Discovery Channel is an American pay television network and flagship channel owned by Discovery, Inc. a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav. As of June 2012, Discovery Channel is the third most distributed subscription channel in the United States, behind TBS and The Weather Channel. S. flagship channel and its various licensed television channels internationally. It provided documentary television programming focused on popular science and history, but by the 2010s had expanded into reality television and pseudo-scientific entertainment. Programming on the flagship Discovery Channel in the U. S. is focused on reality television series, such as speculative investigation and occupations. A popular annual feature on the channel is Shark Week, which airs on Discovery during the summer months. Despite its popularity and success, the program has garnered criticism from the scientific community, for being scientifically inaccurate; as of January 2016, Discovery Channel is available to 94,456,000 pay television households in the United States.
John Hendricks founded the channel and its parent company, Cable Educational Network Inc. in 1982. Several investors raised $5 million in start-up capital to launch the network; the Discovery Channel began broadcasting on June 17, 1985. It was available to 156,000 households and broadcast for 12 hours each day between 3 p.m. and 3 a.m. About 75 percent of its program content had never been broadcast on U. S. television before. In its early years, the channel's focus centered on educational programming in the form of cultural and wildlife documentaries, science and historical specials, it broadcast some Soviet programming during this time, including the news program Vremya. In 1988, the channel premiered the nightly program World Monitor. In 1988, The Discovery Channel debuted an annual programming stunt called Shark Week, the week-long event gained in popularity starting in the 1990s and continues to be shown each summer on the channel to this day. By 1990, the channel was available in over 50 million households.
The channel began to shift its focus in the early 2000s to attract a broader audience, by incorporating more reality-based series focusing on automotive and speculative investigation series. The drop in viewership was attributed to an over-reliance on a few hit series, such as Monster Garage and American Chopper; some critics said such shows strayed from Discovery's intention of providing more educationally based shows aimed at helping viewers learn about the world around them. In 2005, Discovery changed its programming focus to include more popular science and historical themes; the network's ratings recovered in 2006. On January 4, 2006, Discovery Communications announced anchor Ted Koppel, executive producer Tom Bettag and eight other former staff members from the ABC newsmagazine Nightline were joining Discovery Channel; the network was nominated for seven Primetime Emmy Awards that year for shows including The Flight that Fought Back and Deadliest Catch. In 2007, Discovery Channel's top series included the Emmy Award- and Peabody Award-winning Planet Earth, Dirty Jobs, MythBusters, Deadliest Catch.
Discovery Channel's 2008 lineup included Smash Lab. On September 1, 2010, 43-year-old James Jay Lee entered the Discovery Communications headquarters in Silver Spring, armed with a handgun. Lee held several employees hostage. Lee had published criticisms of the network at Savetheplanetprotest.com. In December 2015, Discovery Communications launched its TV Everywhere service, Discovery Go, which features live and video-on-demand content from Discovery Channel and eight of its sister networks. Popular programs on the channel have included the Shark Week programming event, Deadliest Catch, MythBusters, How It's Made, Dirty Jobs, Cash Cab, Man vs. Wild. Christopher Lowell won a Daytime Emmy Award in 2000 for The Christopher Lowell Show. Shortly before the 2004 Tour de France, Discovery Channel announced it would become the primary sponsor of a professional bicycling team starting in 2005, featuring the then-seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong, whose wins were voided after he was proven to have cheated via doping.
After the 2007 victory with the Spaniard Alberto Contador, Discovery Channel discontinued the cycling sponsorship. Discovery Channel Radio was a radio network whose programming consisted of audio versions of popular programs from the Discovery Communications family of television channels. Discovery Channel Radio was carried by XM Satellite Radio, until its removal from the provider in early September 2005. Sirius Satellite Radio dropped Discovery Radio from its lineup on February 21, 2007. Discovery Channel lent its brand to retail stores in malls and other locations across America, to
Play for Today
Play for Today is a British television anthology drama series, produced by the BBC and transmitted on BBC1 from 1970 to 1984. During the run, more than three hundred programmes, featuring original television plays, adaptations of stage plays and novels, were transmitted; the individual episodes were between a hundred minutes in duration. A handful of these plays, including Rumpole of the Bailey and The Blackstuff, subsequently became television series in their own right; the strand was a successor to The Wednesday Play, the 1960s anthology series, the title being changed when the day of transmission became variable. Popular works screened in anthology series on BBC2, like Willy Russell's Our Day Out, were repeated on BBC1 in the series; the producers of The Wednesday Play, Graeme MacDonald and Irene Shubik, transferred to the new series. Shubik continued with the series until 1973 while MacDonald remained with the series until 1977 when he was promoted. Producers included Margaret Matheson and Richard Eyre.
Plays covered all genres. In its time, Play for Today featured contemporary social realist dramas, historical pieces, fantasies and science-fiction. Most pieces were written directly for television, but there were occasional adaptations from other narrative forms, such as novels and stage plays. Writers who contributed plays to the series included Ian McEwan, John Osborne, Dennis Potter, Stephen Poliakoff, David Hare, Willy Russell, Alan Bleasdale, Arthur Hopcraft, Alan Plater, Graham Reid, David Storey, Andrew Davies, Rhys Adrian and John Hopkins. Several prominent directors featured, including Stephen Frears, Alan Clarke, Michael Apted, Mike Newell, Roland Joffe, Ken Loach, Lindsay Anderson, Mike Leigh; some of the best remembered plays broadcast in the strand include Edna, the Inebriate Woman, The Foxtrot, Bar Mitzvah Boy, Abigail's Party, Blue Remembered Hills and Just a Boys' Game. Certain other well known plays, including Penda's Fen, Nuts in May, were commissioned by David Rose of the BBC's English Regions Drama department based in Birmingham.
Some installments in the series were spun off into full-blown series. The two best-remembered examples of this are Rumpole of the Bailey, produced as a one-off in the Play for Today strand in 1975 and three years became a series for Thames Television, again with Leo McKern, Alan Bleasdale's The Blackstuff, developed into Boys from the Blackstuff. Other offshoots were Gangsters, a single series of science fiction-based plays styled as Play for Tomorrow. Towards the end of the run, three plays set in Northern Ireland were written by Graham Reid. Known as the Billy Plays, they starred Kenneth Branagh as Billy Martin in his first acting role following his graduation from RADA. There were some groups of plays transmitted that — for various reasons — did not go out under the Play for Today banner, but which were funded from the same department, used much the same production team and are regarded in episode guides and analysis as being part of the Play for Today'canon'. Two plays were controversially pulled from transmission shortly before broadcast due to concerns over their content: these were Dennis Potter's Brimstone and Treacle in 1976 and Roy Minton's Scum the following year.
In the case of Brimstone and Treacle it was due to concerns over the play's depiction of a disabled woman's rape at the hands of a man who may or may not be the devil, with Scum the worry was its supposed sensationalism of life in a young offenders' institution. Scum and Brimstone and Treacle were transmitted, although in the meantime both had circumvented their withdrawal by being re-made as cinema films; the series as a whole was viewed with suspicion by rightwing commentators and critics as many of the issues tackled were the subject of political controversy. Of particular note was the criticism of the public expenditure on the Queen's Silver Jubilee in the plays The Price of Coal and The Spongers; the programme ended in 1984, although there was one further series not broadcast in its original name but in its replacement name Screen One and Screen Two in 1985. The general trend in 1980s television production was away from one-off plays and towards a greater concentration on series and serials.
When one-offs were produced, such as Film on Four on Channel 4, they tended to be made with a cinematic approach rather than betraying television drama's roots in the theatre that Play for Today and earlier series on both the BBC and ITV had demonstrated. Nonetheless, the series is remembered as a benchmark of high-quality British television drama, has become a byword for what many continue to argue was a golden age of British television. In 2000, the British Film Institute produced a poll of industry professionals to determine the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes of the 20th century, five of the programmes included in the final tally were from Play for Today. A new programme publicised as a return of Play for Today, but under the working title of The Evening Play, was announced at the beginning of March 2006, but nothing has been heard from it since. Kevin Spacey, film star and director of the Old Vic, in March 2008 told BBC News that he would like to see the return of the show, but the Conservative MP Michael Gove and journalist Mark Lawson expressed disagreement, Gove describing them as "exercises in viewer patronisation".
Jan Moir in The Daily Telegraph wrote in support of Spacey, saying "the British loved Play for Today once, would do so again. A good piece of drama looks at the human condition
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Nickelodeon is an American pay television network, launched on December 1, 1977 as the first cable channel for children. It is owned by Viacom through its Viacom Media Networks division's Nickelodeon Group unit and is based in New York City, it broadcasts from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. on weekdays, Saturdays from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Sundays from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. It is aimed at children and adolescents aged 2–17; the channel was first tested as Pinwheel on December 1, 1977. Pinwheel was at the time only available on QUBE, the first two-way major market interactive cable television system, owned by Warner Cable. Pinwheel relaunched as Nickelodeon on April 1, 1979, expanded to other cable providers nationwide, it was commercial-free and remained without advertising until 1984. Warner sold Nickelodeon, along with its sister networks MTV and VH1, to Viacom in 1986; as of January 2016, the channel is available to about 92.056 million households in the United States. The channel's name comes from the first five cent movie theaters called nickelodeons.
Its history dates back to December 1, 1977, when Warner Cable Communications launched the first two-way interactive cable system, QUBE, in Columbus, Ohio. Under the name Pinwheel Network, the C-3 cable channel carried Pinwheel daily from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Nickelodeon launched on April 1, 1979 distributed to Warner Cable systems via satellite on the RCA Satcom-1 transponder. Commercial-free, advertising was introduced in January 1984. Nickelodeon's schedule consists of original series aimed at children, pre-teens and young teenagers, including animated series, to live-action comedy and action series, as well as series aimed at preschoolers, it airs reruns of select original series that have ended their runs, as well as occasional original made-for-TV movies. It aired bi-monthly special editions of Nick News with Linda Ellerbee, a newsmagazine series aimed at children that debuted in 1992 as a weekly series which ended in 2015. Nicktoons is the branding for Nickelodeon's original animated television series.
Until 1991, the animated series that aired on Nickelodeon were imported from foreign countries, some original animated specials were featured on the channel up to that point. Original animated series continue to make up a substantial portion of Nickelodeon's lineup, with 6 to 7 hours of these programs airing on the weekday schedule and around nine hours on weekends, including a five-hour weekend morning animation block. Since the late 2000s, after the channel struck a deal with DreamWorks Animation in 2006 to develop the studio's animated films into weekly series, the network has begun to incorporate Nicktoons that use three-dimensional computer animation in addition to those that are produced through traditional or digital ink and paint. Nickelodeon does not air direct-to-video movies on a regular basis; the channel airs feature films produced by the network's Nickelodeon Movies film production division. Although the film division bears the Nickelodeon brand name, the channel does not have access to most of the movies produced by its film unit.
Nickelodeon does have broadcast rights to most feature films based on or that served as the basis for original series produced by it. Nickelodeon advertises hour-long episodes of its original series as movies. Nickelodeon periodically acquires theatrically released feature films for broadcast on the channel including Universal's Barbie: A Fashion Fairytale, several Monster High films, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles Forever, with the Barbie and Monster High films aired under a brokered format in which Mattel purchases the time in order to promote the release of their films on DVD within a few days of the Nickelodeon premiere, an arrangement possible as Nickelodeon does not have to meet the Federal Communications Commission rules which disallow th
EastEnders is a British soap opera created by Julia Smith and Tony Holland, broadcast on BBC One since 1985. Set in Albert Square in the East End of London in the fictional Borough of Walford, the programme follows the stories of local residents and their families as they go about their daily lives. There were two 30-minute episodes per week increasing to three, but since 2001 episodes have been broadcast every weekday apart from Wednesdays. Within eight months of the show's launch, it reached the number-one spot in BARB's TV ratings and has remained among the top-rated TV programmes in Britain. In 2013, the average audience share for an episode was around 30 per cent. Today, EastEnders remains a significant programme in terms of the BBC's success and audience share, in the history of British television drama, tackling many dilemmas that are considered to be controversial and taboo issues in British culture and social life unseen on United Kingdom mainstream television; as of May 2016, EastEnders has won nine BAFTA Awards and the Inside Soap Award for Best Soap for 14 years running, as well as twelve National Television Awards for Most Popular Serial Drama and 11 awards for Best Soap at the British Soap Awards.
It has won 13 TV Quick and TV Choice Awards for Best Soap, six TRIC Awards for Soap of The Year, four Royal Television Society Awards for Best Continuing Drama and has been inducted into the Rose d'Or Hall of Fame. In March 1983, under two years before EastEnders' first episode was broadcast, the show was a vague idea in the mind of a handful of BBC executives, who decided that what BBC1 needed was a popular bi-weekly drama series that would attract the kind of mass audiences that ITV was getting with Coronation Street; the first people to whom David Reid head of series and serials, turned were Julia Smith and Tony Holland, a well established producer/script editor team who had first worked together on Z-Cars. The outline that Reid presented was vague: two episodes a week, 52 weeks a year. After the concept was put to them on 14 March 1983, Smith and Holland went about putting their ideas down on paper. Granada Television gave Smith unrestricted access to the Coronation Street production for a month so that she could get a sense how a continuing drama was produced.
There was anxiety at first that the viewing public would not accept a new soap set in the south of England, though research commissioned by lead figures in the BBC revealed that southerners would accept a northern soap, northerners would accept a southern soap and those from the Midlands, as Julia Smith herself pointed out, did not mind where it was set as long as it was somewhere else. This was the beginning of a close and continuing association between EastEnders and audience research, though commonplace today, was something of a revolution in practice; the show's creators were both Londoners, but when they researched Victorian squares, they found massive changes in areas they thought they knew well. However, delving further into the East End of London, they found what they had been searching for: a real East End spirit—an inward looking quality, a distrust of strangers and authority figures, a sense of territory and community that the creators summed up as "Hurt one of us and you hurt us all".
When developing EastEnders, both Smith and Holland looked at influential models like Coronation Street, but they found that it offered a rather outdated and nostalgic view of working-class life. Only after EastEnders began, featured the characters of Tony Carpenter and Kelvin Carpenter, did Coronation Street start to feature black characters, for example, they came to the conclusion that Coronation Street had grown old with its audience, that EastEnders would have to attract a younger, more extensive audience, ensuring that it had the longevity to retain it for many years thereafter. They looked at Brookside but found there was a lack of central meeting points for the characters, making it difficult for the writers to intertwine different storylines, so EastEnders was set in Albert Square. A previous UK soap set in an East End market was ATV's Market in Honey Lane between 1967 and 1969; however this show, which graduated from one showing a week to two in three separate series was different in style and approach to EastEnders.
The British Film Institute described Market In Honey Lane thus: "It was not an earth-shaking programme, not pioneering in any revolutionary ideas in technique and production, but proposed itself to the casual viewer as a mildly pleasant affair." EastEnders, while featuring an East End street market, would be different in its approach and impact. The target launch date was January 1985. Smith and Holland had eleven months in which to write and shoot the whole thing. However, in February 1984, they did not have a title or a place to film. Both Smith and Holland were unhappy about the January 1985 launch date, favouring November or September 1984 when seasonal audiences would be higher, but the BBC stayed firm, Smith and Holland had to concede that, with the massive task of getting the Elstree Studios operational, January was the most realistic date. However, this was to be changed to February; the project had a number of working titles—Square Dance, Round the Square, Round the Houses, London Pride and East 8.
It was the latter. However, the show was renamed after many casting agents mistakenly thought the show was to be called Estate, the fictional postcode E20 was created, instead of using
Walter Elias Disney was an American entrepreneur, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons; as a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress. Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing, he took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first popular success; as the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras.
The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fantasia and Bambi, furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including the critically successful Cinderella and Mary Poppins, the latter of which received five Academy Awards. In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, in 1955 he opened Disneyland. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney's Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club. In 1965, he began development of another theme park, Disney World, the heart of, to be a new type of city, the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow". Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life, died of lung cancer in December 1966 before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed. Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona, he had high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him.
His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon, his film work continues to be adapted. Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901, in Chicago's Hermosa neighborhood, he was the fourth son of Elias Disney—born in the Province of Canada, to Irish parents—and Flora, an American of German and English descent. Aside from Disney and Flora's sons were Herbert and Roy. In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor. Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker. Disney began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons.
He lived near the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway line and became enamored with trains. He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late 1909. In 1911, the Disneys moved to Missouri. There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced Disney to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, he was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home. Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated the round for the evening Star after school; the schedule was exhausting, Disney received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years. He attended Saturday courses at the Kansas City Art Institute and took a correspondence course in cartooning. In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, moved back to the city with his family.
Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I. In mid-1918, Disney attempted to join the United States Army to fight against the Germans, but he was rejected for being too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the Red Cross in September 1918 as an ambulance driver, he was arrived in November, after the armistice. He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper Stars and Stripes. Disney returned to Kansas City in October 1919, where he worked as an apprentice artist at the Pesmen-Rubin Commercial Art Studio. There, he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and ca