London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma
The Choctaw Nation is a Native American territory and federally recognized Indian Tribe with a tribal jurisdictional area and reservation comprising 10.5 counties in Southeastern Oklahoma. The Choctaw Nation maintains a special relationship with both the United States and Oklahoma governments; as of 2011, the tribe has 223,279 enrolled members, of which 84,670 live within the state of Oklahoma and 41,616 live within the Choctaw Nation's jurisdiction. A total of 233,126 people live within these boundaries; the tribal jurisdictional area is 10,864 square miles. The tribe has jurisdiction over its own members; the chief of the Choctaw Nation is Gary Batton, who took office on April 29, 2014, after the resignation of Gregory E. Pyle; the Choctaw Nation Headquarters, which houses the office of the Chief, is located in Durant. The tribal legislature meets at the Council House, across the street from the historic Choctaw Capitol Building, in Tuskahoma; the Capitol Building is now the Choctaw Nation Museum..
The Choctaw Nation is one of three federally recognized Choctaw tribes. The latter two bands are descendants of Choctaw who resisted the forced relocation to Indian Territory; the Mississippi Choctaw preserved much of their culture in small communities and reorganized as a tribal government under new laws after the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Those Choctaw who removed to the Indian Territory, a process that went on into the early 20th century, are federally recognized as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma; the removals became known as the "Trail of Tears." The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma's tribal jurisdictional area covers 10,864 square miles, encompassing eight whole counties and parts of five counties in Southeastern Oklahoma: Atoka County, most of Bryan County, Choctaw County, most of Coal County, Haskell County, half of Hughes County, a portion of Johnston County, Latimer County, Le Flore County, McCurtain County, Pittsburg County, a portion of Pontotoc County, Pushmataha County. The Tribal Headquarters are located in Durant.
Opened in June 2018, the new headquarters is a 5-story, 500,000 square foot building located on an 80-acre campus in south Durant joining other tribal buildings such as the Regional Health Clinic, Wellness Center, Community Center, Child Development Center, Food Distribution. Headquarters was located in the former Oklahoma Presbyterian College, with more offices scattered around Durant; the current chief is Gary Batton and the assistant chief is Jack Austin, Jr. The Tribal Council meet monthly at Tvshka Homma; the tribe is governed by the Choctaw Nation Constitution, ratified by the people on June 9, 1984. The constitution provides for a legislative and a judicial branch of government; the chief of the Choctaw Tribe, elected every four years, is not a voting member of the Tribal Council. They are elected for four-year terms; the legislative authority of the tribe is vested in the Tribal Council, which consists of twelve members. The General Fund Operating Budget, the Health Systems Operating Budget, the Capital Projects Budget for the fiscal year beginning October 1, 2017 and ending September 30, 2018 was $516,318,568.
The supreme executive power of the Choctaw Nation is assigned to a chief magistrate, styled as the "Chief of the Choctaw Nation". The Assistant Chief is appointed by the Chief with the advice and consent of the Tribal Council, can be removed at the discretion of the Chief; the current Chief of the Choctaw Nation is Gary Batton, the current Assistant Chief is Jack Austin, Jr. The Chief's birthday is a tribal holiday. Before Oklahoma was admitted as a state to the union in 1907, the Choctaw Nation was divided into three districts: Apukshunnubbee and Pushmataha; each district had its own chief from 1834 to 1857. The three districts were re-established in 1860, again each with their own chief, with a fourth chief to be Principal Chief of the tribe; these districts were abolished at the time of statehood. The tribe reorganized to re-establish its government; the legislative authority is vested in the Tribal Council. Members of the Tribal Council are elected by the Choctaw people, one for each of the twelve districts in the Choctaw Nation.
In order to be elected as council members, candidates must have resided in their respective districts for at least one year preceding the election. "Candidates for the Tribal Council must be at least one-fourth Choctaw Indian by blood and must be twenty-one years of age or older at the time they file for election." Once elected, a council member must remain a resident of the district from which he or she was elected during the term in office. This policy ensures the involvement and interaction of successful candidates with their constituency. Once in office, the Tribal Council members have scheduled county council meetings; the presence of these tribal leaders in the Indian community creates a sense of understanding of their community and its needs. The Tribal Council is responsible for adopting rules and regulations which govern the Choctaw Nation, for approving all budgets, making decisions concerning the management of tribal property, all other legislative matters; the Tribal Council Members are the voice and representation of the Choctaw people in the tribal government.
The Tribal Councils assist the community to implement an economic development strategy and to plan and direct Tribal resources to achieve self-sufficiency. The Tribal Council is working to strengthen
King George's War
King George's War is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession. It was the third of Indian Wars, it took place in the British provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Nova Scotia. Its most significant action was an expedition organized by Massachusetts Governor William Shirley that besieged and captured the French fortress of Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, in 1745. In French, it is known as Third Intercolonial War; the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war in 1748 and restored Louisbourg to France, but failed to resolve any outstanding territorial issues. The War of Jenkins' Ear broke out in 1739 between Spain and Great Britain, but was restrained to the Caribbean Sea and conflict between Spanish Florida and the neighboring British Province of Georgia; the War of the Austrian Succession, nominally a struggle over the legitimacy of the accession of Maria Theresa to the Austrian throne, began in 1740, but at first did not involve either Britain or Spain militarily.
Britain was drawn diplomatically into that conflict in 1742 as an ally of Austria and an opponent of France and Prussia, but open hostilities between them did not take place until 1743 at Dettingen, war was only formally declared between Britain and France in March 1744. Massachusetts did not declare war until June 2. News of war declarations reached the French fortress at Louisbourg first, on May 3, 1744, the forces there wasted little time in beginning hostilities. Concerned about their overland supply lines to Quebec, they first raided the British fishing port of Canso on May 23, organized an attack on Annapolis Royal the capital of Nova Scotia. However, French forces were delayed in departing Louisbourg, their Mi'kmaq and Maliseet allies in conjunction with Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre decided to attack on their own in early July. Annapolis had received news of the war declaration, was somewhat prepared when the Indians began besieging Fort Anne. Lacking heavy weapons, the Indians withdrew after a few days.
In mid-August, a larger French force arrived before Fort Anne, but was unable to mount an effective attack or siege against the garrison, which had received supplies and reinforcements from Massachusetts. In 1745, British colonial forces captured Fortress Louisbourg after a siege of six weeks. In retaliation, the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia launched the Northeast Coast Campaign against the British settlements on the border of Acadia in Maine. France launched a major expedition to recover Louisbourg in 1746. Beset by storms and the death of its commander, the Duc d'Anville, it returned to France in tatters without reaching its objective; the war was fought on the frontiers between the northern British colonies and New France. Skirmishing and raiding on the northernmost communities of Massachusetts prompted Governor William Shirley to order the construction of a chain of frontier outposts stretching all the way to its border with New York. On November 28, 1745, the French with their Indian allies raided and destroyed the village of Saratoga, New York, killing or capturing more than one hundred of its inhabitants.
All of the British settlements north of Albany were accordingly abandoned. In July 1746 an Iroquois and intercolonial force assembled in northern New York for a retaliatory attack against Canada. British regulars expected to participate never arrived, the attack was called off. A large French and Indian force mustered to raid in the upper Hudson River valley in 1746 instead raided in the Hoosac River valley, including an attack on Fort Massachusetts, made in revenge for the slaying of an Indian leader in an earlier skirmish. Other raids included the 1747 Mi ` kmaq raid on Grand Pré, Nova Scotia; the war took a heavy toll in the northern British colonies. The losses of Massachusetts men alone in 1745–46 have been estimated as 8% of that colony's adult male population. According to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Louisbourg was returned to France three years in exchange for the city of Madras in India, captured by the French from the British; this decision outraged New Englanders Massachusetts colonists who had contributed the most to the expedition.
The British government acknowledged Massachusetts' effort with a payment of £180,000 after the war, which the province used to retire its devalued paper currency. The peace treaty, which restored all colonial borders to their pre-war status, did little to end the lingering enmity between France and their respective colonies, nor did it resolve any territorial disputes. Tensions remained in both North America and Europe, were reignited with the 1754 outbreak of the French and Indian War in North America, which spread to Europe two years as the Seven Years' War. Between 1749 and 1755 in Acadia and Nova Scotia, the fighting continued in Father Le Loutre's War. American Indian Wars Colonial American military history Military history of Canada Military history of the Mi'kmaq people Military history of Nova Scotia Military history of the Acadians Military of New France Boyer, Kett, Salisbury and Woloch; the Enduring Vision: A History of the American People Drake, Samuel Ga
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
William Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton
William Henry Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton MP was a British peer and colonial administrator from the Lyttelton family. He was the youngest son of 4th Baronet; as the youngest son, he did not expect to inherit the family estates and served in various government appointments. He became governor of colonial South Carolina in 1755; as such he was a major factor in the eventual story of America's independence. His insistence on respecting the treaty rights of native peoples aggravated settlers on the frontier of South Carolina and led to a severe rift between those respecting the King's directives and those opposed; the opposing factions fought the civil war in South Carolina, the key factor in America's independence. He was appointed Governor of Jamaica in 1760, envoy-extraordinary to Portugal in 1766, he was raised to the Irish peerage in 1776 as Baron Westcote. As a result of the death without issue of his nephew Thomas Lyttelton, 2nd Baron Lyttelton in 1779, he inherited the family baronetcy and family estates in Frankley and Hagley, including Hagley Hall.
However, the estates in Upper Arley passed to the late lord's sister Lucy, wife of Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Mountnorris. In 1794, Lord Westcote was created Baron Lyttelton in the Peerage of Great Britain, he married twice. His first wife was Martha and coheir of James Macartney of Longford and coheir of Ambrose Aungier, 2nd Earl of Longford, they had three children including his successor. His second wife was Caroline Bristow, daughter of John Bristow, MP and merchant, by whom he had two children including William Henry Lyttelton, 3rd Baron Lyttelton. Attig, Clarence John. "William Henry Lyttelton: A Study in Colonial Administration." Ph. D. diss. University of Nebraska, 1958. "Lyttelton, William Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Burkes Peerage and Baronetage, s.v. Cobham, ViscountSpecific Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Lyttelton The William Henry Lyttelton papers William L. Clements Library
Red Shoes (Choctaw chief)
Red Shoes was a Choctaw chief. He was known in French as le Soulier Rouge, he is known as Red Moccasin. The Choctaw Indians once laid claim to millions of acres of land and established some 50 towns in present-day Mississippi and western Alabama, their population was about 20,000 people scattered in these villages. The peoples who became known as the Choctaws lived as separate societies throughout east-central Mississippi and west-central Alabama and all spoke dialects of the Muskogean language; the nation, in fact, was a league of independent principalities in which the weaker towns were attached as dependencies to the stronger. With European contact the world of the Mississippian culture turned upside down and nothing was the same. One leader, Red Shoes, moved to seize the opportunities offered by contact with the Europeans; the French of necessity had intimate dealings with the Choctaw from the time when Louisiana was first colonized, the relations between the two peoples were friendly. But corruption and lack of supply crippled the Indian trade of French Louisiana.
The hunters came away from the trading table with little to show, sometimes empty handed, after months of hard work to obtain the deer hides and furs. They were disappointed, they looked elsewhere and found better recompense in the Creek and Chickasaw camps of their former enemies. This meant they were trading with the English who had sent the Chickasaw and Creek against them, their leader, Mingo Tchito, turned a blind eye, but he was infuriated when the French could not supply the customary chief's gifts. These developments led to an English party being formed among the Choctaw because the prices charged by the Carolina traders were lower than those placed upon French goods; this effort was led by noted chief, Red Shoes, lasted for a considerable time, culminating in his assassination and one of the principal Choctaw towns being burned to the ground before it came to an end with the defeat of the British Party in 1750. Red Shoes began his adult life as a common warrior, he had no hereditary claim to Choctaw leadership.
However, through his exploits as a daring warrior, he earned the distinction of the finest warrior the Choctaws produced. In days it was said; as a youth Shulush Homa learned that it was necessary to cooperate with the French if one wanted to escape being taken into slavery by the large Chickasaw and Creek raiding parties. They had marched thousands into bondage for the English slave trade, killed thousands more and left the survivors to fend for themselves in a burned out, ravaged country. In the early 1720s the Choctaws waged a fierce war with the Chickasaws, their bitter rivals and enemies. After the taking of many Chickasaw scalps, Shulush Homa stood in Couechitto town and received a new name, Soulouche Oumastabe, he rose to Red Shoes or war captain of Couechitto. Red Shoes became his name, it was the highest rank. He was in his twenties when he began his rise to power which paralleled the decline of the head chief of Couechitto, Mingo Tchito and the dismantling of Choctaw power structure. Though both Red Shoes and Mingo Tchito, were shrewd, Mingo Tchito lacked his young rival's boldness and willingness to gamble everything.
Mingo Tchito always hedged his bets. It was a dangerous game of survival these two played and Red Shoes emerged as the leader after a series of crisis plagued Couechitto after 1729. Red Shoes was he a pawn of the Europeans; when he went over to the English it was upon his own terms. He could be treacherous and ruthless. Red Shoes, who hailed from the western division, opened trade with British fur traders based in South Carolina in the 1740s and ignited the Choctaw Civil War when he killed some French traders; these killings were not wanton. They were in retailiation for wrongs against the Choctaw including rape and murder; when the South Carolinians intrigued with Choctaw chief Red Shoes to win his large tribe away from French alliance, the French countered by arranging Red Shoe's assassination. In June 1747, a pack train bearing English presents from Chareston approached the Choctaw Nation. Red Shoes took a party to escort the traders to Couechitto, he never returned. On June 23, 1747, he made his camp away from the main party keeping only one retainer.
The man who volunteered for this duty was the man. As he slept, that man took out a knife, murdered Red Shoes for the French price on his head, slipped into the night. In the aftermath of his assassination, more tragedy ensued as the event sparked the Choctaw Civil War. A substantial number of towns returned to the French, plunging the Choctaw into the ever-widening civil war. 800 warriors died in the woods where they were hunted down. Rivalries over trade with France and Britain caused the rift in Choctaw society between the western and eastern divisions, that lasted from 1747 to 1750. Eastern-division forces allied with France prevailed in the conflict and burned several western-division towns to the ground. Hundreds of Choctaws died during the war. Red Shoes had sought much more than personal gain, he had a vision that the Choctaws would benefit from the advantages the Europeans brought without falling under their rule. Retaining his independence, he made his own terms, he adapted and prospered for a time.
His death transformed the Choctaw Nation. After the conflict, Choctaw leaders worked to end inter-ethnic animosities and unite their peo