooding inundated much of downtown Washington, D. C. in 1881, Congress ordered the Army Corps of Engineers to dredge a deep channel in the Potomac and use the material to fill in the Potomac shoreline and raise this and much of the land near the White House and along Pennsylvania Avenue NW by nearly 6 feet to prevent future flooding. This "reclaimed land" — which included West Potomac Park, East Potomac Park, the Tidal Basin — was complete by 1890, designated Potomac Park by Congress in 1897. Congress first appropriated money for the beautification of the reclaimed land in 1902, which led to the planting of sod and trees.
Although Congress did not formally adopt the McMillan Pla
George Armstrong Custer
George Armstrong Custer was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Custer graduated from West Point in 1861, bottom of his class, but as the Civil War was just starting, trained officers were in immediate demand, he worked with General McClellan and the future General Pleasonton, who both recognised his qualities as a cavalry leader, he was brevetted brigadier general of Volunteers at age 23. At Gettysburg, he commanded the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, defeated Jeb Stuart’s assault on Cemetery Ridge, while outnumbered. In 1864, Custer served in the Overland Campaign and in Sheridan’s army in the Shenandoah Valley, defeating Jubal Early at Cedar Creek, his division blocked Lee's final retreat and received the first flag of truce from the Confederates, Custer being present at Lee’s surrender to U. S. Grant at Appomattox. After the war, Custer was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the Regular Army, sent west to fight in the Indian Wars.
On June 25, 1876, while leading the 7th Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory against a coalition of Native American tribes, he was killed along with over one third of his command during an action romanticized as "Custer's Last Stand". His dramatic end was as controversial as the rest of his career, his legacy remains divided, his bold leadership in battle is unquestioned, but his legend was of his own fabrication, through his extensive journalism, more through his wife’s energetic lobbying throughout her long widowhood. Custer's paternal immigrant ancestors and Gertrude Küster, emigrated to the North American English colonies around 1693 from the Rhineland in Germany among thousands of Palatine refugees whose passage was arranged by the English government to gain settlers in New York and Pennsylvania. According to family letters, Custer was named after George Armstrong, a minister, in his devout mother's hope that her son might join the clergy. Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer, a farmer and blacksmith, his second wife, Marie Ward Kirkpatrick, of English and Scots-Irish descent.
He had two younger brothers and Boston. His other full siblings were the family's youngest child, Margaret Custer, Nevin Custer, who suffered from asthma and rheumatism. Custer had three older half-siblings. Custer and his brothers acquired their life-long love of practical jokes, which they played out among the close family members. Emanuel Custer was an outspoken Democrat who taught his children politics and toughness at an early age. In a February 3, 1887 letter to his son's widow, Libby, he related an incident "when Autie was about four years old, he had to have a tooth drawn, he was much afraid of blood. When I took him to the doctor to have the tooth pulled, it was in the night and I told him if it bled well it would get well right away, he must be a good soldier; when he got to the doctor he took his seat, the pulling began. The forceps slipped off and he had to make a second trial, he pulled it out, Autie never scrunched. Going home, I led him by the arm, he jumped and skipped, said'Father you and me can whip all the Whigs in Michigan.'
I thought, saying a good deal but I did not contradict him." In order to attend school, Custer lived with an older half-sister and her husband in Monroe, Michigan. Before entering the United States Military Academy, Custer attended the McNeely Normal School known as Hopedale Normal College, in Hopedale, Ohio, it was to train teachers for elementary schools. While attending Hopedale and classmate William Enos Emery were known to have carried coal to help pay for their room and board. After graduating from McNeely Normal School in 1856, Custer taught school in Ohio, his first sweetheart was Mary Jane Holland. Custer entered West Point as a cadet on July 1, 1857, as a member of the class of 1862, his class numbered seventy-nine cadets embarking on a five-year course of study. With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, the course was shortened to four years, Custer and his class graduated on June 24, 1861, he was 34th in a class of 34 graduates: 23 classmates had dropped out for academic reasons while 22 classmates had resigned to join the Confederacy.
Throughout his life, Custer tested rules. In his four years at West Point, he amassed a record-total of 726 demerits, one of the worst conduct records in the history of the academy. A fellow cadet recalled Custer as declaring there were only two places in a class, the head and the foot, since he had no desire to be the head, he aspired to be the foot. A roommate noted, "It was alright with George Custer. Under ordinary national conditions, Custer's low class rank would result in an obscure posting, but Custer had the "fortune" to graduate as the Civil War broke out. All officers were needed. Like the other graduates, Custer was commissioned as a second lieutenant. S. Cavalry Regiment and tasked with drilling volunteers in Washington, D. C. On July 21, 1861, he was with his regiment at the First Battle of Bull Run during the Manassas Campaign, where Army commander Winfield Scott detailed him to carry messages to Major General Irvin McDowell. After the battle, Custer continued participating in the defenses of Washington D.
C. until October, when he became ill. He was absent from his unit until February 1862. In March, he participated with the 2nd Cavalry in the Peninsula Campaign in Virginia until April 4. On April 5, Custer s
Westport is a town in Fairfield County, United States, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast. It is 52 miles northeast of New York City; the town had a population of 26,391 according to the 2010 U. S. Census, is ranked 22nd among America's 100 Richest Places as well as second in Connecticut, with populations between 20,000 and 65,000; the earliest known inhabitants of the Westport area as identified through archaeological finds date back 7,500 years. Records from the first white settlers report the Pequot Indians living in the area which they called Machamux translated by the colonialists as beautiful land. Settlement by colonialists dates back to the five Bankside Farmers; the community had its own ecclesiastical society, supported by independent civil and religious elements, enabling it to be independent from the Town of Fairfield. The settlers arrived in 1693, having followed cattle to the isolated area known to the Pequot as the "beautiful land"; as the settlement expanded its name changed: it was known as "Bankside" in 1693 named Green's Farm in 1732 in honor of Bankside Farmer John Green and in 1835 incorporated as the Town of Westport.
During the revolutionary war—on April 25, 1777, a 1,850 strong British force under the command of the Royal Governor of the Province of New York, Major General William Tryon landed on Compo Beach to destroy the Continental Army’s military supplies in Danbury. Minutemen from Westport and the surrounding areas crouched hiding whilst Tryon's troops passed and launched an offensive from their rear. A statue on Compo beach commemorates this plan of attack with a crouching Minuteman facing away from the beach; the Town of Westport was incorporated on May 28, 1835, with lands from Fairfield and Norwalk. Daniel Nash led 130 people of Westport in the petitioning of the Town of Fairfield for Westport’s incorporation; the driving force behind the petition was to assist their seaport’s economic viability, being undermined by neighboring towns’ seaports. For several decades after that, Westport was a prosperous agricultural community distinguishing itself as the leading onion-growing center in the U. S. Blight caused the collapse of Westport's onion industry leading to the mills and factories replacing agricultural as the town's economic engine.
Agriculture was Westport's first major industry. By the 19th century, Westport had become a shipping center in part to transport onions to market. Starting around 1910 the town experienced a cultural expansion. During this period artists and authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald moved to Westport to be free from the commuting demands experienced by business people; the roots of Westport's reputation as an arts center can be traced back to this period during which it was known as a "creative heaven."In the 20th century a combination of industrialization, popularity among New Yorkers attracted to fashionable Westport—which had attracted many artists and writers—resulted in farmers selling off their land. Westport changed from a community of farmers to a suburban development. In the 1950s through to the 1970s, New Yorkers relocating from the city to the suburbs discovered Westport's culture of artists and authors; the population grew assisted by the ease of commuting to New York City and back again to rolling hills and the "natural beauty of the town."
By this time Westport had "chic New York-type fashion shopping" and a school system with a good reputation, both factors contributing to the growth. By the 21st century, Westport had developed into a center for insurance. According to a publication by the 2010 Census, Westport has a total area of 33.45 square miles of which 19.96 square miles is land with the remaining area 13.49 square miles is water. Westport is bordered by Norwalk on the west, Weston to the north, Wilton to the northwest, Fairfield to the east and Long Island Sound to the south. Both the train station and a total of 26 percent of town residents live within the 100-year floodplain; the floodplain was breached in 1992 and 1996 resulting in damage to private property, the 1992 flooding of the train station parking lot and the implementation of flood mitigation measures that include town regulations that affect renovations and additions to building within the floodplain zone. Saugatuck – around the Westport railroad station near the southwestern corner of the town – a built-up area with some restaurants and offices.
Saugatuck originates from the Paugussett tribe meaning mouth of the tidal river. Saugatuck Shores – A curved peninsula surrounded by the Long Island Sound, this area was once part of the town of Norwalk. Today several hundred residents live on the peninsula. Saugatuck Island – founded in the 1890s as Greater Marsh Shores, the island was renamed to its current name in 1920 and became a special taxing district on November 5, 1984. Downtown Westport - The area around Post Road and Main Street on and near the Saugatuck River that serves as the center of Westport, with many shops and restaurants. There has been recent growth in the downtown area, including Levitt Pavilion, National Hall, Bedford square, a mixed use development on Church St, Elm St, Main St and Post Rd that will have apartments, public spaces, including a courtyard, underground parking and restaurants, as well as the incorporation of the historic Bedford Mansion. Greens Farms – is Westport's oldest neighborhood starting around Hillsp
The American frontier comprises the geography, history and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912. A "frontier" is a zone of contact at the edge of a line of settlement; the leading theorist Frederick Jackson Turner went deeper, arguing that the frontier was the defining process of American civilization: "The frontier," he asserted, "promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people." He theorized it was a process of development: "This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward...furnish the forces dominating American character." Turner's ideas since 1893 have inspired generations of historians to explore multiple individual American frontiers, but the popular folk frontier concentrates on the conquest and settlement of Native American lands west of the Mississippi River, in what is now the Midwest, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, the West Coast.
In 19th- and early 20th-century media, enormous popular attention was focused on the Western United States in the second half of the 19th century, a period sometimes called the "Old West" or the "Wild West". Such media exaggerated the romance and chaotic violence of the period for greater dramatic effect; this inspired the Western genre of film, which spilled over into television shows and comic books, as well as children's toys and costumes. This era of massive migration and settlement was encouraged by President Thomas Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase, giving rise to the expansionist philosophy known as "Manifest destiny"; as defined by Hine and Faragher, "frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, the formation of states." They explain, "It is a tale of conquest, but one of survival and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America." Through treaties with foreign nations and native tribes, political compromise, military conquest, establishment of law and order, the building of farms and towns, the marking of trails and digging of mines, the pulling in of great migrations of foreigners, the United States expanded from coast to coast, fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny.
Turner, in his "Frontier Thesis", theorized that the frontier was a process that transformed Europeans into a new people, the Americans, whose values focused on equality and optimism, as well as individualism, self-reliance, violence. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the West in fiction and film took a firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. In David Murdoch's view, America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image: "No other nation has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America's creation of the West." The frontier line was the outer line of European-American settlement. It moved westward from the 1630s to the 1880s. Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the "frontier line" as a settlement density of two people per square mile; the "West" was the settled area near that boundary. Thus, parts of the Midwest and American South, though no longer considered "western", have a frontier heritage along with the modern western states.
In the 21st century, the term "American West" is most used for the area west of the Great Plains. In the colonial era, before 1776, the west was of high priority for politicians; the American frontier began when Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the English in 1607. In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until about 1680, the frontier was any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast. English, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada. Although French fur traders ranged through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they settled down. French settlement was limited to a few small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans; the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.
They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York. Areas in the north that were in the frontier stage by 1700 had poor transportation facilities, so the opportunity for commercial agriculture was low; these areas remained in subsistence agriculture, as a result by the 1760s these societies were egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized. The wealthy speculator, if one was involved remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident; the class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day ma
The Arts of War and The Arts of Peace
The Arts of War and The Arts of Peace are bronze, fire-gilded statue groups on Lincoln Memorial Circle in West Potomac Park in Washington, D. C. in the United States. Commissioned in 1929 to complement the plaza constructed on the east side of the Lincoln Memorial as part of the Arlington Memorial Bridge approaches, their completion was delayed until 1939 for budgetary reasons; the models were placed into storage, the statues not cast until 1950. They were erected in 1951, repaired in 1974; the Arts of War were sculpted by an American sculptor. The Art Deco statuary group consists of two separate elements and Sacrifice, which frame the entrance to Arlington Memorial Bridge; the Arts of Peace were sculpted by an American sculptor. The Neoclassical statuary group consists of two separate elements and Harvest and Aspiration and Literature, which frame the entrance to the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway; the Arts of War and The Arts of Peace are contributing properties to the East and West Potomac Parks Historic District, added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 30, 1973.
Congress first proposed a new bridge across the Potomac River, to be located somewhere between B Street NW and Georgetown in 1886. Designs were proposed in 1886 and 1898. A new location became available in 1890; when terrible floods hit the District of Columbia in 1881, Congress enacted legislation to have the channel of the Potomac River deepened to help prevent future flooding. The silt would be used to reclaim the Tiber Creek tidal inlet, building up the land south of B Street and west of the Washington Monument grounds to a height great enough to act as a levee; this work was complete by 1890, designated West Potomac Park by Congress in 1897. During this same period, Columbia Island formed as an offshoot of Analostan Island; the combination of reclaimed land and the emergence of a new island meant that it was now possible to build a bridge further south than the proposed locations. In 1902, the Senate Park Commission proposed in its so-called McMillan Plan that a bridge be built from the west end of West Potomac Park across the Potomac River to Arlington National Cemetery.
This bridge would be aligned with Arlington House, act as memorial to the unification of the nation after the American Civil War. No action was taken to implement the Senate Park Commission's proposal for 12 years. Congress enacted the Public Buildings Act on March 4, 1913, among other things and funded an Arlington Memorial Bridge Commission whose purpose was to design the bridge and report back to Congress, but due to the onset of World War I, Congress appropriated no money for the commission's operation and it remained inactive. Another proposal of the McMillan Plan was the creation of a number of parkways throughout the D. C. area. Among these was the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, which the Senate Park Commission suggested extend from E Street NW through Rock Creek Park to the National Zoological Park. Congress authorized construction of the parkway in March 1913 and principal construction began in 1923. Congress authorized construction of the Arlington Memorial Bridge in 1925. Major traffic jams clogged the narrow and decrepit Highway Bridge during the November 1921 dedication of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery, angering members of Congress and President Warren G. Harding.
Recognizing the need for a new bridge, Congress enacted legislation in June 1922 funding at last the work of the Arlington Memorial Bridge Commission. The bridge commission on April 4, 1923, chose the architectural firm of McKim and White to design the structure. Architect William Mitchell Kendall was the lead designer; the United States Commission of Fine Arts had the legal authority to review the design and architectural style of the bridge. Kendall submitted his first design for the structure to the CFA in May 1923. Kendall's plan envisioned a Neoclassical arch bridge; the eastern approaches in the District of Columbia consisted of linking the traffic circle around the Lincoln Memorial to the Potomac River by a granite and marble plaza and by monumental marble steps leading from the plaza to the river's edge. Two memorial columns would be erected in this plaza; the commission was pleased that Kendall proposed extending the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway past its planned terminus at E Street NW south to Ohio Drive SW.
Kendall's plan called for the parkway to pass through the plaza to access Ohio Drive. The CFA gave its preliminary approval to the bridge design in February 1924, but withheld a decision on the eastern approaches. With a design in hand, Congress began work to authorize construction of the proposed bridge; this legislation passed on February 20, President Calvin Coolidge signed it into law on February 24, 1925. The AMBC and CFA were not only concerned with constructing a bridge, but ensuring that the approaches to the bridge were appropriate for a grand memorial; the eastern approaches consisted of the end of the bridge, a plaza, a watergate, the streets which approached the bridge. By November 1925, there were some design changes as the details of Kendall's plan were worked out; the two columns for the center of the plaza were replaced with a fountain, the fountain, eliminated. For the bridge's entrance, the AMBC and CFA add two 40-foot high square pylons inscribed on all four sides with images representing national unity and common purpose.
The agencies planned major changes to B Street NW, a m
The Lincoln Memorial is an American national memorial built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon. Dedicated in May 1922, it is one of several memorials built to honor an American president, it has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has been a symbolic center focused on race relations. The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address; the memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, National World War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group.
It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. In 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. More than 7 million people visit the memorial annually; the first public memorial to United States President Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D. C. was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after the Lincoln's assassination. Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincoln's death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument, his plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time, called for a 70-foot structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot statue of Abraham Lincoln.
Subscriptions for the project were insufficient. The matter lay dormant until the start of the 20th century, under the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills were introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission; the first five bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill, introduced on December 13, 1910, passed; the Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and United States President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission's president. Progress continued at a steady pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commission's choice of design and location. There were questions regarding the commission's plan. Many thought that architect Henry Bacon's Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincoln's humble character. Instead they proposed a simple log cabin shrine; the site too did not go unopposed. The reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many to be either too swampy or too inaccessible.
Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park location, situated on the Washington Monument–Capitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was ideal. Furthermore, the Potomac Park site had been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument. With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and the following month the actual construction began. Work progressed according to schedule; some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln designed to be 10 feet tall, was enlarged to 19 feet to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber; as late as 1920, the decision was made to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille, to have guarded the entrance. Despite these changes, the Memorial was finished on schedule.
Commission president William H. Taft –, Chief Justice of the United States – dedicated the Memorial on May 30, 1922, presented it to United States President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American people. Lincoln's only surviving son, 78-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance; the Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and features Yule marble quarried from Colorado; the structure is 99 feet tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, one for each of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death, two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade; the columns stand 44 feet tall with a base diameter of 7.5 feet. Each column is built from 12 drums including the capital; the columns, like the exterior walls and facades, are inclined toward the building's interior. This is to compensate for perspective distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the top when compared with the bottom, a common feature of Ancient Greek architecture.
Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the U