New Rochelle, New York
New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state. In 2007, the city had a population of 73,260, making it the seventh-largest in the state of New York; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population had increased to 77,062. In November 2008 Business Week magazine listed New Rochelle as the best city in New York State, one of the best places nationally, to raise children. In 2014, based on analysis of 550 U. S. cities, New Rochelle was voted the 13th best city to live in. The European settlement was started by refugee Huguenots in 1688, who were fleeing religious persecution in France after the revocation by the king of the Edict of Nantes. Many of the settlers were artisans and craftsmen from the city of La Rochelle, thus influencing the choice of the name of "New Rochelle"; some 33 families established the community of la Nouvelle-Rochelle in 1688. A monument containing the names of these settlers stands in Hudson Park, the original landing point of the Huguenots.
Thirty-one years earlier, the Siwanoy Indians, a band of Algonquian-speaking Lenape sold their land to Thomas Pell. In 1689 Pell deeded 6,100 acres for the establishment of a Huguenot community. Jacob Leisler is an important figure in the early histories of the nation, he arrived in America as a mercenary in the British army and became one of the most prominent merchants in New York. He was subsequently appointed acting-governor of the province, it was during this time that he acted on behalf of the Huguenots. Of all the Huguenot settlements in America founded with the intention of being distinctly French colonies, New Rochelle most conformed to the plans of its founders; the colony continued to attract French refugees until as late as 1760. The choice of name for the city reflected the importance of the city of La Rochelle and of the new settlement in Huguenot history and distinctly French character of the community. French was spoken, it was common practice for people in neighboring areas to send their children to New Rochelle to learn the language.
In 1775, General George Washington stopped in New Rochelle on his way to assume command of the Army of the United Colonies in Massachusetts. The British Army occupied sections of New Rochelle and Larchmont in 1776. Following British victory in the Battle of White Plains, New Rochelle became part of a "Neutral Ground" for General Washington to regroup his troops. After the Revolutionary War ended in 1784, patriot Thomas Paine was given a farm in New Rochelle for his service to the cause of independence; the farm, totaling about 300 acres, had been confiscated from its owners by state of New York due to their Tory activities. The first national census of 1790 shows New Rochelle with 692 residents. 136 were African American, including 36 who were the remainder slaves. Through the 18th century, New Rochelle had remained a modest village that retained an abundance of agricultural land. During the 19th century, New York City was a destination from the mid-century on by waves of immigration, principally from Ireland and Germany.
More established American families moved into this area. Although the original Huguenot population was shrinking in relative size, through ownership of land, businesses and small manufactures, they retained a predominant hold on the political and social life of the town; the 1820 Census showed 150 African-Americans residing in New Rochelle, six of whom were still slaves. The state abolished slavery by degrees: children of slave mothers were born free, all slaves were freed by 1827. In 1857 the Village of New Rochelle was established within the borders of the Town of New Rochelle. A group of volunteers created the first fire service in 1861. In 1899, a bill creating the New Rochelle City Charter was signed by Governor Theodore Roosevelt, it was through this bill that the Village and Town of New Rochelle were joined into one municipality. In 1899, Michael J. Dillon narrowly defeated Hugh A. Harmer to become New Rochelle's first mayor; the established city charter designated a board of aldermen as the legislative unit with two members to be elected from each of four wards and 10 elected from the city at-large.
By 1900 New Rochelle had a population of 14,720. Throughout the city, farms and wooded homesteads were bought up by realty and development companies. Planned residential neighborhoods such as Rochelle Park, one of the first planned communities in the country, soon spread across the city, earning New Rochelle the sobriquet "City of Homes". In 1909, Edwin Thanhouser established Thanhouser Film Corporation. Thanhouser's Million Dollar Mystery was one of the first serial motion pictures. In 1923, New Rochelle resident Anna Jones became the first African-American woman to be admitted to the New York State Bar. Poet and resident James J. Montague captured the image of New Rochelle in his 1926 poem "Queen City of the Sound".: No stern and rock bound coast is here, peaceful and at ease The quiet sea lies blue and clear Beside the spreading trees. Afar from din of marts and mills A happy people dwell Among the placid, green clad hills Of lovely New Rochelle... When Nature, seeking upon men To cast a magic spell, She looked the world around – and She fashioned New Rochelle.
In 1930, New Rochelle recorded a population of 54,000, up from 36,213 only ten years earlier. During the 1930s, New Rochelle was the wealthiest city per capita in New York state and the third wealthiest in the country. By the end of the century, the Metro North railroad station was rebuilt along with a $190 million entertainment complex, nicknamed New Roc City, which fe
The Young Stranger
The Young Stranger is a low-budget drama film, the directorial debut of John Frankenheimer and was based on the teleplay Deal a Blow by Robert Dozier. Teenage Hal Ditmar, the son of a wealthy movie producer, gets into an argument in a theater, which ends with Hal hitting the theater manager. Neither the police nor Hal's father believe his claim. James MacArthur as Hal Ditmar James Daly as Tom Ditmar Kim Hunter as Helen Ditmar James Gregory as Sgt. Shipley Whit Bissell as Theater Manager The Young Stranger on IMDb
Dino Paul Crocetti, known famously as Dean Martin, was an American actor and singer. One of the most popular and enduring American entertainers of the mid-20th century, Martin was nicknamed "The King of Cool" for his effortless charisma and self-assurance, he and Jerry Lewis formed the immensely popular comedy duo Martin and Lewis, with Martin serving as the straight man to Lewis' slapstick hijinks. A member of the "Rat Pack", Martin went on to become a star of concert stages, audio recordings, motion pictures and television. Martin was the host of the variety programs The Dean Martin Show and The Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts, his relaxed, crooning voice earned him dozens of hit singles, including his signature songs "Memories Are Made of This", "That's Amore", "Everybody Loves Somebody", "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You", "Sway", "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?", "Volare". Martin was born Dino Paul Crocetti on June 7, 1917, in Steubenville, the son of Italian father Gaetano Alfonso Crocetti and Italian-American mother Angela Crocetti.
His parents were married in 1914. His father, a barber, was from Montesilvano and his mother's origins are believed to be from Abruzzo, although they are not known. Martin had an older brother named William Alfonso Crocetti, his first language was Italian and he did not speak English until he started school at the age of five. He attended Grant Elementary School in Steubenville; as a teenager, he played the drums as a hobby. He dropped out of Steubenville High School in the tenth grade because he thought he was smarter than his teachers, he bootlegged liquor, worked in a steel mill, served as a croupier at a speakeasy and a blackjack dealer, was a welterweight boxer. At 15, he was a boxer who billed himself as "Kid Crochet", his prizefighting earned him a broken nose, a scarred lip, many broken knuckles, a bruised body. Of his 12 bouts, he said that he "won all but 11". For a time, he shared a New York City apartment with Sonny King, starting in show business and had little money; the two charged people to watch them bare-knuckle box each other in their apartment, fighting until one was knocked out.
Martin knocked out King in the first round of an amateur boxing match. Martin gave up boxing to work as a roulette stickman and croupier in an illegal casino behind a tobacco shop, where he had started as a stock boy. At the same time, he sang with local bands, calling himself "Dino Martini", he got his break working for the Ernie McKay Orchestra. He sang among others. In the early 1940s, he started singing for bandleader Sammy Watkins, who suggested he change his name to Dean Martin. In October 1941, Martin married Elizabeth "Betty" Anne McDonald in Cleveland and the couple had an apartment in Cleveland Heights for a while, they had four children before the marriage ended in 1949. Martin worked for various bands throughout the early 1940s on looks and personality until he developed his own singing style, he flopped at the Riobamba nightclub in New York, when he followed Frank Sinatra in 1943. Martin attracted the attention of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, but a Hollywood contract was not forthcoming.
He met comic Jerry Lewis at the Glass Hat Club in New York. Martin and Lewis formed a fast friendship which led to their participation in each other's acts and the formation of a music-comedy team. Martin and Lewis's debut together occurred at Atlantic City's 500 Club on July 24, 1946, they were not well received; the owner, Skinny D'Amato, warned them that if they did not come up with a better act for their second show that night, they would be fired. Huddling in the alley behind the club and Martin agreed to "go for broke", they divided their act between songs, ad-libbed material. Martin sang and Lewis dressed as a busboy, dropping plates and making a shambles of Martin's performance and the club's decorum until Lewis was chased from the room as Martin pelted him with breadrolls, they did slapstick, reeled off old vaudeville jokes, did whatever else popped into their heads. The audience laughed; this success led to a series of well-paying engagements on the Eastern seaboard, culminating in a run at New York's Copacabana.
The act consisted of Lewis interrupting and heckling Martin while he was trying to sing, with the two chasing each other around the stage. The secret, both said, is that they played to each other; the team made its TV debut on the first broadcast of CBS-TV network's The Ed Sullivan Show on June 20, 1948, with composers Rodgers and Hammerstein appearing. Hoping to improve their act, the two hired young comedy writers Norman Lear and Ed Simmons to write their bits. With the assistance of both Lear and Simmons, the two would take their act beyond nightclubs. A radio series began in 1949, the year Martin and Lewis signed with Paramount producer Hal B. Wallis as comedy relief for the movie My Friend Irma, their agent, Abby Greshler, negotiated one of Hollywood's best deals: although they received only $75,000 between them for their films with Wallis and Lewis were free to do one outside film a year, which they would co-produce through their own York Productions. They controlled their club, record and television appearances, through these they earned millions of dollars.
In Dean & Me, Lewis calls Mar
The Atomic Cafe
The Atomic Cafe is a 1982 American documentary film produced and directed by Jayne Loader, Kevin Rafferty and Pierce Rafferty. In 2016, the film was selected for preservation in the United States' National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant"; the film covers the beginnings of the era of nuclear warfare, created from a broad range of archival material from the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s including newsreel clips, television news footage, U. S. government-produced films, advertisements and radio programs. News footage reflected the prevailing understanding of public. Though the topic of atomic holocaust is a grave matter, The Atomic Cafe approaches it with black humor. Much of the humor derives from the modern audience's reaction to the old training films, such as the Duck and Cover film shown in schools. A quote to illustrate what can be perceived as black humor, culled from the movie: "Viewed from a safe distance, the atomic bomb is one of the most beautiful sights seen by man," a U.
S. Army training film declares; the Atomic Cafe was released at the height of cynicism in America. By 1982, Americans lost much of their faith in their government following the Vietnam War, the Watergate scandal, the never-ending arms race with the Soviet Union; the Atomic Cafe reflects and reinforces this idea as it exposes how the atomic bomb's dangers were downplayed and how the government used films to shape public opinion. The Atomic Cafe was released during the Reagan Administration's forced civil defense revival. Barry Posen and Stephen Van Evera explain this revival in their article "Defense Policy and the Reagan Administration: Departure from Containment" published in International Security, they argue that in 1981–82 the Reagan Administration was moving from an defensive grand strategy of containment to a more offensive strategy. Due to the greater demands of its more offensive strategy "the Reagan Administration... proposed the biggest military buildup since the Korean War." Of key relevance to The Atomic Cafe, the Reagan move toward offense included the adoption of a more aggressive nuclear strategy that required a large U.
S. nuclear buildup. Containment only required that U. S. strategic nuclear forces be capable of one mission: inflicting unacceptable damage on the Soviet Union after absorbing an all-out Soviet surprise attack. To this "assured destruction" mission the Reagan administration added a second "counterforce" mission, which required the capacity to launch a nuclear first strike against Soviet strategic nuclear forces that would leave the Soviets unable to inflict unacceptable damage on the U. S. in retaliation. The U. S. had always invested in counterforce but the Reagan administration put greater emphasis on it. The counterforce mission was far more demanding than the assured destruction mission, required a vast expansion of U. S. nuclear forces to fulfill. Civil defense was a component of a counterforce strategy, as it reduced Soviet retaliatory capacity, hence civil defense was a candidate for more spending under Reagan's counterforce nuclear strategy. Posen and Van Evera argue that this counterforce strategy was a warrant for an open-ended U.
S. nuclear buildup. Bob Mielke, in "Rhetoric and Ideology in the Nuclear Test Documentary" discusses the release of The Atomic Cafe: "This satire feature was released at the height of the nuclear freeze movement"Patricia Aufderheide, in Documentary Film: A Very Short Introduction touches on the significance of The Atomic Cafe as a window into the past of government propaganda and disinformation during the years following the advent of the Atomic Bomb. "Propaganda known as disinformation, public diplomacy, strategic communication, continues to be an important tool for governments. But stand-alone documentary is no longer an important part of public relations campaigns aimed at the general public." The Atomic Cafe was produced over a five-year period through the collaborative efforts of three directors: Jayne Loader and brothers Kevin and Pierce Rafferty. For this film, the Rafferty brothers and Loader formed a production company called The Archives Project; the filmmakers opted not to use narration.
Instead, they deployed constructed sequences of film clips to make their points. Jayne Loader has referred to The Atomic Cafe as "compilation verite": a compilation film with no "Voice of God" narration and no new footage added by the filmmakers; the soundtrack utilizes atomic-themed songs from the Cold War era to underscore the themes of the film. The film cost $300,000 to make; the group did receive some financial support from outside sources, including the Film Fund, a New York City based non-profit. Grants comprised a nominal amount of the team's budget, the film was funded by the filmmakers themselves. Jayne Loader stated in an interview, "Had we relied on grants, we would have starved" Pierce Rafferty helped to support the team and the film financially by working as a consultant and researcher on several other documentary films including El Salvador—Another Vietnam, With Babies and Banners, The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter; the Rafferty brothers had received an inheritance that they used to support the team during the five years it took to make the film.
About 75 % of the film is made up of government materials. Though they could use those public domain materials for free, they had to make copies of the films at their own expense; this along with the newsreel and commercial stock footage that comprises the other 25% of the film (along with the music ro
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Sedona is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,031. Sedona's main attraction is its array of red sandstone formations; the formations appear to glow in brilliant orange and red when illuminated by the rising or setting sun. The red rocks form a popular backdrop for many activities, ranging from spiritual pursuits to the hundreds of hiking and mountain biking trails. Sedona was named after Sedona Arabella Miller Schnebly, the wife of Theodore Carlton Schnebly, the city's first postmaster, celebrated for her hospitality and industriousness, her mother, Amanda Miller, claimed to have made the name up because "it sounded pretty". The first documented human presence in the Sedona area dates to between 11,500 and 9000 B. C, it was not until 1995 that a Clovis projectile point discovered in Honanki revealed the presence of the Paleo-Indians, who were big game hunters.
Around 9000 B. C. the pre-historic Archaic people appeared in the Verde Valley. These were hunter-gatherers and their presence in the area was longer than in other areas of the Southwest, most because of the ecological diversity and large amount of resources, they left by 300 A. D. There is an assortment of rock art left by the Archaic people in places near Sedona such as Palatki and Honanki. Around 650 A. D. the Sinagua people entered the Verde Valley. Their culture is known for its art such as pottery and their masonry, they left rock art and cliff dwellings such as Montezuma Castle, Honanki and Tuzigoot in the period of their presence. The Sinagua abandoned the Verde Valley about 1400 A. D. Researchers believe the Sinagua and other clans moved to the Hopi mesas in Arizona and the Zuni and other pueblos in New Mexico; the Yavapai came from the west when the Sinagua were still there in the Verde Valley around 1300 A. D, they were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Some archaeologists place the Apache arrival in the Verde Valley around 1450 A.
D. Many Apache groups traveled over large areas; the Yavapai and Apache tribes were forcibly removed from the Verde Valley in 1876, to the San Carlos Indian Reservation, 180 miles southeast. About 1,500 people were marched, to San Carlos. Several hundred lost their lives; the survivors were interned for 25 years. About 200 Yavapai and Apache people returned to the Verde Valley in 1900 and have since intermingled as a single political entity although culturally distinct residing in the Yavapai-Apache Nation; the first Anglo settler, John J. Thompson, moved to Oak Creek Canyon in 1876, an area well known for its peach and apple orchards; the early settlers were ranchers. In 1902, when the Sedona post office was established, there were 55 residents. In the mid-1950s, the first telephone directory listed 155 names; some parts of the Sedona area were not electrified until the 1960s. Sedona began to develop as a tourist vacation-home and retirement center in the 1950s. Most of the development seen today was constructed in the 1990s.
As of 2007, there are no large tracts of undeveloped land remaining. In 1956, construction of the Chapel of the Holy Cross was completed; the chapel rises 70 feet out of a 1,000-foot redrock cliff. The most prominent feature of the chapel is the cross. A chapel was added. Inside the chapel there is a cross with benches and pews. Sedona played host to more than sixty Hollywood productions from the first years of movies into the 1970s. Stretching as far back as 1923, Sedona's red rocks were a fixture in major Hollywood productions—including films such as Johnny Guitar and the Badman, Desert Fury, Blood on the Moon, The Last Wagon, 3:10 to Yuma. However, the surroundings were identified to audiences as the terrain of Texas, California and Canada–US border territory. On June 18, 2006, a wildfire started by campers, began about one mile north of Sedona; the Brins Fire covered 4,317 acres on Brins Mesa, Wilson Mountain and in Oak Creek Canyon before the USDA Forest Service declared it 100 percent contained on June 28.
Containment cost was estimated at $6.4 million. On May 20, 2014, a wildfire started from an unknown cause began north of Sedona at Slide Rock State Park; the Slide Fire spread across 21,227 acres in Oak Creek Canyon over nine days and prompted evacuations. State Route 89A opened to Flagstaff in June, but all parking and canyon access was closed to the public until Oct. 1, 2014. Sedona is located in the Upper Sonoran Desert of northern Arizona. Sedona has hot summers. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, is water. The red rocks of Sedona are formed by a unique layer of rock known as the Schnebly Hill Formation; the Schnebly Hill Formation is a thick layer of red to orange-colored sandstone found only in the Sedona vicinity. The sandstone, a member of the Supai Group, was deposited during the Permian Period. Sedona has a temperate semi-arid climate. In January, the average high temperature is 57 °F with a low of 31 °F.
In July, the average high temperature is 97 °F with a low of 64 °F. Annual precipitation is just over 19 inches; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,192 people, 4,928 households, 2,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 548.0 people per square mile. There were 5,684 housing units at an average density of 305.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.17% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.94%
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18