Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Percival Serle was an Australian biographer and bibliographer. Serle was born to English parents in Elsternwick and for many years worked in a life assurance office before in November 1910 becoming chief clerk and accountant at the University of Melbourne, he married artist Dora Beatrice Hake on 29 March 1910. They were to have three children. One son, Alan Geoffrey Serle, was selected as 1947 Victorian Rhodes scholar. Serle ran a second-hand bookshop during the depression, he was president of the Australian Literature Society. Serle's publications included an edition, with notes, of A Song to David and Other Poems by the 18th-century English poet, Christopher Smart; the Dictionary took more than twenty years to complete and contains more than one thousand biographies of prominent Australians or persons connected with Australia. Serle comments in the Preface, it would have been better could I have spent another five years on it, but at seventy-five years of age one realizes there is a time to make an end."
He was awarded the Australian Literature Society Gold Medal for 1949 for this work. Serle died in Hawthorn, aged 80 on 16 December 1951; the Oxford Companion to Australian Literature. Geoffrey Serle,'Serle, Percival', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, MUP, 1988, pp 567–569. Dictionary of Australian Biography courtesy of Project Gutenberg Australia
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Saint-Servan is a town of western France, in Brittany, situated 2 miles from the ferry port of St Malo. It is renowned for its restaurants. In June 1758, during the Seven Years' War, British troops captured Saint-Servan as part of the Raid on St Malo; the British burnt a hundred other ships before they withdrew. Its population in 1906 was 1,965; the commune of Saint-Servan was merged, together with Paramé, into the commune of Saint-Malo in 1967. The area was known as Aleth, whose first bishop was the 5th century Saint Malo. Today, Catholic pilgrims can visit the House of the Cross at Saint-Servan where Saint Jeanne Jugan performed her charitable works for the Little Sisters of the Poor. Louis Duchesne and writer; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "St Servan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 45
Hired armed vessels
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the British Royal Navy made use of a considerable number of hired armed vessels. These were smaller vessels cutters and luggers, that the Navy used for duties ranging from carrying despatches and passengers to convoy escort in British coastal waters, reconnaissance; the Navy Board hired the vessel complete with master and crew rather than bareboat. Contracts were on an open-ended monthly hire basis. During periods of peace, such as the period between the Treaty of Amiens and the commencement of the Napoleonic Wars, the Admiralty returned the vessels to their owners, only to rehire many on the outbreak of war; the Admiralty provided a regular naval officer a lieutenant for the small vessels, to be the commander. The civilian master served as the sailing master. For purposes of prize money or salvage, hired armed vessels received the same treatment as naval vessels. However, Admiral John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, wrote that throughout his life he "discouraged any friend of mine from serving in a cutter or hired armed vessel."
He felt that a good officer would be wasting his time in such vessels, while a bad officer should not be allowed to serve in them. Cutters and hired armed vessels did not receive the sort of opportunities that would allow a good officer to shine, or give him visibility to senior officers, while giving bad officers too much independence; the most suitable officers were good sailors with a common education. However, some officers that served in hired armed vessels went on to have distinguished subsequent naval careers. A case in point was Thomas Ussher. In 1801, the Royal Navy had some 130 hired armed vessels on its rolls. Of these, 12 were ship-rigged, 12 were brig-rigged, most of the rest were cutters. All but eight served in home waters. Of the 76 vessels in service in November 1804, most were cutters; the six were: During the period 1804 to 1807, the vessels were sometimes referred to as, for example, His Majesty's armed defence ship Indefatigable, which recaptured Melcombe on 21 June 1804, or hired armed defence-ship Norfolk.
Despite St Vincent's strictures, some of these vessels had military careers as distinguished as those of the Royal Navy's own vessels. For instance, between 1796 and 1801, the hired armed cutter Telemachus captured eight privateers in the Channel; the crew from some vessels qualified for clasps to the Naval General Service Medal. Noteworthy examples include: Hired armed brig Ann Hired armed cutter Courier Hired armed brig Pasley HM hired brig TelegraphIn each of these cases, the clasp bore the vessel's own name. Hired armed lugger AristocratIn this case the crew from Aristocrat shared the medal with two other vessels; some of these hired armed vessels sailed under a letter of marque, either before or after their service with the Royal Navy. With the resumption of war against France in 1803, the British government spent a great deal of money arming coastal vessels so that they might protect themselves against privateers; these vessels were neither letters of marque, that is, they did not have authorization to seek out and capture enemy vessels, nor were they hired armed vessels working for the Royal Navy.
The government sought to augment the merchant fleet's defences. For example, in 1807, the Aberdeen Shipping Company had five vessels that had received 18-pounder carronades from the government. Citations References Brenton, Edward Pelham Life and correspondence of John, Earl of St. Vincent.. Lavery and Patrick O'Brian Nelson's navy: the ships and organisation, 1793-1815.. ISBN 978-1-59114-611-7 Sinclair, Donald The History of the Aberdeen Volunteers: Embracing Also Some Account of the Early Volunteers of the Counties of Aberdeen and Kincardine.. Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1. National Archives: ADM 359/24A/54 - An Account of the Number of Hired Armed Cutters, Ships and Boats employed in the Public Service on the 31st December 1793, 1794,1795, 1796, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800, 30th September 1801, 31st December 1802, 1803 and 15th March 1804, with headings for vessels' names, the nature and force of guns and men, the time employed and when paid off.
Armed boarding steamer Ocean boarding vessel
Desolation Island (novel)
Desolation Island is the fifth historical novel in the Aubrey-Maturin series by Patrick O'Brian. It was first published in 1978. Jack Aubrey is in funds from his successful mission to take the islands of Reunion, his house has additions. The story includes a voyage meant to reach Australia, occurs prior to the War of 1812. Critics have praised the novel's “literate, clear-eyed realism” at initial publication, stirring naval action in the cold southern ocean in the chase of the Dutch ship, 20 years after initial publication at the re-issue. Jack Aubrey, having recovered financially in The Mauritius Command, expands his house, pays off his mother-in-law's debts, his wife is no longer pinching pennies, his household staffed with seamen, his daughters and son are thriving. After serving in the Fencibles office for a while, Aubrey starts getting into difficulties both in cards and at business, due to his belief, on land, in the honesty of others. Diana Villiers returns from unmarried. Maturin sees her, hopes again to marry her.
After the local settlers enter into a feud with Captain Bligh, the governor in New South Wales, Aubrey takes command of the old HMS Leopard for a mission to New South Wales to escape his woes. In the meantime and her American friend Louisa Wogan are taken for questioning as spies. Wogan gets sent to New South Wales on the Leopard. Maturin gets assigned to the voyage by Sir Joseph Blaine to watch Wogan, in the hopes of catching her in espionage. Diana, innocent of the espionage charges, flees with Mr Johnson, but is in Maturin's mind, as he pays her bills; the prisoners kill their superintendent and surgeon during a storm, so their conditions are raised to meet naval standards. They bring gaol fever on board ship, which spreads to the seamen, killing most of the male prisoners and 116 of the ship's crew. Mr Martin, Maturin's assistant, is replaced by Michael Herapath, who has stowed away in pursuit of Louisa Wogan. Aubrey rates him a midshipman, despite his American citizenship. Aubrey is forced to leave many recovering crew members at Recife, including Tom Pullings.
He is replaced with James Grant as a challenge for Aubrey. While they are in port, HMS Nymph arrives damaged from its encounter with the Waakzaamheid, a 74-gun Dutch ship-of-the-line crossing the equator; the Leopard encounters the Waakzaamheid before reaching the Cape of Good Hope. The Waakzaamheid chases the Leopard south into the Roaring Forties for five days; the waves and wind increase, the ships engage. Abruptly, after a shot from the Leopard destroys her foremast, the Waakzaamheid is thrown on her beam ends in the trough of a deep wave and sinks with all hands. Now east of the Cape, the Leopard aims for New South Wales, but soon strikes an iceberg, damaging the rudder and causing a severe leak. All hands pump, the seamen work to fother a sail to stop the leak. Aubrey maintains his authority. Grant, more comfortable as captain, disagrees that the Leopard will float, is given permission to take two smaller boats with the men who wish to leave for the Cape, carrying dispatches from Maturin.
The Leopard drifts east with the wind, still rudderless, pumping all the time. Aubrey, making adroit use of anchors and sails, directs the ship to safe harbour in a bay of Desolation Island. Despite its name, it is full of fresh food in the rainy Antarctic summer; the crew can not leave until the rudder is replaced. As their forge went overboard earlier, this is a challenge. Maturin is in paradise as he and Herapath collect samples of the local plant and animal life and identify edible cabbage, which fights scurvy. Maturin uses a small island in the bay for observations in the daylight; the American brig Lafayette, a whaler, arrives at the bay for supplies of the cabbage. They lost their surgeon. A delicate situation arises reflecting American – British tensions from the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair of 1807, continued British pressing of Americans into the Royal Navy, awareness that the two nations might be at war. Maturin uses Herapath as first envoy to Captain Putnam. Maturin follows; the Captain offers to pay.
The next morning the forge is on the beach for the use of Aubrey. Maturin sees a perfect way to speed his plan to spoil Mrs Wogan's contact as an intelligence source by letting her and Herapath slip away on the whaler with documents he shared with Herapath, she is now pregnant with Herapath's child. Maturin advised Aubrey to resist any efforts at pressing the British sailors; the rudder is set in place and the forge returned. The Lafayette sails on the tide, as Maturin and Barret Bonden watch the ship pick up Herapath and Mrs Wogan, it slips out of the bay. See Recurring characters in the Aubrey–Maturin series Jack Aubrey - Captain of HMS Leopard and painted wearing the Order of the Bath but he does not appear to have been awarded the knighthood as he does not use the title in this or subsequent books. Stephen Maturin - ship's surgeon, friend to Jack and an intelligence officer. Sophia Williams - Jack's wife, mother of their three children, Charlotte and young George. Mrs Williams - Jack Aubrey's mother in law, now financially secure, with tenants in Mapes Court, choosing to live with her daughter and three grandchildren.
Diana Villiers - first cousin to Sophia and the love of Stephen Maturin. Sir Joseph Blaine - a senior figure in the Admiralty's espionage department, Maturin's colleague and a fellow naturalist. Mr Kimber - the schemer with a process
A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation. The navigator's primary responsibility is to be aware of aircraft position at all times. Responsibilities include planning the journey, advising the ship's captain or aircraft commander of estimated timing to destinations while en route, ensuring hazards are avoided; the navigator is in charge of maintaining the aircraft or ship's nautical charts, nautical publications, navigational equipment, he/she has responsibility for meteorological equipment and communications. With the advent of GPS, the effort required to determine one's position has decreased by orders of magnitude, so the entire field has experienced a revolutionary transition since the 1990s with traditional navigation tasks being used less frequently. Shipborne navigators in the U. S. Navy are surface warfare officer qualified with the exception of naval aviators and naval flight officers assigned to ship's navigator billets aboard aircraft carriers and large deck amphibious assault ships and who have been qualified at a level equal to surface warfare officers.
U. S. Coast Guard officers that are shipboard navigators are cutter qualified at a level analogous to the USN officers mentioned. Quartermasters are the navigator's enlisted assistants and perform most of the technical navigation duties. Aboard ships in the Merchant Marine and Merchant Navy, the second mate is the navigator. Navigators are sometimes called'air navigators' or'flight navigators'. In civil aviation this was a position on older aircraft between the late-1910s and the 1970s, where separate crew members were responsible for an aircraft's flight navigation, including its dead reckoning and celestial navigation when flown over oceans or other large featureless areas where radio navigation aids were not available; as sophisticated electronic air navigation aids and universal space-based GPS navigation systems came online, the dedicated Navigator's position was discontinued and its function was assumed by dual-licensed Pilot-Navigators, still by the aircraft's primary pilots, resulting in a continued downsizing in the number of aircrew positions on commercial flights.
Modern electronic navigation systems made the civil aviation navigators redundant by the early 1980s. In military aviation, navigators are still trained and licensed in some present day air forces, as electronic navigation aids cannot be assumed to be operational during wartime. In the world's air forces, modern navigators are tasked with weapons and defensive systems operations, along with co-pilot duties such as flight planning and fuel management, depending on the type and series of aircraft. In the U. S. Air Force, the aeronautical rating of navigator has been augmented by addition of the combat systems officer, while in the U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps, those officers called navigators, tactical systems officers, or naval aviation observers have been known as naval flight officers since the mid-1960s. USAF navigators/combat systems officers and USN/USMC naval flight officers must be basic mission qualified in their aircraft, or fly with an instructor navigator or instructor NFO to provide the necessary training for their duties.
A naval ship's navigator is responsible for maintaining its nautical charts. A nautical chart, or "chart", is a graphic representation of a maritime or flight region and adjacent coastal regions. Depending on the scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land, natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, restricted flying areas, man-made structures such as harbors and bridges. Nautical charts are essential tools for marine navigation. Nautical charting may take the form of charts printed on paper or computerised electronic navigational charts; the nature of a waterway depicted by a chart changes and a mariner navigating on an old or uncorrected chart is courting disaster. Every producer of navigational charts provides a system to inform mariners and aviators of changes that affect the chart. In the United States, chart corrections and notifications of new editions are provided by various governmental agencies by way of Notices to Airmen, Notice to Mariners, Local Notice to Mariners, Summary of Corrections, Broadcast Notice to Mariners.
Radio broadcasts give advance notice of urgent corrections. A convenient way to keep track of corrections is with a "chart and publication correction record card" system. Using this system, the navigator does not update every chart in the portfolio when a new Notice to Mariners arrives, instead creating a card for every chart and noting the correction on this card; when the time comes to use the chart, he pulls the chart and chart's card, makes the indicated corrections on the chart. This system ensures. British merchant vessels receive weekly Notices to Mariners issued by the Admiralty; when corrections are received all charts are corrected in the ship's folio and recorded in NP133A. This system ensures that all charts are up to date. In a deep sea vessel with a folio of over three thousand charts this can be a laborious and time-consuming task for the. Various and diverse methods exist for the correction of electronic navigational charts. T