United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution prevents the government from making laws which respect an establishment of religion, prohibit the free exercise of religion, or abridge the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or the right to petition the government for redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights; the Bill of Rights was proposed to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification. The First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Everson v. Board of Education, the Court drew on Thomas Jefferson's correspondence to call for "a wall of separation between church and State", though the precise boundary of this separation remains in dispute.
Speech rights were expanded in a series of 20th and 21st-century court decisions which protected various forms of political speech, anonymous speech, campaign financing and school speech. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. Commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, is therefore subject to greater regulation; the Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, applies to a wide variety of media. In Near v. Minnesota and New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in all cases; the Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. In 1776, the second year of the American Revolutionary War, the Virginia colonial legislature passed a Declaration of Rights that included the sentence "The freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, can never be restrained but by despotic Governments." Eight of the other twelve states made similar pledges. However, these declarations were considered "mere admonitions to state legislatures", rather than enforceable provisions. After several years of comparatively weak government under the Articles of Confederation, a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia proposed a new constitution on September 17, 1787, featuring among other changes a stronger chief executive. George Mason, a Constitutional Convention delegate and the drafter of Virginia's Declaration of Rights, proposed that the Constitution include a bill of rights listing and guaranteeing civil liberties.
Other delegates—including future Bill of Rights drafter James Madison—disagreed, arguing that existing state guarantees of civil liberties were sufficient and that any attempt to enumerate individual rights risked the implication that other, unnamed rights were unprotected. After a brief debate, Mason's proposal was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. For the constitution to be ratified, nine of the thirteen states were required to approve it in state conventions. Opposition to ratification was based on the Constitution's lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. Supporters of the Constitution in states where popular sentiment was against ratification proposed that their state conventions both ratify the Constitution and call for the addition of a bill of rights; the U. S. Constitution was ratified by all thirteen states. In the 1st United States Congress, following the state legislatures' request, James Madison proposed twenty constitutional amendments, his proposed draft of the First Amendment read as follows: The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretext, infringed.
The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments. The people shall not be restrained from peaceably consulting for their common good; this language was condensed by Congress, passed the House and Senate with no recorded debate, complicating future discussion of the Amendment's intent. The First Amendment, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights, was submitted to the states for ratification on September 25, 1789, adopted on December 15, 1791. Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists: Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies between Ma
Plame affair grand jury investigation
The CIA leak grand jury investigation was a federal inquiry "into the alleged unauthorized disclosure of a Central Intelligence Agency employee's identity", a possible violation of criminal statutes, including the Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982, Title 18, United States Code, Section 793. The "CIA leak scandal", or the "Plame affair", refers to a dispute stemming from allegations that one or more White House officials revealed Valerie Plame Wilson's covert CIA identity as "Valerie Plame" to reporters. In his July 14, 2003 Washington Post column, Robert Novak revealed the name of CIA employee Valerie Plame, wife of Joseph C. Wilson IV, who had covert status. Wilson, a former U. S. Ambassador, had criticized the Bush Administration in a July 6, 2003, editorial in The New York Times. Wilson argued that the Bush Administration misrepresented intelligence prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In his column, Novak diminished Wilson's claims: Wilson never worked for the CIA, but his wife, Valerie Plame, is an Agency operative on weapons of mass destruction.
Two senior administration officials told me Wilson's wife suggested sending him to Niger to investigate... On October 1, 2003, Richard Armitage told both Secretary of State Colin Powell and the Federal Bureau of Investigation that he "was the inadvertent leak". On September 26, 2003, at the request of the CIA, the Department of Justice and the FBI began a criminal investigation into the possible unauthorized disclosure of classified information regarding Valerie Wilson's CIA affiliation to various reporters in the spring of 2003. Then-Attorney General John Ashcroft headed up the investigation. On August 13, 2005 journalist Murray Waas reported that Justice Department and FBI officials had recommended appointing a special prosecutor to the case because they felt that Karl Rove had not been truthful in early interviews, withholding from FBI investigators his conversation with Cooper about Plame and maintaining that he had first learned of Plame's CIA identity from a journalist whose name Rove could not recall.
In addition, then-Attorney General John Ashcroft, from whose prior campaigns Rove had been paid $746,000 in consulting fees, had been briefed on the contents of at least one of Rove's interviews with the FBI, raising concerns of a conflict of interest. An October 2, 2003 New York Times article connected Karl Rove to the matter and highlighted his prior employment in three previous political campaigns for Ashcroft. Ashcroft subsequently recused himself from the investigation at the end of December 2003. U. S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois Patrick Fitzgerald was appointed Special Counsel on December 30, 2003. Letter from James B. Comey, Acting Attorney General, to Patrick J. Fitzgerald, United States Attorney: By the authority vested in the Attorney General by law, including 28 U. S. C. 509, 510, 515, in my capacity as Acting Attorney General pursuant to 28 U. S. C. 508, I hereby delegate to you all the authority of the Attorney General with respect to the Department's investigation into the alleged unauthorized disclosure of a CIA employee's identity, I direct you to exercise that authority as Special Counsel independent of the supervision or control of any officer of the Department.
Fitzgerald began investigations into the leak working from White House telephone records turned over to the FBI in October 2003. Fitzgerald learned of Armitage's role in the leak "shortly after his appointment in 2003". On October 31, 2003, a grand jury began taking testimony. A complete list of witnesses to testify there is not known, in part because Fitzgerald has conducted his investigation with much more discretion than previous presidential investigations; some individuals have acknowledged giving testimony, including White House Press Secretary Scott McClellan, Deputy Press Secretary Claire Buchan, former press secretary Ari Fleischer, former special advisor to the president Karen Hughes, former White House communications aide Adam Levine, former advisor to the Vice President Mary Matalin, former Secretary of State Colin Powell. Fitzgerald interviewed President George W. Bush. Legal filings by Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald contain many pages blanked out for security reasons, leading some observers to speculate that Fitzgerald has pursued the extent to which national security was compromised by Plame's identity being revealed.
In March 2004, the Special Counsel subpoenaed the telephone records of Air Force One. Alberto Gonzales — Attorney General serving as White House Counsel Colin Powell — former Secretary of State on August 16, 2004 George Tenet — former Director Bill Harlow — former spokesman John McLaughlin — Deputy Director Irving Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Jr. — Chief of Staff Mary Matalin — former advisor Karen Hughes — former special advisor Karl Rove — Senior Advisor Israel Hernandez — former advisor to Karl Rove, Commerce Department official Susan Ralston — secretary to Karl Rove Claire Buchan — Deputy Press Secretary Ari Fleischer — former Press Secretary Adam Levine — former press aide Scott McClellan — Press Secretary Carl Ford — former director of Bureau of Intelligence and Research in the State Department. Matt Cooper — Time journalist Judith Miller — The New York Times journalist Walter Pincus — Washington Post journalist Bob Woodward — Washington Post Assistant Managing Editor Robert Novak — columnist who published Plame's identity Viveca Novak — Time magazine reporter Tim Russert — NBC News senior correspondent, host of Meet the Press Robert Luskin — attorney for Karl Rove.
Several journalists have testified on this matter. Columnist Robert Novak, who admitted that the CIA attempted to dissua
Oklahoma City bombing
The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, United States on April 19, 1995. Perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing happened at 9:02am and killed at least 168 people, injured more than 680 others, destroyed one-third of the building; the blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, destroyed or burned 86 cars, causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage. Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, substantial donations were received from across the country; the Federal Emergency Management Agency activated 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations. Until the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of the United States, remains the deadliest incident of domestic terrorism in the country's history.
Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession. Forensic evidence linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack. Michael and Lori Fortier were identified as accomplices. McVeigh, a veteran of the Gulf War and a U. S. militia movement sympathizer, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. His co-conspirator, had assisted with the bomb's preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U. S. federal government and unhappy about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas. The official investigation, known as "OKBOMB", saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons of evidence, collected nearly one billion pieces of information. The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997.
McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against Nichols; as a result of the bombing, the U. S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States, as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Remembrance services are held every year at the time of the explosion; the chief conspirators, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, met in 1988 at Fort Benning during basic training for the U. S. Army. Michael Fortier, McVeigh's accomplice, was his Army roommate; the three shared interests in survivalism. They expressed anger at the federal government's handling of the 1992 Federal Bureau of Investigation standoff with Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge as well as the Waco siege – a 1993 51-day standoff between the FBI and Branch Davidian members which began with a botched Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms attempt to execute a search warrant leading to a fire fight and ended with the burning and shooting deaths of David Koresh and 75 others.
In March 1993, McVeigh visited the Waco site during the standoff, again after its conclusion. McVeigh decided to bomb a federal building as a response to the raids. McVeigh said that he had contemplated assassinating Attorney General Janet Reno, Lon Horiuchi, others in preference to attacking a building, after the bombing he said that he sometimes wished he had carried out a series of assassinations instead, he intended only to destroy a federal building, but he decided that his message would be better received if many people were killed in the bombing. McVeigh's criterion for potential attack sites was that the target should house at least two of three federal law enforcement agencies: the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or the Drug Enforcement Administration, he regarded the presence of additional law enforcement agencies, such as the Secret Service or the U. S. Marshals Service, as a bonus. A resident of Kingman, Arizona, McVeigh considered targets in Missouri, Arizona and Arkansas.
He stated in his authorized biography that he wanted to minimize non-governmental casualties, so he ruled out a 40-story government building in Little Rock, because of the presence of a florist's shop on the ground floor. In December 1994, McVeigh and Fortier visited Oklahoma City to inspect McVeigh's target: the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building; the Murrah building had been targeted in October 1983 by white supremacist group The Covenant, The Sword, the Arm of the Lord, including founder James Ellison and Richard Snell. The group had plotted to park "a van or trailer in front of the Federal Building and blow it up with rockets detonated by a timer." After Snell's appeal for murdering two people in unrelated cases was denied, he was executed the same day as the Murrah bombing. The nine-story building, built in 1977, was named for a federal judge and housed fourteen federal agencies, including the DEA, ATF, Social Security Administration, recruiting offices for the Army and
DePaul University College of Law
DePaul University College of Law is a law school located in Chicago, United States. Founded in 1897 as the Illinois College of Law, the school became part of DePaul University in 1912 and is one of the academic colleges of DePaul, a Big East Conference university; the College is known for its Intellectual Property Law program, headed by Professor Barbara B. Bressler, its Health Law program headed by Professor Nanette Elster. Both programs have garnered top 20 placements in the U. S. News & World Report rankings in recent years. In 2004, the school established the International Aviation Law Institute, the first of its kind in the United States. In recent years, DePaul University College of Law has ranked amongst the "Top 100 Law Schools" in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report Graduate School Ranking. According to DePaul's 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 58% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. DePaul University College of Law was formed in 1912 when the Illinois College of Law affiliated with DePaul University.
In 1912, DePaul awarded an LL. D, its first honorary degree, to the founder and president of the Illinois College of Law, Howard N. Ogden. In 1915, after the death of Ogden, complete ownership of the college transferred to DePaul. In 1958, the College of Law moved from 64 East Lake Street to its new and current home in the Lewis Center at 25 East Jackson Boulevard; the 18-story Lewis Center known as the Kimball Building, was given to DePaul in 1955 by the Frank J. Lewis Foundation and was at that time the largest gift to the university. In 1972, DePaul purchased the Finchley Building, renamed the Comeford J. O'Malley Place in 1980, in honor of Comeford O'Malley who served as president and chancellor of DePaul for many years. "O'Malley," as it is known by students, is located at 25 East Jackson Street, adjacent to the Lewis Center, served to increase downtown campus space by 20 percent. That same year, the College of Law opened its Legal Clinic. A year in 1973, the school undertook a $2 million renovation in order to increase space by 50 percent, remodel both its buildings, double the size of its law library collection.
By 1981, the school had awarded 8,670 J. D.s. That year, DePaul designated the Lewis Center and O'Malley Place as part of its official "Loop Campus." Today, the Loop Campus includes the College of Law and a number of programs and buildings not related to the College, including the DePaul Center, home to DePaul University's Kellstadt Graduate School of Business. In 1985, DePaul established the first of its kind in Chicago; the institute offered a master's degree in health law. In 1989, DePaul completed its Lawyer Skills Center, which provided the college with a facility for teaching students trial practice and negotiation skills. A year in 1990, the school established its International Human Rights Law Institute, the first center of its kind in the Midwest. In 1992, the College received a $1 million commitment from alumnus Robert A. Clifford, a prominent personal injury attorney in Chicago; the gift represented the largest gift in the school's history and was used for the establishment of the "Robert A.
Clifford Chair in Tort Law and Social Policy." In 1994, the College began a $6 million renovation to its law library, completed in 1996 and represented the largest construction project in the College's history. In 1999, Professor M. Cherif Bassiouni was nominated for the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts behind the establishment of the International Criminal Court. In addition to offering a Juris Doctor degree, DePaul University College of Law offers joint degree programs with DePaul's Kellstadt Graduate School of Business and DePaul's College of Computing and Digital Media, as well as joint degrees in Public Service Management and in International Studies. Students pursuing a J. D. have the option of earning a certificate in a particular area of law. Such certificates are analogous to an undergraduate academic major requiring the student to complete a given number of courses and maintain a minimum overall GPA in those courses. Certificates are available in the following areas: Criminal Law, Family Law, Health Law, Public Interest Law, International & Comparative Law and Intellectual Property Law.
Intellectual Property Law certificates are further sub-divided into: Information Technology Law, Arts & Museum Law, Patent Law, a General Certificate. The College offers Master of Laws programs in Intellectual Property Law, Health Law, General Information, Taxation; the 2017 edition of the U. S. News & World Report Rankings ranked DePaul University College of Law 111th nationally. According to DePaul's official 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 45.4% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. DePaul's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 35.9%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation. The total cost of attendance for the full-time juris doctorate program at DePaul for the 2014-2015 academic year is $44,960; the total cost of attendance for the part-time program is $29,220. The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $250,412.
The College publishes the following student-run journals: DePaul Law Review DePaul Rule Of Law Journal DePaul Business & Commercial Law
Patrick J. Fitzgerald is an American lawyer and partner at the law firm of Skadden, Slate, Meagher & Flom since October 2012. For more than a decade, until June 30, 2012, Fitzgerald was the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. Prior to his appointment, he served as Assistant U. S. Attorney in the Southern District of New York from 1988 to 2001, as Chief of the Organized Crime-Terrorism Unit since December 1995, where he participated in the prosecution of United States v. Usama Bin Laden, et al. United States v. Abdel Rahman, et al. and United States v. Ramzi Yousef Rahman, et al; as special counsel for the U. S. Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel, Fitzgerald was the federal prosecutor in charge of the investigation of the Valerie Plame Affair, which led to the prosecution and conviction in 2007 of Vice President Dick Cheney's chief of staff Scooter Libby for perjury; as a federal prosecutor, he led a number of high-profile investigations, including ones that led to convictions of Illinois Governors Rod Blagojevich and George Ryan, media mogul Conrad Black, several aides to Chicago Mayor Richard Daley in the Hired Truck Program, Chicago detective and torturer Jon Burge.
Fitzgerald was born into a Roman Catholic family of Irish descent in Brooklyn. His father worked as a doorman in Manhattan. Fitzgerald attended Our Lady Help of Christians grammar school, before going on to Regis High School, he received degrees in economics and mathematics from Amherst College, Phi Beta Kappa, before receiving his JD from Harvard Law School in 1985. He played rugby at Amherst and at Harvard he was a member of the Harvard Business School Rugby Club. Fitzgerald married Jennifer Letzkus in June, 2008, it is her second. The couple have two children. After practicing civil law, Fitzgerald became an Assistant United States Attorney in New York City in 1988, he handled drug-trafficking cases and in 1993 assisted in the prosecution of Mafia figure John Gambino, a boss of the Gambino crime family. In 1994, Fitzgerald became the prosecutor in the case against Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman and 11 others charged in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. In 1996, Fitzgerald became the National Security Coordinator for the Office of the U.
S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. There, he served on a team of prosecutors investigating Osama bin Laden, he served as chief counsel in prosecutions related to the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. On September 1, 2001, Fitzgerald was nominated for the position of U. S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois on the recommendation of U. S. Senator Peter Fitzgerald, a Republican from Illinois. On October 24, 2001, the nomination was confirmed by the Senate; the Senator urged the selection. Soon after becoming U. S. Attorney for Northern Illinois, Fitzgerald began an investigation of political appointees of Republican Illinois Governor George Ryan, who were suspected of accepting bribes to give licenses to unqualified truck drivers. Fitzgerald soon expanded this investigation, uncovering a network of political bribery and gift-giving, leading to more than 60 indictments. Ryan was indicted in December 2003. At the conclusion of the trial in April 2006, Ryan was found guilty on all eighteen counts against him.
Ryan's co-defendant, Chicago businessman Larry Warner 67 years old, was convicted of racketeering conspiracy, attempted extortion, money laundering. The two were sentenced on September 6, 2006: Ryan received a sentence of six and one half years, Warner received a sentence of three years and five months. Against criticism that these cases were based on circumstantial evidence, Fitzgerald responded: "People now know that if you're part of a corrupt conduct, where one hand is taking care of the other and contracts are going to people, you don't have to say the word'bribe' out loud, and I think people need to understand we won't be afraid to take strong circumstantial cases into court." On July 18, 2005, his office indicted a number of top aides to Democrat Richard M. Daley, the mayor of Chicago, on charges of mail fraud, alleging numerous instances of corruption in hiring practices at City Hall. In March 2006, former Chicago City Clerk James Laski pleaded guilty to pocketing nearly $50,000 in bribes for steering city business to two trucking companies.
Laski was the highest-ranking Chicago official and Daley administration employee brought down by Fitzgerald's office in conjunction with the Hired Truck Program scandal. Beginning in April 2007, Fitzgerald oversaw Operation Crooked Code, the investigation and prosecution of over two dozen defendants for bribery and related charges in City of Chicago's Departments of Buildings and Zoning. On December 9, 2008, federal agents arrested Governor Blagojevich for conspiring to profit from his authority to appoint President Barack Obama's successor to the U. S. Senate. Fitzgerald said Blagojevich "put a'for sale' sign on the naming of a United States Senator."United States Senator Peter Fitzgerald chose not to run for reelection in 2004, leaving Patrick Fitzgerald without a congressional patron. In the summer of 2005, there were rumors that he would not be reappointed to a second four-year term in retaliation for his investigations into corruption in Illinois and Chicago government, as well as for his investigation of the Plame scandal.
On May 23, 2012, Fitzgerald held a press conference informing the public that he was stepping down from his position and retiring as the US Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois Federal Court effective June 30, 2012. Long-time prosecutor Gary S. Shapiro was named
Macon Macon–Bibb County, is a consolidated city-county located in the state of Georgia, United States. Macon lies near the geographic center of the state 85 miles south of Atlanta, hence the city's nickname "The Heart of Georgia." Located near the fall line of the Ocmulgee River, Macon is the county seat of Bibb County and had a 2017 estimated population of 152,663. Macon is the principal city of the Macon metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 228,914 in 2017. Macon is the largest city in the Macon–Warner Robins Combined Statistical Area, a larger trading area with an estimated 420,693 residents in 2017. In a 2012 referendum, voters approved the consolidation of Macon and Bibb County, Macon became Georgia's fourth-largest city; the two governments merged on January 1, 2014. Macon is served by three interstate highways: I-16, I-75, I-475; the city has several institutions of higher education, as well as numerous museums and tourism sites. The area is served by the Herbert Smart Downtown Airport.
The mayor of Macon is Robert Reichert, a former Democratic member of the Georgia House of Representatives. Reichert was elected mayor of the newly consolidated city of Macon–Bibb, he took office on January 1, 2014. Macon was founded on the site of the Ocmulgee Old Fields, where the Creek Indians lived in the 18th century, their predecessors, the Mississippian culture, built a powerful chiefdom based on the practice of agriculture. The Mississippian culture constructed earthwork mounds for ceremonial and religious purposes; the areas along the rivers in the Southeast had been inhabited by indigenous peoples for 13,000 years before Europeans arrived. Macon developed at the site of Fort Benjamin Hawkins, built in 1809 at the fall line of the Ocmulgee River to protect the community and to establish a trading post with Native Americans; the fort was named in honor of Benjamin Hawkins, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southeast territory south of the Ohio River for over 20 years. He was married to a Creek woman.
This was the most inland point of navigation on the river from the Low Country. President Thomas Jefferson forced the Creek to cede their lands east of the Ocmulgee River and ordered the fort built. Fort Hawkins guarded the Lower Creek Pathway, an extensive and well-traveled American Indian network improved by the United States as the Federal Road from Washington, D. C. to the ports of Mobile and New Orleans, Louisiana. A gathering point of the Creek and U. S. cultures for trading, it was a center of state militia and federal troops. The fort served as a major military distribution point during the War of 1812 against Great Britain and during the Creek War of 1813. Afterward, the fort was used as a trading post for several years and was garrisoned until 1821, it was decommissioned about 1828 and burned to the ground. A replica of the southeast blockhouse was built in 1938 and still stands today on a hill in east Macon. Part of the fort site is occupied by the Fort Hawkins Grammar School. In the 21st century, archeological excavations have revealed more of the fort's importance, stimulated planning for additional reconstruction of this major historical site.
As many Europeans had begun to move into the area, they renamed Fort Hawkins "Newtown." After the organization of Bibb County in 1822, the city was chartered as the county seat in 1823 and named Macon. This was in honor of the North Carolina statesman Nathaniel Macon, because many of the early residents of Georgia hailed from North Carolina; the city planners envisioned "a city within a park" and created a city of spacious streets and parks. They designated 250 acres for Central City Park, passed ordinances requiring residents to plant shade trees in their front yards; the city thrived due to its location on the Ocmulgee River. Cotton became the mainstay of Macon's early economy, based on the enslaved labor of African Americans. Macon was in the Black Belt of Georgia. Cotton steamboats, stage coaches, in 1843, a railroad increased marketing opportunities and contributed to the economic prosperity to Macon. In 1836, the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church founded Wesleyan College in Macon.
Wesleyan was the first college in the United States chartered to grant degrees to women. In 1855, a referendum was held to determine a capital city for Georgia. Macon came in last with 3,802 votes. During the American Civil War, Macon served as the official arsenal of the Confederacy. Camp Oglethorpe, in Macon, enlisted men, it held officers only, up to 2,300 at one time. The camp was evacuated in 1864. Macon City Hall, which served as the temporary state capitol in 1864, was converted to a hospital for wounded Confederate soldiers; the Union General William Tecumseh Sherman spared Macon on his march to the sea. His troops had sacked the nearby state capital of Milledgeville, Maconites prepared for an attack. Sherman, passed by without entering Macon; the Macon Telegraph wrote that, of the 23 companies which the city had furnished the Confederacy, only enough men survived and were fit for duty to fill five companies by the end of the war. The human toll was high; the city was taken by Union forces during