Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction takes place on location for a known client. Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning and financing. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. A project manager manages the job, a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or architect supervises it; those involved with the design and execution must consider zoning requirements, environmental impact of the job, budgeting, construction-site safety and transportation of building materials, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding. Large construction projects are sometimes referred to as megaprojects. Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form objects, systems, or organizations, comes from Latin constructio and Old French construction.
To construct is the verb: the act of building, the noun construction: how a building was built, the nature of its structure. In general, there are three sectors of construction: buildings and industrial. Building construction is further divided into residential and non-residential. Infrastructure is called heavy civil or heavy engineering that includes large public works, bridges, railways, water or wastewater and utility distribution. Industrial construction includes refineries, process chemical, power generation and manufacturing plants. There are other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets. Engineering News-Record, a trade magazine for the construction industry, each year compiles and reports data about the size of design and construction companies. In 2014, ENR compiled the data in nine market segments divided as transportation, buildings, industrial, manufacturing, sewer/waste, hazardous waste and a tenth category for other projects. In their reporting, they used data on transportation, hazardous waste and water to rank firms as heavy contractors.
The Standard Industrial Classification and the newer North American Industry Classification System have a classification system for companies that perform or engage in construction. To recognize the differences of companies in this sector, it is divided into three subsectors: building construction and civil engineering construction, specialty trade contractors. There are categories for construction service firms and construction managers. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings; the majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. The owner of the property acts as laborer and design team for the entire project. Although building construction projects consist of common elements such as design, financial and legal considerations, projects of varying sizes may reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation. For this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.
Commercial building construction is procured or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging. Residential construction practices and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials available in the area dictate the construction materials used. Cost of construction on a per square meter basis for houses can vary based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale and the availability of skilled tradesmen. Residential construction as well as other types of construction can generate waste such that planning is required. According to McKinsey research, productivity growth per worker in construction has lagged behind many other industries across different countries including in the United States and in European countries. In the United States, construction productivity per worker has declined by half since the 1960s.
The most popular method of residential construction in North America is wood-framed construction. Typical construction steps for a single-family or small multi-family house are: Obtain an engineered soil test of lot where construction is planned. From an engineer or company specializing in soil testing. Develop floor plans and obtain a materials list for estimations Obtain structural engineered plans for foundation and structure. To be completed by either a licensed engineer or architect. To include both a foundation and framing plan. Obtain lot survey Obtain government building approval if necessary If required obtain approval from HOA or ARC Clear the building site Survey to stake out for the foun
NASCAR Xfinity Series
The NASCAR Xfinity Series is a stock car racing series organized by NASCAR. It is promoted as NASCAR's "minor league" circuit, is considered a proving ground for drivers who wish to step up to the organization's top level circuit, the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series. NXS events are held as a support race on the day prior to a Cup Series event scheduled for that weekend; the series was called the Budweiser Late Model Sportsman Series in 1982 and 1983, the NASCAR Busch Grand National Series from 1984 through 2002, the NASCAR Busch Series from 2003 through 2007, the NASCAR Nationwide Series from 2008 through 2014. It is sponsored by Comcast via its consumer cable brand Xfinity; the series emerged from NASCAR's Sportsman division, formed in 1950 as NASCAR's short track race division. It was NASCAR's fourth series; the sportsman cars were not current model cars and could be modified more, but not as much as Modified series cars. It became the Late Model Sportsman Series in 1968, soon featured races on larger tracks such as Daytona International Speedway.
Drivers used obsolete Grand National cars on larger tracks but by the inception of the touring format in 1982, the series used older compact cars. Short track cars with small 300 cubic inch V-8 motors were used. Drivers used smaller current year models featuring V6 motors; the modern-day Xfinity Series was formed in 1982, when Anheuser-Busch sponsored a newly reformed late-model sportsman series with its Budweiser brand. The series switched sponsorship to Busch in 1984, it was renamed in 1986 to the Busch Grand National Series. Grand National was dropped from the series' title in 2003 as part of NASCAR's brand identity. Anheuser-Busch dropped the sponsorship in 2007; the Nationwide sponsorship was a seven-year contract, did not include the banking and mortgage departments of Nationwide. The sponsorship carried a $10 million commitment for 2008, with 6% annual escalations thereafter. On September 3, 2014, it was announced that Comcast would become the new title sponsor of the series via its cable television and internet brand Xfinity, renaming it the Xfinity Series.
In 2016, NASCAR implemented a seven-race Chase system similar to the one used in the NASCAR Cup Series. On August 23, 2018 NASCAR announced that the field size of the NXS will be cut from 40 to 38. On March 6, 2005, the series held its first race outside the United States, the Telcel-Motorola 200; the race was held in Mexico City, Mexico at the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez, a track that has held Formula One and Champ Car races in the past. It was won by Martin Truex Jr. On August 4, 2007, the series held its second race outside the United States, at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Montreal, another road course, it was won by Kevin Harvick. In July 2008, NASCAR announced that the Nationwide Series would not return to Mexico City in 2009, in 2012 they announced that it would not be returning to Montreal in 2013. In 2016, the NXS and the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series adopted a playoff format similar to the NASCAR Cup Series Chase for the Championship. Unlike the NASCAR Cup Series, whose Chase consists of four rounds, the Xfinity Series and Truck Series both use a three-round format.
After each of the first two rounds, the four Chase grid drivers with the fewest season points are eliminated from the grid and Chase contention. The best-placed driver overall from the four Dash 4 Cash races advances to the Chase. Round of 12 Begins with 12 drivers who qualify for the Chase grid with 2,000 points Round of 8 Begins with 8 drivers, each with 3,000 points Championship 4 The last four drivers in contention for the season title will have their points reset to 4,000 points, with the highest finisher in the race winning the NXS title. In the 1980s, races were sparsely shown by ESPN if they were covering the cup race at the same track. Starting in 1990, more races began to be shown. By the mid-1990s, all races were shown. Most standalone races were aired on TNN, which helped grow coverage of the series, while races that were companion races with Winston Cup dates aired on the network airing the Cup race. TNN aired some of these races, which aired on CBS, NBC, ESPN, ABC and TBS. From 2001 until 2006, Fox Sports covered the entire first half of the Busch Grand National season, while NBC and TNT both aired races during the second half, with Turner Sports producing all the coverage for both networks.
However, in numbered years, coverage was changed, with the opening race at Daytona airing on NBC in 2004, on TNT in 2002 and 2006 and the track's July race airing on FX. Large portions of Fox's coverage aired on sister network FX, with a few marquee events on the network itself. From 2007 until 2014, ESPN was the home of the renamed Nationwide Series. Four races per season aired on ABC, with the remainder on ESPN, ESPN2, ESPNews. Early in ESPN's run, ESPN Classic was used for NNS overflow, however with less carriage of that network, this practice ended. Fox Sports did make a return to the series, airing the 2011 Bubba Burger 250 at Richmond on Speed Channel, due to ESPN giving up its exclusive rights to the race because of programming conflicts. In 2015, the NXS returned to FOX Sports during the first half of the season. Like the previous time Fox held righ
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients. Prior to the invention and adoption of the Fourdrinier machine and other types of paper machine that use an endless belt, all paper in a paper mill was made by hand, one sheet at a time, by specialized laborers. Historical investigations into the origin of the paper mill are complicated by differing definitions and loose terminology from modern authors: Many modern scholars use the term to refer indiscriminately to all kinds of mills, whether powered by humans, by animals or by water, their propensity to refer to any ancient paper manufacturing centre as a "mill", without further specifying its exact power drive, has increased the difficulty of identifying the efficient and important water-powered type. The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Muslim papermakers. However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century.
The general absence of the use of water-powered paper mills in Muslim papermaking prior to the 11th century is suggested by the habit of Muslim authors at the time to call a production center not a "mill", but a "paper manufactory". Scholars have identified paper mills in Abbasid-era Baghdad in 794–795; the evidence that waterpower was applied to papermaking at this time is a matter of scholarly debate. In the Moroccan city of Fez, Ibn Battuta speaks of "400 mill stones for paper". Since Ibn Battuta does not mention the use of water-power and such a number of water-mills would be grotesquely high, the passage is taken to refer to human or animal force. An exhaustive survey of milling in Al-Andalus did not uncover water-powered paper mills, nor do the Spanish books of property distribution after the Christian reconquest refer to any. Arabic texts never use the term mill in connection with papermaking and the most thorough account of Muslim papermaking at the time, the one by the Zirid Sultan Al-Muizz ibn Badis, describes the art purely in terms of a handcraft.
Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand, in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni, but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill. This is seen by Leor Halevi as evidence of Samarkand first harnessing waterpower in the production of paper, but notes that it is not known if waterpower was applied to papermaking elsewhere across the Islamic world at the time. Robert I. Burns remains sceptical, given the isolated occurrence of the reference and the prevalence of manual labour in Islamic papermaking elsewhere prior to the 13th century. Hill notes that paper mills appear in early Christian Catalan documentation from the 1150s, which may imply Islamic origins, but that hard evidence is lacking. Burns, has dismissed the case for early Catalan water-powered paper mills, after re-examination of the evidence; the identification of early hydraulic stamping mills in medieval documents from Fabriano, Italy, is completely without substance.
Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to 1282 in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. A decree by the Christian king Peter III addresses the establishment of a royal "molendinum", a proper hydraulic mill, in the paper manufacturing centre of Xàtiva; this early hydraulic paper mill was operated by Muslim Mudéjar in the Moorish quarter of Xàtiva, though it appears to have been resented by sections of the local Muslim papermakering community. The first permanent paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in 1390. From the mid-14th century onwards, European paper milling underwent a rapid improvement of many work processes; the size of a paper mill prior to the use of industrial machines was described by counting the number of vats it had. Thus, a "one vat" paper mill had only one vatman, one coucher, other laborers. By the early 20th century, paper mills sprang up around New England and the rest of the world, due to the high demand for paper. At this time, there were many world leaders of the production of paper.
During the year 1907, the Brown Company cut between 30 and 40 million acres of woodlands on their property, which extended from La Tuque, Canada to West Palm, Florida. In the 1920s Nancy Baker Tompkins represented large paper manufacturing companies, like Hammermill Paper Company, Honolulu Paper Company and Appleton Coated Paper Company to promote sales to the distributors of paper products, it was the only business of its kind in the world and was started in 1931 by Tompkins and prospered in spite of the business depression. “Log drives” were conducted on local rivers to send the logs to the mills. By the late 20th and early 21st-century, paper mills began to close and the log drives became a dying craft. Due to the addition of new machinery, many millworkers were laid off and many of the historic paper mills closed. Paper mills can be integrated mills or nonintegrated mills. Integrated mills consist of a paper mill on the same site; such mills produce paper. The modern paper mill uses large amounts of energy and wood pulp in an efficient and complex series of processes, control technology to produce a sheet of paper that can be used in diverse ways.
Modern paper machines can be 500 feet in length, produce a sheet 400 inc
Lynn Haven, Florida
Lynn Haven is a city in Bay County, United States, north of Panama City. The population was 18,493 at the 2010 census, it has the smaller population of the two principal cities of the Panama City - Lynn Haven Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lynn Haven is located at 30°14′23″N 85°38′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.8 square miles, of which 10.4 square miles is land, 1.4 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 18,493 people, 4,898 households, 3,649 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,783.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,266 housing units at an average density of 643.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.2% White, 10.0% African American, 0.6% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 4,898 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families.
21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,105, the median income for a family was $48,904. Males had a median income of $33,698 versus $24,707 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,330. About 6.2% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. There are six public schools: Lynn Haven Elementary School Mowat Middle School A. Crawford Mosley High School Deer Point Elementary School New Horizon School Haney Vo Tech SchoolThere are two charter schools: Bay Haven North Bay Haven Historic areas and buildings in Lynn Haven include: First Presbyterian Church, built in 1911 City Hall, built in 1928 Monument Park, the only Civil War monument in the South to be dedicated to Union soldiers Bailey Bridge, built in 1946 to replace the wooden pier that spanned North Bay from Lynn Haven to Southport Panama Country Club Golf Course, developed in 1927 City of Lynn Haven official website
Dredging is the operation of removing material from one part of the water environment and relocating it to another. In all but a few situations the excavation is undertaken by a specialist floating plant, known as a dredger. Dredging is carried out in many different locations and for many different purposes, but the main objectives are to recover material that has some value or use, or to create a greater depth of water. Dredging is the form of excavation carried out underwater or underwater, in shallow waters or ocean waters, it keeps waterways and ports navigable, assists coastal protection, land reclamation and coastal redevelopment, by gathering up bottom sediments and transporting it elsewhere. Dredging can be done to recover materials of commercial value. Dredging is a four-part process: loosening the material, bringing the material to the surface and disposal; the material can be brought to the surface by mechanical means. The extract can be disposed of locally or transported by barge or in a liquid suspension in kilometre long pipelines.
Disposal can be to infill sites, or the material can be used constructively to replenish eroded sand, lost to coastal erosion, or constructively create sea-walls, building land or whole new landforms such as viable islands in coral atolls. Ancient authors refer to habour dredging; the seven arms of the Nile were channelled and wharfs built at the time of the pyramids, there was extensive harbour building in the eastern Mediterranean from 1000 BC and the disturbed sediment layers gives evidence of dredging. At Marseille, dredging phases are recorded from the third century BC onwards, the most extensive during the first century AD; the remains of three dredging boats have been unearthed. Dredging machines were used during the construction of the Suez Canal. During the renaissance da Vinci drew a design for a drag dredger. Maintenance: dredging to deepen or maintain navigable waterways or channels which are threatened to become silted with the passage of time, due to sedimented sand and mud making them too shallow for navigation.
This is carried out with a trailing suction hopper dredge. Most dredging is for this purpose, it may be done to maintain the holding capacity of reservoirs or lakes. Land reclamation: dredging to mine sand, clay or rock from the seabed and using it to construct new land elsewhere; this is performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge. The material may be used for flood or erosion control. Capital dredging: dredging carried out to create a new harbour, berth or waterway, or to deepen existing facilities in order to allow larger ships access; because capital works involve hard material or high-volume works, the work is done using a cutter suction dredge or large trailing suction hopper dredge. Preparatory: dredging work and excavation for future bridges, piers or docksor wharves, This is to build the foundations. Winning construction materials: dredging sand and gravels from offshore licensed areas for use in construction industry, principally for use in concrete; this specialist industry is focused in NW Europe, it uses specialized trailing suction hopper dredgers self discharging the dry cargo ashore.
Contaminant remediation: to reclaim areas affected by chemical spills, storm water surges, other soil contaminations, including silt from sewage sludge and from decayed matter, like wilted plants. Disposal becomes a proportionally large factor in these operations. Flood prevention: dredging increases the channel depth and therefore increase a channel's capacity for carrying water. Fishing dredging is a technique for catching certain species of edible crabs. In Louisiana and other American states, with salt water estuaries that can sustain bottom oyster beds, oysters are raised and harvested. A heavy rectangular metal scoop is towed astern of a moving boat with a chain bridle attached to a cable; this drags along the bottom scooping up oysters. It is periodically winched aboard and the catch is sorted and bagged for shipment. Harvesting materials: dredging sediment for elements like gold, diamonds or other valuable trace substances. Hobbyists examine their dredged matter to pick out items of potential value, similar to the hobby of metal detecting.
Beach nourishment: this is mining sand offshore and placing on a beach to replace sand eroded by storms or wave action. This enhances the recreational and protective function of the beach, which are eroded by human activity; this is performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge. Peat extraction: dredging poles or dredge hauls were used on the back of small boats to manually dredge the beds of peat-moor waterways; the extracted peat was used as a fuel. This tradition is now less obsolete; the tools are now changed. Removing rubbish and debris: done in combination with maintenance dredging, this process removes non-natural matter from the bottoms of rivers and canals and harbours. Law enforcement agencies sometimes need to use a'drag' to recover evidence or corpses from beneath the water. Anti-eutrophication: A kind of contaminant remediation, dredging is an expensive option for the remediation of eutrophied water bodies. However, as artificially elevated phosphorus levels in the sediment aggravate the eutrophication process, controlled sed
Clinton Edward "Clint" Bowyer is an American professional stock car racing driver. He competes full-time in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, driving the No. 14 Ford Mustang for Stewart-Haas Racing. Prior to driving for Stewart-Haas Racing, he drove for HScott Motorsports for one year, Michael Waltrip Racing for four years, Richard Childress Racing for eight years. Bowyer won the 2008 Nationwide Series championship driving for RCR. Bowyer began racing at the age of five in motocross, he went on to capture over numerous championships over the next eight years. In 1996, he began racing street stocks at Thunderhill Speedway in Mayetta and won the Modified championship there in 2000. Bowyer racked up 18 wins and 32 top-five finishes on his way to capturing the 2001 Modified championships at Lakeside Speedway in Kansas City and Heartland Park Topeka. In 2002, he began racing in the NASCAR Weekly Racing Series, posting 9 poles, 12 wins and 32 top-five finishes en route to a second-place finish in the NASCAR Weekly Racing Series national point standings.
He was crowned the 2002 NASCAR Weekly Racing Series Midwest Champion after another Modified championship at Lakeside Speedway and a Late Model championship at the famed I-70 Speedway in Odessa, MO, his first attempt at racing on asphalt. In 2003, Bowyer raced a full season in the NASCAR AutoZone Elite Division Midwest Series, scoring one top-ten finish in 11 starts, he would make his first ARCA starts in 2003, caught the eye of legendary car owner Richard Childress after leading 47 laps and finishing second in his debut at Nashville Superspeedway driving for Scott Traylor out of Kansas City. After the second-place finish, Childress offered him a job. Bowyer hung up on him. Childress called back soon afterward and with a not-too-happy tone he still offered the job to Bowyer. In 2004, Bowyer began by finishing 8th in the ARCA Re/Max Series race at Daytona in the No. 7 Chevrolet for Gerhart. In 2004 Bowyer began running in the Busch Series for Childress, sharing seat time in the No. 21 Chevrolet with Kevin Harvick.
He drove in half of the 34 Busch Series races that year, winning one pole and seven top-tens, attaining a season-high 3rd-place finish in the Federated Auto Parts 300 at Nashville Superspeedway in June. He ran three races for Kevin Harvick Incorporated with help from Andy Petree Racing. Bowyer made two starts for Bill McAnally Racing in the Camping World West Series in the No. 20 Chevrolet. In his two starts at Phoenix and Auto Club Speedway, he had a best finish of 2nd. Bowyer's first full Busch season was in 2005, he won two poles and two races en route to a second-place finish to repeat-champion Martin Truex Jr. losing by only 68 points. He made his Nextel Cup debut in the No. 33 Chevy on April 23, 2005, during the Subway Fresh 500 at Phoenix International Raceway. He finished 22nd as the first car one lap down. Richard Childress Racing announced on October 15, 2005, that Bowyer would race the No. 07 Chevrolet full-time in the Nextel Cup series, replacing Dave Blaney for the 2006 season. Bowyer began his rookie Cup season with three Top 5 finishes and had a total of eleven Top 10s that season, with his best finish being a 3rd at California Speedway.
He finished 68 points behind Denny Hamlin for NASCAR Rookie of the Year honors. Bowyer continued to drive the No. 2 in the Busch Series full-time, winning once and finishing 3rd in points. Bowyer won his first Craftsman Truck Series race in the No. 46 Chevrolet Silverado fielded by Morgan-Dollar Motorsports at Texas Motor Speedway on November 3, 2006, in his third career Truck start, making his first CTS start that year at Martinsville for Green Light Racing. After starting the 2007 season with a last-lap crash at Daytona, Bowyer won the Budweiser Pole position for the Dodge Avenger 500 at Darlington Raceway, he finished the regular season 9th in points, but was seeded 12th for the playoff since race wins determine playoff seeding. Bowyer won his second pole at the Sylvania 300 at Loudon, two days went on to win his first Nextel Cup race in his 64th start; the win made Bowyer the fifteenth driver to win at least one race in all three of NASCAR's top series. For the 2007 Busch season, Bowyer ran a partial Busch Series schedule in the RCR No. 2 car.
On April 20, 2007, he won the Busch Series Bashas' Supermarkets 200 at Phoenix International Raceway. He followed that up with another Busch Series win on May 4 in the Circuit City 250 at Richmond International Raceway. Bowyer ran select races in the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series for Kevin Harvick. In 2008, Bowyer continued to drive in the Nationwide Series full-time. Bowyer dominated the late stages of the Daytona 500 but was spun out by Juan Pablo Montoya with 17 laps remaining. On May 3, 2008, Bowyer earned his second Sprint Cup victory, winning the Crown Royal Presents the Dan Lowry 400 at Richmond International Speedway. Bowyer led only two laps, going to the front after Dale Earnhardt Jr. and Kyle Busch got together with less than four laps remaining in the race. On August 23, 2008, Bowyer was announced as the driver of the No. 33 Chevrolet Impala SS for RCR. Casey Mears from Hendrick Motorsports replaced Bowyer in the Jack Daniel's-sponsored car; this move was necessitated by a sponsor's request, as General Mills did not want Mears, driving in the 2008 season for rival cereal maker Kellogg's, representing them, so Childress sponsors General Mills and Brown-Forman Corporation agreed to the swap so Bowyer, who drove for Brown-Forman, would drive for General Mills, Mears could d
NBC Sports is the programming division of the American broadcast network NBC, owned by the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal, responsible for sports broadcasts on the network, its dedicated national sports cable channels. Operating as "a service of NBC News", it broadcasts a diverse array of sports events, including the Olympic Games, the NFL, NASCAR, the NHL, Notre Dame football, the PGA Tour, the IndyCar Series, the Premier League, the Triple Crown, among others. Other programming from outside producers – such as coverage of the Ironman Triathlon – is presented on the network through NBC Sports. With Comcast's acquisition of NBCUniversal, its own cable sports networks were aligned with NBC Sports into a part of the division known as the NBC Sports Group. In 2000, NBC declined to renew its broadcast agreement with Major League Baseball. In 2002, it was additionally outbid by ESPN and ABC for the NBA's new broadcast contract, ending the league's twelve-year run on NBC. During this era, NBC experimented with broadcasting emerging sports.
In 2001, the network partnered with the World Wrestling Federation to establish the XFL – a new football league which introduced modified rules and debuted to tremendous, but short-lived fanfare, only lasting one season. In 2003, NBC obtained a minority interest in the Arena Football League; the network televised weekly games on a regional basis, as well as the entire playoffs. The deal lasted four years, after which NBC parted ways. Beginning with the 1999 Pennzoil 400, NBC began its foray into NASCAR. NBC, along with Fox, FX and TNT, obtained the broadcast rights of the top two series – the Winston Cup and Busch Series – in a six-year deal, beginning in 2001. NBC televised the second half of the alternated coverage of the Daytona 500 with Fox. In December 2005, NBC announced that it would not renew its agreement with NASCAR. In 2001, NBC obtained the broadcast rights to horse racing's Triple Crown in a five-year deal. In 2004, NBC reached a broadcast agreement with the National Hockey League.
The revenue-sharing deal called for the two sides to split advertising revenue after the network recouped the expenses. Games were supposed to begin airing on the network during the 2004–05 season, however a league lockout that resulted in the cancellation of that season delayed the start of the contract until the second half of the 2005–06 season. NBC televised regular season games at first on Saturday afternoons before moving the telecast to Sundays and Sunday afternoon playoff games, up to five games of the Stanley Cup Final. Additionally in 2008, NBC broadcast the first Winter Classic, an outdoor NHL game played on New Year's Day at Ralph Wilson Stadium, a success in attendance and television ratings; the following year's Winter Classic would become the most-watched regular season game in 34 years. In addition to this regular season success, Game 7 of the 2009 Stanley Cup Final was watched by an average of 8 million viewers, the highest ratings for an NHL game in 36 years; the NFL returned to NBC in 2006 after an eight-year hiatus, broadcasting the league's new flagship Sunday Night Football game, along with select postseason games and Super Bowls XLIII, XLVI, XLIX, LII and LVI.
In January 2011, Comcast finalized its acquisition of a majority share in NBC Universal. As a result of the merger, the operations of Comcast's existing sports networks, such as Golf Channel and Versus, were merged into an entity known as the NBC Sports Group. NBC Sports' senior vice president Mike McCarley additionally became Golf Channel's new head. NBC Sports' golf production unit was merged with Golf Channel, along with NBC's on-air staff, with that unit rebranding under the banner "Golf Channel on NBC", while Versus was reformatted toward a more mainstream audience, renamed the NBC Sports Network and rebranded as NBCSN; the merger helped influence an extension of NBC Sports' contract with the NHL. On July 3, 2011, ESPN obtained the exclusive broadcast rights to Wimbledon in a 12-year deal, ending NBC's television relationship with The Championships after 42 years. On August 10, 2011, NBC Sports announced a new three-year broadcasting contract with Major League Soccer to produce games for the 2012 season on NBC and the NBC Sports Network.
This included the broadcast of two regular season games, two playoff games, two national team matches on NBC and 38 regular season games, three playoff games, two national team matches on NBC Sports Network. On October 28, 2012, NBC Sports announced a three-year, $250 million deal to televise Premier League soccer in English and Spanish beginning with the 2013–14 season, replacing ESPN and Fox Soccer as the league's U. S. broadcasters. On October 15, 2012, NBC Sports announced that it had acquired broadcast rights to the Formula One World Championship in a four-year deal with the series; the majority of its coverage would air on NBCSN, while NBC would air the Monaco Grand Prix, Canadian Grand Prix and the final two races of the season, which include the United States Grand Prix. All races will be streamed online and through the NBC Sports Live Extra mobile app. On October 4, 2017, it was announced that NBC Sports lost the broadcast rights to ESPN beginning with the 2018–