Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital city of the U. S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. It served as the capital of the United States in 1784; the city's metropolitan area is grouped with the New York metropolitan area by the United States Census Bureau, but it directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is part of the Philadelphia Combined Statistical Area and the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913, making it the state's tenth most populous municipality; the Census Bureau estimated that the city's population was 84,034 in 2014. Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720. A courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720, the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton.
Trenton became New Jersey's capital as of November 25, 1790, the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13, 1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial groups of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. On February 22, 1834, portions of Trenton Township were taken to form Ewing Township; the remaining portion of Trenton Township was absorbed by the City of Trenton on April 10, 1837. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton borough, portions of Nottingham Township, both the Borough of Chambersburg Township, Millham Township, as well as Wilbur Borough. Portions of Ewing Township and Hamilton Township were annexed to Trenton on March 23, 1900; the first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided an opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.
By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name was shortened to "Trenton". During the American Revolutionary War, the city was the site of the Battle of Trenton, George Washington's first military victory. On December 25–26, 1776, Washington and his army, after crossing the icy Delaware River to Trenton, defeated the Hessian troops garrisoned there. After the war, the Confederation Congress met in Trenton in November and December 1784. While the city was preferred by New England and other northern states as a permanent capital for the new country, the southern states prevailed in their choice of a location south of the Mason–Dixon line. Trenton became the state capital in 1790, but prior to that year the New Jersey Legislature met here; the city was incorporated in 1792. During the War of 1812, the United States Army's primary hospital was at a site on Broad Street. Throughout the 19th century, Trenton grew as European immigrants came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills.
In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day. The Trenton Six were a group of black men arrested for murdering a white man with a soda bottle, they were arrested without warrants, denied lawyers, sentenced to death based on what were described as coerced confessions. With the involvement of the Communist Party and the NAACP, there were several appeals, resulting in a total of four trials; the accused men were released. The incident was the subject of the book Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, written by Cathy Knepper; the Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew.
In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns and cuts suffered while fighting raging blazes or for injuries inflicted by rioters. Citizens of Trenton's urban core pulled false alarms and would throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes; this experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained; the losses incurred by downtown businesses were estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million. Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of crime-ridden in the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 8.155 square miles, including 7.648 square miles of land and 0.507 square mile of water.
Several bridges across the Delaware River – the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge, Lower Trenton Bridge
Carlisle is a borough in and the county seat of Cumberland County, United States. Carlisle is located within the Cumberland Valley, a productive agricultural region; as of the 2010 census, the borough population was 18,682. Including suburbs in the neighboring townships, 37,695 live in the Carlisle urban cluster. Carlisle is the smaller principal city of the Harrisburg−Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Cumberland and Perry counties in South Central Pennsylvania. In 2010, Forbes rated Harrisburg the second-best place to raise a family; the U. S. Army War College, located at the Carlisle Barracks, prepares high-level military personnel and civilians for strategic leadership responsibilities. Carlisle Barracks ranks among the oldest U. S. Army installations and the most senior military educational institution in the United States Army. Carlisle Barracks is home of the United States Army Heritage and Education Center, an archives and museum complex open to the public. Carlisle hosts Dickinson College and Penn State Dickinson School of Law.
Ahold's U. S. headquarters are in Carlisle. Scots-Irish immigrants farmed the Cumberland Valley beginning in the early 1730s; the town of Carlisle, at the intersection of several Indian trails, was designated by the Pennsylvania assembly and the William Penn family in 1751 as the seat of Cumberland County. American pioneer John Armstrong Sr. a surveyor for the Penn family, laid the plan for the town of Carlisle in 1751. He settled there and fathered John Armstrong Jr. in 1758. They named the settlement after its sister town of Carlisle, Cumberland and built its former jailhouse to resemble The Citadel in the English city. On the frontier confronting hostile Native American tribes, the town built a stockade for protection in 1753. Upgraded by the colony in 1755, it was called Ft. Carlisle. In 1757, Colonel Commandant John Stanwix—for whom Fort Stanwix in upstate New York is named—–made his headquarters in Carlisle, PA, was promoted to brigadier general on December 27 of that year. Stanwix had sat in Parliament as Member for Carlisle during the 1740s.
During the French and Indian Wars, the Forbes Expedition organized in Carlisle in 1758, Henry Bouquet organized an expedition there for Pontiac's War, the last conflict of the war, in 1763. Frontier freedom mentality and years of war bred in Cumberland County fierce freedom fighters in the Revolutionary War. In the town stands the home of James Wilson, early Carlisle lawyer, representative to the Continental Congress, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, one of the framers of the U. S. Constitution; the First Presbyterian Church, begun in 1757 and completed in 1770, the oldest building in Carlisle, is where the Rev. Capt John Steele, "The Fighting Parson," preached his fiery sermons for God and freedom and where colonists met July 12, 1774, to sign a document protesting the Boston Port Acts. A year Carlisle supplied a contingent for the first regiment of the Continental Army. Rev. Capt. John Steel was named commander of the leading company of this group. No longer standing but marked by a historical marker is the home of Ephraim Blaine, Commissary General of Revolutionary Army.
No longer standing but commemorated, is the home of Gen. John Armstrong Sr. "Hero of Kittanning," Revolutionary officer, member of the Continental Congress. Still standing is the gun shop of Thomas Butler Sr. an Irish immigrant, who manufactured Pennsylvania long rifles for the French and Indian War. He became Chief Armorer for The First Continental Congress, he and his five sons were known as "The Fighting Butlers. His eldest son was Richard Butler. Carlisle served as a munitions depot during the American Revolutionary War; the depot was developed into the United States Army War College at Carlisle Barracks. Revolutionary War legend Molly Pitcher died in the borough in 1832, her body lies buried in the Old Public Graveyard. A hotel was built in her honor, called the Molly Pitcher Hotel. Carlisle was incorporated as a borough a few years after the war on April 13, 1782. Carlisle continued to play a part in the early development in the United States through the end of the century: In response to a planned march in favor of the United States Constitution in 1787, Anti-Federalists instigated a riot in Carlisle.
A decade during the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, the troops of Pennsylvania and New Jersey assembled in Carlisle under the leadership of President George Washington. While in Carlisle, the president worshiped in the First Presbyterian Church at the corner of Hanover Street and High Street. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, developed Carlisle Grammar School in 1773 and chartered it as Dickinson College—the first new college founded in the newly recognized United States. One of the college's more famous alumni, the 15th U. S. president, James Buchanan, graduated in 1809. The Dickinson School of Law, founded in 1834 and affiliated with Dickinson College, ranks as the fifth-oldest law school in the United States and the oldest law school in Pennsylvania. A general borough law of 1851 authorized a burgess and a borough council to administer the government of the borough of Carlisle. Leading up to the American Civil War, Carlisle served as a stop on the Underground Railroad.
During the war, an army of the Confederate States of America, under General Fitzhugh Lee, att
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Pennsylvania General Assembly
The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the legislature of the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The legislature convenes in the State Capitol building in Harrisburg. In colonial times, the legislature was known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly and was unicameral. Since the Constitution of 1776, the legislature has been known as the General Assembly; the General Assembly became a bicameral legislature in 1791. The General Assembly has 253 members, consisting of a Senate with 50 members and a House of Representatives with 203 members, making it the second-largest state legislature in the nation and the largest full-time legislature. Senators are elected for a term of four years. Representatives are elected for a term of two years; the Pennsylvania general elections are held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years. A vacant seat must be filled by special election, the date of, set by the presiding officer of the respective house. Senators must be at least 25 years old, Representatives at least 21 years old.
They must be citizens and residents of the state for a minimum of four years and reside in their districts for at least one year. Individuals who have been convicted of felonies, including embezzlement and perjury, are ineligible for election. No one, expelled from the General Assembly may be elected. Legislative districts are drawn every ten years, following the U. S. Census. Districts are drawn by a five-member commission, of which four members are the majority and minority leaders of each house; the fifth member, who chairs the committee, is appointed by the other four and may not be an elected or appointed official. If the leadership can not decide on a fifth member, the State Supreme Court may appoint her. While in office, legislators may not hold civil office. If a member resigns, the Constitution states that he or she may not be appointed to civil office for the duration of the original term for which he or she was elected; the General Assembly is a continuing body within the term. It convenes at 12 o'clock noon on the first Tuesday of January each year and meets throughout the year.
Both houses adjourn on November 30 in even-numbered years, when the terms of all members of the House and half the members of the Senate expire. Neither body can adjourn for more than three days without the consent of the other; the governor may call a special session. As of 2017, only 35 special sessions have been called in the history of Pennsylvania; the Assembly meets in the Pennsylvania State Capitol, completed in 1906. Under the Pennsylvania Constitution, the Assembly must meet in the City of Harrisburg and can move only if given the consent of both chambers. During the mid-19th century, the frustration of the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the severe level of corruption in the General Assembly culminated in a constitutional amendment in 1864 which prevented the General Assembly from writing statutes covering more than one subject; the amendment was so poorly written that it prevented the General Assembly from undertaking a comprehensive codification of the Commonwealth's statutes until another amendment was pushed through in 1967 to provide the necessary exception.
This is why today, Pennsylvania is the only U. S. state. Pennsylvania is undertaking its first official codification process in the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes. Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai President pro tem of the Senate: Joseph B. Scarnati 2005 Pennsylvania General Assembly pay raise controversy Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, for the General Assembly before 1776 Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus Pennsylvania General Assembly Legislative Process
Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
The Lieutenant Governor is a constitutional officer of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The lieutenant governor is elected for a four-year term in the same year as the governor; each party picks a candidate for lieutenant governor independently of the gubernatorial primary. The winners of the party primaries are teamed together as a single ticket for the fall general election. Democrat John Fetterman is the incumbent lieutenant governor; the lieutenant governor presides in the Senate and is first in the line of succession to the governor. The office of lieutenant governor was created by the Constitution of 1873; as with the governor's position, the Constitution of 1968 made the lieutenant governor eligible to succeed himself or herself for one additional four-year term. The position's only official duties are serving as president of the state senate and chairing the Board of Pardons and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Council. Lieutenant governors work on additional projects and have a full schedule of community and speaking events.
Pennsylvania is the only state. Constructed in 1940 and the governor's "summer residence", it became available for Pennsylvania's lieutenant governor in 1968 when the current governor's residence was completed in Harrisburg. Parties Democratic Republican As of January 2019, seven former Lieutenant Governors of Pennsylvania were alive, the oldest being Robert C. Jubelirer; the most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania was that of Ernest P. Kline, on May 13, 2009; the most serving lieutenant governor to die was Catherine Baker Knoll, who died in office on November 12, 2008. From 1777 to 1790 the executive branch of Pennsylvania's state government was headed by a Supreme Executive Council consisting of a representative of each county and of the City of Philadelphia; the Vice President of the Council—also known as the Vice-President of Pennsylvania—held a position analogous to the modern office of Lieutenant Governor. Presidents and Vice-Presidents were elected to one-year terms and could serve up to three years—the full length of their regular term as Counsellor.
Ten men served as Vice-President during the time of the Council's existence. George Bryan 1777–1779 Matthew Smith 1779 William Moore 1779–1781 James Potter 1781–1782 James Ewing 1782–1784 James Irvine 1784–1785 Charles Biddle 1785–1787 Peter Muhlenberg 1787–1788 David Redick 1788 George Ross 1788–1790
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island