Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
National Library of Scotland
The National Library of Scotland is the legal deposit library of Scotland and is one of the country's National Collections. Its main public building is in Edinburgh city centre on George IV Bridge, between the Old Town and the university quarter. There is a more modern building in a residential area on the south side of the town centre, on Causewayside; this was built to accommodate some of the specialist collections, such as maps and science collections, to provide extra large-scale storage. In 2016 a new public centre opened at Glasgow's Kelvin Hall providing access to the Library's digital and moving image collections; the National Library of Scotland holds 7 million books, 14 million printed items and over 2 million maps. The collection includes copies of the Gutenberg Bible, the letter which Charles Darwin submitted with the manuscript of Origin of Species, the First Folio of Shakespeare and numerous journals and other publications, it has the largest collection of Scottish Gaelic material of any library.
Scotland's national deposit library was the Advocates Library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates. It was opened in 1689 and gained national library status in the 1710 Copyright Act, giving it the legal right to a copy of every book published in Great Britain. In the following centuries, the library added books and manuscripts to the collections by purchase as well as legal deposit, creating a funded national library in all but name. By the 1920s, the upkeep of such a major collection was too much for a private body, with an endowment of £100,000 provided by Alexander Grant, managing director of McVitie & Price, the Library's contents were presented to the nation; the National Library of Scotland was formally constituted by Act of Parliament in 1925. The Nation recognised Grant with a baronetcy, he was created Sir Alexander Grant of Forres in June 1924. In 1928 he donated a further £100,000 – making his combined donations the equivalent of around £6 million today – for a new library building to be constructed on George IV Bridge, replacing the Victorian-period Sheriff Court, which institution moved to the Royal Mile.
Government funding was secured. Work on the new building was started in 1938, interrupted by the Second World War, completed in 1956; the architect was Reginald Fairlie. The coat of arms above the entrance was sculpted by Scott Sutherland and the roundels above the muses on the front facade by Elizabeth Dempster. By the 1970s, room for the ever-expanding collections was running out, other premises were needed; the Causewayside Building opened in the south-side of Edinburgh in two phases, in 1989 and in 1995, at a total cost of £50 million, providing much-needed additional working space and storage facilities. Since 1999, the Library has been funded by the Scottish Parliament, it remains one of only six legal deposit libraries in the United Kingdom and Ireland, is governed by a board of trustees. The Library holds many ancient family manuscripts including those of the Clan Sinclair, which date back as far as 1488. On 26 February 2009, areas of the building were flooded after a water main burst on the 12th floor.
Firefighters were called and the leaking water was stopped within ten minutes. A number of items were damaged; the last letter written by Mary Queen of Scots made a rare public appearance to mark the opening of a new Library visitor centre in September 2009. The Library joined the 10:10 project in 2010 in a bid to reduce their carbon footprint. One year they announced that they had reduced their carbon emissions according to 10:10's criteria by 18%. On 16 May 2012 the National Library of Scotland Act 2012 was passed by the Scottish Parliament, received Royal Assent in 21 June 2012. In April 2013 the Library advertised for a Wikipedian in residence, becoming the first institution in the Scotland to create such a post. In 2016, the Library recruited a Gaelic Wikipedian in residence. In September 2016 the Library opened a new centre at the refurbished Kelvin Hall, Glasgow, in partnership with Glasgow Life and the University of Glasgow; the centre provides access to moving image collections. As of 2013, the Library holds: manuscripts: 100,000 items maps: 2 million items films: more than 46,000 items newspaper and magazine titles: 25,000 items Bartholomew Archive John Murray Archive Scottish Publishers Association Ask Scotland, Scotland's online information service provided by Scotland’s libraries Books in the United Kingdom Official website
William Alfred Delamotte
William Alfred Delamotte, was an English painter and printmaker. Delamotte was the son of a French refugee, his remarkable drawing skills were apparent from an early age, so that he enjoyed the royal patronage of King George III. After having exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1793, he enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools the following year, becoming a student of Benjamin West, another of the King's protégés and President of the Royal Academy. During these years of study, Delamotte chose to turn his attention to architectural and landscape work. From the Academy he moved to Oxford. In 1803 he accepted the post of drawing-master at the newly established Royal Military College, Sandhurst, a position he held for forty years. Besides producing watercolours and a few oils, he turned to printmaking by way of etching and soft-ground etching, he was the brother of landscape artist and teacher. One of his sons, Philip Henry Delamotte, was a noted photographer and illustrator, became Professor of Drawing and Fine Art at King's College London.
Delamotte died in Oxford. William & Mary Anne Delamotte's grave in St Sepulchre's Cemetery, with biography
Edward Forster (writer)
Edward Forster FRS FSA was an English cleric and miscellaneous writer. Forster was born at Colchester, Essex, on 11 June 1769, the only son of Nathaniel Forster, D. D. rector of All Saints in that town. After receiving some instruction at home, he was sent to Norwich grammar school under his father's close friend Samuel Parr. On 5 May 1788 he matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford. To renew contact with Parr, Forster took a house at Hatton, where he resided for some time. Havin married, he became a member of St. Mary Hall, where he graduated B. A. on 21 February 1792, entered Lincoln's Inn on 15 June of the same year. Deciding, however, to become a clergyman, he was ordained priest by Beilby Porteus, bishop of London, in 1796, he proceeded M. A. on 16 February 1797. In 1803, Forster was presented to the rectory of Aston Somerville, Gloucestershire, by an old friend, Lord Somerville, who had procured for him the appointment of chaplain to the Duke of Newcastle in 1796. There was no parsonage-house on the living, Forster settled in London, where his pulpit oratory was in demand.
He was from 1800 to 1814 successively morning preacher at Grosvenor chapels. After the peace of 1815 Forster moved with his family to Paris, his finances having suffered by losses on his publications. About a year he began to preach in the Temple Protestant de l'Oratoire du Louvre, obtained a grant from the consistory for the use of the church when it was not required for French service. Here he officiated until the autumn of 1827. In 1818, he was appointed to the post, founded at his suggestion, of chaplain to the British embassy, which he continued to hold until his death. In 1824, the Earl of Bridgewater made him his chaplain. Forster had been elected Fellow of the Royal Society on 10 December 1801, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, he was an active supporter of the Royal Institution from its foundation, was appointed honorary librarian by the directors, was engaged to deliver lectures there during three successive seasons. Forster died in Paris on 18 February 1828, after a lingering illness, was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Forster entered into an engagement with a bookseller, William Miller of Old Bond Street, subsequently of Albemarle Street, to issue tastefully printed editions of the works of standard authors, illustrated by the best artists of the day. His first venture was an edition of Charles Jervas's translation of Don Quixote. Having been successful in this, he published some lesser works of less importance, while he was preparing for the press a new translation, from the French of Antoine Galland, of the Arabian Nights, with twenty-four engravings from pictures by Robert Smirke, R. A. During the same year he brought out an edition of Anacreon, for which William Bulmer furnished a Greek font. Editions of dramatic authors followed, under the titles of British Drama, New British Theatre, English Drama. An edition of Rasselas, with engravings by Abraham Raimbach from pictures painted by Smirke, was issued by Forster in 1805. Forster's major publication was the folio serial entitled The British Gallery of Engravings, consisting of finished line engravings.
Descriptions in English and French accompany each engraving. The first number of this work appeared in 1807, in 1813 the first volume only was completed, when it was abandoned for financial reasons; when he left for Paris, Forster was engaged in publishing a Plautus. Three volumes were completed. Towards the end of 1790 Forster married Elizabeth, widow of Captain Addison, youngest daughter of Philip Bedingfeld of Ditchingham Hall, Norfolk. On 3 August 1799 resident at Weston, Oxfordshire, he married as his second wife Lavinia, only daughter of Thomas Banks, R. A. the sculptor. He left a widow and three daughters, for whose benefit were published Sermons preached at the Chapel of the British Embassy, at the Protestant Church of the Oratoire, in Paris, by Edward Forster, with a short Account of his Life, edited by Lavinia Forster, 2 vols. Paris, 1828
Art Gallery of South Australia
The Art Gallery of South Australia, located on the cultural boulevard of North Terrace in Adelaide, is one of three significant visual arts museums in the Australian state of South Australia. It has a collection of over 38,000 works of art, making it, after the National Gallery of Victoria, the second largest state art collection in Australia, it was known as the National Gallery of South Australia until 1967 when the current name was adopted. The Art Gallery is located adjacent to the State Library of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the University of Adelaide. AGSA is part of Adelaide's North Terrace cultural precinct and had 712,994 visitors in the year ended 30 June 2011; as well as its permanent collection, AGSA displays a number of visiting exhibitions each year and contributes travelling exhibitions to regional galleries. The gallery was established in 1881 and opened in two rooms of the public library by Prince Albert Victor and Prince George George V of Great Britain.
The present building dates from 1900 and was extended in 1936 and 1962. Subsequent renovations and a significant extension of the building which opened in 1996 added contemporary display space without compromising the interior of the original Victorian building. In 2016, the gallery participated in the large "Biennial 2016" art festival; the AGSA is renowned for its collections of Australian art, notably Indigenous Australian and colonial art, British art, including a large collection of Pre-Raphaelite works, by artists Edward Burne-Jones, William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Morris & Co. and Japanese art. It has important works of the Heidelberg school including Tom Roberts' A break away!, Charles Conder's A holiday at Mentone, Arthur Streeton's Road to Templestowe. The mid-twentieth century is represented by works by Russell Drysdale, Arthur Boyd, Margaret Preston, Bessie Davidson, Sidney Nolan; the gallery holds works by twentieth century South Australian artists including James Ashton, Hans Heysen and Jeffrey Smart.
European landscape paintings include works by Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael, Salomon van Ruysdael, Joseph Wright of Derby, Camille Pissarro. British portrait painters are well represented in the collection which includes Robert Peake, Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely and Thomas Gainsborough. Other works include paintings by Francesco Guardi, Pompeo Batoni and Camille Corot. Sculpture includes works by Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth and Jacob Epstein. Selected Australian works Selected international works William Holman Hunt and the Two Marys,.
Fingal's Cave is a sea cave on the uninhabited island of Staffa, in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, known for its natural acoustics. The National Trust for Scotland owns the cave as part of a National Nature Reserve, it became known as Fingal's Cave after the eponymous hero of an epic poem by 18th-century Scots poet-historian James Macpherson. Fingal's Cave is formed from hexagonally jointed basalt columns within a Paleocene lava flow, similar in structure to the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland and those of nearby Ulva. In all these cases, cooling on the upper and lower surfaces of the solidified lava resulted in contraction and fracturing, starting in a blocky tetragonal pattern and transitioning to a regular hexagonal fracture pattern with fractures perpendicular to the cooling surfaces; as cooling continued these cracks extended toward the centre of the flow, forming the long hexagonal columns we see in the wave-eroded cross-section today. Similar hexagonal fracture patterns are found in desiccation cracks in mud where contraction is due to loss of water instead of cooling.
Little is known of the early history of Staffa, although the Swiss town of Stäfa on Lake Zurich was named after the island by a monk from nearby Iona. Part of the Ulva estate of the Clan MacQuarrie from an early date until 1777, the cave was brought to the attention of the English-speaking world by 18th-century naturalist Sir Joseph Banks in 1772, it became known as Fingal's Cave after the eponymous hero of an epic poem by 18th century Scots poet-historian James Macpherson. It formed. In Irish mythology, the hero Fingal is known as Fionn mac Cumhaill, it is suggested that Macpherson rendered the name as Fingal through a misapprehension of the name which in old Gaelic would appear as Finn; the legend of the Giant's Causeway has Fionn or Finn building the causeway between Ireland and Scotland. The cave is filled by the sea. Several sightseeing cruises organised from April to September by local companies pass the entrance to the cave. In calm conditions, one can land at the island's landing place and walk the short distance to the cave, where a row of fractured columns forms a walkway just above high-water level permitting exploration on foot.
From the inside, the entrance seems to frame the island of Iona across the water. Romantic composer Felix Mendelssohn visited in 1829 and wrote an overture, The Hebrides, Op. 26, inspired by the weird echoes in the cave. Mendelssohn's overture popularized the cave as a tourist destination. Other famous 19th-century visitors included author Jules Verne, who used it in his book Le Rayon Vert, mentions it in the novels Journey to the Center of the Earth and The Mysterious Island. Queen Victoria made the trip; the playwright August Strindberg set scenes from his play A Dream Play in a place called "Fingal's Grotta". Scots novelist Sir Walter Scott described Fingal's Cave as "one of the most extraordinary places I beheld, it exceeded, in my mind, every description I had heard of it… composed of basaltic pillars as high as the roof of a cathedral, running deep into the rock, eternally swept by a deep and swelling sea, paved, as it were, with ruddy marble, baffles all description."Artist Matthew Barney used the cave along with the Giant's Causeway for the opening and closing scenes of his art film, Cremaster 3.
In 2008, the video artist Richard Ashrowan spent several days recording the interior of Fingal's Cave for an exhibition at the Foksal Gallery in Poland. One of Pink Floyd's early songs bears this location's name; this instrumental was not used. Lloyd House at Caltech has a mural representing Fingal's Cave; the hallway that features this mural houses a wooden statue named Fingal, among the oldest heirlooms at the institute. Scottish Celtic rock band Wolfstone recorded an instrumental titled Fingal's Cave on their 1999 album Seven; the Alistair MacLean novel-based movie, When Eight Bells Toll starring Anthony Hopkins was filmed there. Wood-Nuttall Encyclopaedia, 1907: 69 m deep, 20 m high. National Public Radio: 45 m deep. Show Caves of the World: 85 m deep. Haswell-Smith, Hamish; the Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7. Engraving of Fingal's cave by James Fittler in the digitised copy of Scotia Depicta, or the antiquities, public buildings and gentlemen's seats, cities and picturesque scenery of Scotland, 1804 at National Library of Scotland
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate