Big is a 1988 American fantasy comedy film directed by Penny Marshall, stars Tom Hanks as Adult Josh Baskin, a young boy who makes a wish "to be big" and is aged to adulthood overnight. The film stars Elizabeth Perkins, David Moscow as young Josh, John Heard and Robert Loggia, was written by Gary Ross and Anne Spielberg. Twelve-year-old Josh Baskin, who lives with his parents and infant sister in Cliffside Park, New Jersey, is told he is too short for a carnival ride called the Super Loops, while attempting to impress Cynthia Benson, an older girl, he puts a coin into an unusual antique arcade fortune teller machine called Zoltar, makes a wish to be "big". It dispenses a card stating "Your wish is granted", but Josh is spooked to see it was unplugged the entire time; the next morning, Josh has been transformed into a 30-year-old man. He tries to find the Zoltar machine, only to see the carnival having moved on. Returning home, he tries to explain his predicament to his mother, who refuses to listen and threatens him, thinking he is a stranger who kidnapped her son.
Fleeing from her, he finds his best friend and convinces him of his identity by singing a rap that only they know. With Billy's help, he learns that it will take a long time to find the machine, so Josh rents a flophouse room in New York City and gets a job as a data entry clerk at MacMillan Toy Company. Billy and Josh find out. Josh runs into the company's owner, Mr. MacMillan, at FAO Schwarz, impresses him with his insight into current toys and his childlike enthusiasm, they play a duet on a foot-operated electronic keyboard, performing "Heart and Soul" and "Chopsticks". This earns Josh a promotion to a dream job: getting paid to test toys as Vice President in charge of Product Development. With his promotion, his larger salary enables him to move into a spacious luxury apartment, which he and Billy fill with toys, a rigged Pepsi vending machine dispensing free drinks, a pinball machine, he soon attracts the attention of a fellow MacMillan executive. A romance begins to develop, to the annoyance of her ruthless former boyfriend and coworker, Paul Davenport.
Josh becomes entwined in his "adult" life by spending time with her, mingling with her friends, being in a steady relationship. His ideas become valuable assets to MacMillan Toys. MacMillan asks Josh to come up with proposals for a new line of toys, he is intimidated by the need to formulate the business aspects of the proposal, but Susan says she will handle the business end while he comes up with ideas. Nonetheless, he feels pressured, longs for his old life; when he expresses doubts to her and attempts to explain that he is a child, she interprets this as fear of commitment on his part, dismisses his explanation. Josh learns from Billy, he leaves in the middle of presenting their proposal to other executives. Susan leaves, encounters Billy, who tells her where Josh went. At the park, Josh finds the machine, unplugs it and makes a wish to become "a kid again", he is confronted by Susan, seeing the machine and the fortune it gave him, realizes he was telling the truth. She becomes despondent at realizing.
He tells her she was the one thing about his adult life he wishes would not end and suggests she use the machine to turn herself into a little girl. She declines, saying that being a child once was enough, takes him home. After sharing an emotional goodbye with Susan, he becomes a child again, he waves goodbye to Susan one last time before reuniting with his family. The film ends with Josh and Billy hanging out together, with the song "Heart and Soul" playing over the credits. On the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, 97% of 74 critics gave it a positive review, with an average rating of 7.9/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Refreshingly sweet and undeniably funny, Big is a showcase for Tom Hanks, who dives into his role and infuses it with charm and surprising poignancy." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 73 out of 100, based on 20 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.
The New York Times praised the performances of Moscow and Rushton, saying the film "features believable young teen-age mannerisms from the two real boys in its cast and this only makes Mr. Hanks's funny, flawless impression that much more adorable."The film was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Actor and Best Original Screenplay. The film is number 23 on Bravo's 100 Funniest Movies. In 2000, it was ranked 42nd on the American Film Institute's "100 Years…100 Laughs" list. In June 2008, AFI named it as the tenth-best film in the fantasy genre. In 2008, it was selected by Empire Magazine as one of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time."Big was part of a trend of age-changing comedies produced in the late 1980s, including Like Father Like Son, 18 Again!, Vice Versa, the Italian film Da grande. The latter Italian film has been said to be the inspiration for Big; the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2000: AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs – #42 2008: AFI's 10 Top 10: #10 Fantasy Film The film opened #2 with $8.2 million its first weekend.
It would end up grossing over $151 million. It was the first feature film directed by a woman to gross over $100 million. In 1996, the film was made into a musical for the Broadway stage, it f
Trading Places is a 1983 American comedy film directed by John Landis and starring Dan Aykroyd and Eddie Murphy. It tells the story of an upper-class commodities broker and a homeless street hustler whose lives cross paths when they are unknowingly made part of an elaborate bet. Ralph Bellamy, Don Ameche, Denholm Elliott, Jamie Lee Curtis star; the storyline is called a modern take on Mark Twain's classic 19th-century novel The Prince and the Pauper. The film was produced by Aaron Russo, it was released to theaters in North America on June 8, 1983, where it was distributed by Paramount Pictures. The film earned over $90 million during its theatrical run in the United States, finishing as the fourth highest earning film of the year and the second highest earning R-rated film of 1983. Denholm Elliott and Jamie Lee Curtis won the awards for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and Best Actress in a Supporting Role at the 37th British Academy Film Awards; the film was nominated for several additional awards including Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy at the 41st Golden Globe Awards.
Duke brothers Randolph and Mortimer own a successful commodities brokerage firm Duke & Duke in Philadelphia. Holding opposing views on the issue of nature versus nurture, they make a wager and agree to conduct an experiment switching the lives of two unwitting people at opposite sides of the social hierarchy and observing the results, they witness an encounter between their managing director—the well-mannered and educated Louis Winthorpe III, engaged to the Dukes' grand-niece Penelope—and a poor street hustler named Billy Ray Valentine. The Dukes decide to use the two men for their experiment. Winthorpe is publicly framed as a thief, drug dealer and philanderer by Clarence Beeks, a man on the Dukes’ payroll. Winthorpe is fired from Duke & Duke, his bank accounts are frozen, he is denied entry to his Duke-owned home, he finds himself vilified by Penelope and his former friends, he befriends Ophelia, a prostitute who agrees to help him in exchange for a financial reward once he is exonerated. Meanwhile, the Dukes bail Valentine out of jail, install him in Winthorpe's former job and grant him use of Winthorpe's home.
Valentine soon becomes well-versed in the business using his street smarts to achieve success, begins to act well-mannered. During the firm's Christmas party, Winthorpe is caught planting drugs in Valentine's desk in an attempt to frame him, he brandishes a gun to escape; the Dukes discuss their experiment and settle their wager for one dollar, before plotting to return Valentine to the streets. Valentine overhears the conversation, seeks out Winthorpe, who attempts suicide by overdosing on pills. Valentine and Winthorpe's butler Coleman nurse him back to health and inform him of the Dukes' experiment. On television, they learn that Clarence Beeks is transporting a secret USDA report on orange crop forecasts. Winthorpe and Valentine recall large payments made to Beeks by the Dukes and realize that the Dukes plan to obtain the report to corner the market on frozen orange juice. On New Year's Eve, the four board Beeks' Philadelphia-bound train, intending to switch the original report with a forgery that predicts low orange crop yields.
Beeks uncovers their scheme and attempts to kill them, but he is knocked unconscious by a gorilla being transported on the train. The four disguise cage him with the real gorilla. After delivering the forged report to the Dukes in Beeks' place and Winthorpe travel to New York City with Coleman's and Ophelia's life savings to carry out their part of the plan. On the commodities trading floor, the Dukes commit all their holdings to buying frozen concentrated orange-juice futures contracts. Meanwhile and Winthorpe sell futures at the inflated price. Following the broadcast of the actual crop report and its prediction of a normal forecast, the price of orange-juice futures plummets. Valentine and Winthorpe close their futures position by buying futures at the lower price from everyone but the Dukes, turning a large profit; the Dukes fail to meet a margin call, are left owing $394 million. Valentine and Winthorpe explain to the Dukes that they had made a wager on whether they could get rich while making the Dukes poor.
Valentine collects $1 from Winthorpe while Randolph collapses holding his chest and Mortimer shouts angrily at his brother about their failed plan. The now wealthy Valentine, Winthorpe and Coleman vacation on a tropical beach, while Beeks and the gorilla are loaded onto a ship heading for Africa. Dan Aykroyd as Louis Winthorpe III Eddie Murphy as Billy Ray Valentine Ralph Bellamy as Randolph Duke Don Ameche as Mortimer Duke Denholm Elliott as Coleman Jamie Lee Curtis as Ophelia Kristin Holby as Penelope Witherspoon, Louis Winthorpe's fiancée. Paul Gleason as Clarence BeeksThe cast includes Robert Curtis-Brown as Todd, Winthorpe's romantic rival for Penelope. Tom Davis and Al Franken Saturday Night Live cast members, cameo as train baggage handlers; the storyline of Trading Places—a member of society trading places with another whose socio-economic status stands in direct contrast to his own—often draws comparisons to Mark Twain's novel The Prince and the Pauper. First published in 1881, the nove
Beverly Hills, 90210
Beverly Hills, 90210 is an American teen drama television series created by Darren Star and produced by Aaron Spelling under his production company Spelling Television. The series ran for ten seasons on Fox from October 4, 1990, to May 17, 2000, is the longest-running show produced by Spelling, it is the first of five television series in the Beverly Hills, 90210 franchise and follows the lives of a group of friends living in the upscale and star-studded community of Beverly Hills, California, as they transition from high school to college and into the adult world. "90210" refers to one of the city's five ZIP codes. The initial premise of the show was based on the adjustment and culture shock that twins Brandon and Brenda Walsh experienced when they and their parents and Cindy, moved from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Beverly Hills. In addition to chronicling the characters' friendships and romantic relationships, the show addressed topical issues such as sex, date rape, animal rights, drug abuse, domestic violence, eating disorders, racism, teenage suicide, teenage pregnancy, AIDS.
After poor ratings during its first season, the series gained popularity during the summer of 1991, when Fox aired a special "summer season" of the show while most other series were in reruns. Viewership increased and 90210 became one of Fox's top shows when it returned that fall; the show became a global pop culture phenomenon with its cast members Jason Priestley and Luke Perry, who became teen idols. The show is credited with creating or popularizing the teen soap genre that many other successful television shows followed in the years to come; the show had many cast changes. On February 27, 2019, it was announced that a six-episode revival has been ordered by Fox and that the show would be titled 90210; the series begins with the introduction of the Walsh family—Jim, Cindy and Brenda—who have moved from Minneapolis, Minnesota to Beverly Hills, California as a result of Jim's job promotion. In the first episode and Brenda begin attending West Beverly Hills High School, where they befriend several classmates: the self-centered and promiscuous Kelly Taylor and spoiled Steve Sanders and driven Andrea Zuckerman and virtuous Donna Martin, brooding loner Dylan McKay, younger and naive students David Silver and Scott Scanlon.
The show follows the siblings as they bear witness and take part in the dramatic lives that their wealthy and privileged peers lead. Cast Notes Originally pitched as Beverly Hills High to Fox Chairman Peter Chernin, the show was chosen over a TV adaptation of the 1988 movie Heathers. Torand Productions was used by the production company for several seasons on the show. "Torand" is derived from the first several letters of Aaron Spelling's first and second children and Randy. Tentative titles for the show included Class of Beverly Hills; the show's episodes were issue-based until the producers decided it should become a teen soap opera. In the first season, the teenage characters were said to be in the eleventh grade, but due to the success of the show, their ages were retconned to be one year younger in the second season, making them tenth graders in the first. Jennie Garth had to audition five times for the role of Kelly Taylor and was the first to be cast on the show. Gabrielle Carteris felt.
She first auditioned for Brenda because she thought that being a real-life twin would help her chances, but the producers felt that she would be better for the part of Andrea. When Tori Spelling auditioned for the show, she used the name Tori Mitchell and auditioned for the role of Kelly Taylor, but she was recognized and was instead cast as Donna Martin. Tori Spelling brought Shannen Doherty to her father's attention after seeing Doherty's movie Heathers and being impressed with her performance. Lyman Ward was cast as Jim Walsh in the pilot but was replaced by James Eckhouse, Ward's scenes were cut and re-shot with Eckhouse. Kristin Dattilo was up for the role of Brenda Walsh, but she turned it down, she guest starred as Melissa Coolidge in an episode of the first season. Additionally, Luke Perry had auditioned for the role of Steve Sanders, but the role went to Ian Ziering before Perry was cast as Dylan McKay. Perry's character was not an original cast member of the show, he was first featured in the show's second episode.
He was intended to only appear in one story arc, for one or two episodes. Fox was reluctant to have him included as a regular, but Aaron Spelling felt differently and gave Perry a bigger role during the first two years until the network was won over. In the first season, when Donna tries out for school D. J. she is referred to as Donna Morgan. Throughout the rest of the show, her name is Donna Martin. In addition, in the first season Donna's mother was named Nancy Martin and played by actress Jordana Capra; when she was reintroduced in season two, she was named Felice Martin and was played by actress Katherine Cannon. In the pilot episode, the role of Jackie Taylor was first played by Pamela Galloway and by Ann Gillespie for the rest of the series. Terence Ford and Arthur Brooks portrayed Dylan's father, Jack McKay, in two episodes before Josh Taylor assumed the role; the series was produced in Van Nuys, Los An
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Cocktail (1988 film)
Cocktail is a 1988 American romantic drama film directed by Roger Donaldson and written by Heywood Gould, whose screenplay was based on his book of the same name. The film tells the story of a young New York City business student, Brian Flanagan, who takes up bartending in order to make ends meet; the film stars Tom Cruise, Bryan Brown, Elisabeth Shue. Released by Touchstone Pictures, the film features an original music score composed by J. Peter Robinson. Brian Flanagan gets a part-time job as a bartender at night while studying for a business degree by day. Over time, he learns the tricks of the trade, including flairing, from Doug Coughlin, his advice begins with "Coughlin's Law". Brian has high personal aspirations. Doug intends to call his bar "Cocktails & Dreams." Brian and Doug's bartending act becomes popular and they end up working at a trendy nightclub. As their popularity rises, Brian becomes the focus of attention from a brunette named Coral. Doug is alarmed that Coral is coming between their partnership and bets Brian that Coral will leave by week's end.
Unbeknownst to Brian, Doug tricks Coral into sleeping with him. He secures his bet by sharing a kiss with Coral in front of Brian. Brian and Doug get into a fight. Three years Brian takes a job in Jamaica as a bartender at a resort to raise money for his own place, he finds a romantic partner in Jordan Mooney, an aspiring artist and waitress that he meets on the beach. Doug shows up in Jamaica, now married to Kerry, a wealthy woman who flirts with other men. Doug bets Brian that he couldn't "pick up" a new customer named a wealthy older woman. Brian wins Bonnie over; as they go back to Bonnie's room, Jordan sees them. Devastated, she takes a plane back to New York City; the next morning, Brian regrets sleeping with Bonnie. He learns that she's gone. Doug teases Brian about the situation but Brian decides to upstage Doug by returning to New York with Bonnie, he reluctantly grows annoyed by her lifestyle. They have a blow-up during an art exhibit. Brian shows up at the diner, she agrees to listen to his apology after work.
They talk. To his surprise, she tells him she is pregnant with his child, tells him to leave, he decides to prove to her. Brian learns that her family is wealthy, goes to her parents' Park Avenue penthouse to speak with her. Jordan's father attempts to buy Brian off. Jordan refuses his advances, not wanting to be hurt again. Brian meets up with Doug, who confides that his wife's money is nearly gone, lost in the commodities market. Doug is unwilling to admit to his bride the precarious position. Kerry makes Brian take her home when Doug is too drunk to do so. Once inside her apartment, she attempts to seduce him. Brian stops it from going any further out of respect for his friendship with Doug. Kerry calls Brian a coward. Brian discovers he has slashed his throat and wrists with a broken bottle. After the funeral, Kerry sends Brian a letter, revealed to be Doug's suicide note. Brian realizes. Reeling from losing his friend to suicide, he returns to Jordan's parents' home and begs her again for forgiveness.
He tells her that Doug killed himself because he was too proud to ask for help and that Brian doesn't want to make the same mistake. He promises to take care of their child. Brian and Jordan leave together, with her father pledging not to give a dime to the couple. Brian and Jordan have their wedding reception at his Uncle Pat's bar in Queens. Uncle Pat lends Brian the money to open a neighborhood bar called "Flanagan's Cocktails & Dreams." At the Grand Opening, Jordan reveals. Brian offers free drinks to celebrate, much to his Uncle Pat's chagrin; the film was based on Heywood Gould's semi-autobiographical novel published in 1984. Gould had worked as a bartender in New York from 1969 to 1981 to support his writing career. Gould said he "Met a lot of interesting people behind the bar and rarely was it someone who started out wanting to be a bartender, they all had ambitions, some smoldering and some forgotten or suppressed."Gould says the lead character "is a composite of a lot of people I met, including myself in those days.
I was in my late 30s, I was drinking pretty good, I was starting to feel like I was missing the boat. The character in the book is an older guy, around and starting to feel that he's pretty washed-up."Universal bought the film rights and Gould wrote the script, changing it from his novel. He says the studio put the project in turnaround "because I wasn't making the character likable enough." Disney picked up the project "and I went through the same process with them. I would fight them at every turn, there was a huge battle over making the lead younger, which I did."Gould admitted that the people who wanted him to make changes "were correct. They wanted movie characters. Characters who were upbeat and who were going to have a happy ending and a possible future in their lives. That's. So I tried to walk that thin line between giving them what they wanted and not betraying the whole arena of saloons in general."Tom Cruise expressed interest in playing the role, which helped get it financed. "There were a lot of bartenders aroun
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow