Dead Sea Scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert near the Dead Sea. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE; the texts have great historical and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. All of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection is under the ownership of the Government of the state of Israel, housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum. Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area, they represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority holding only small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved intact manuscripts have survived – fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran Caves.
Researchers have assembled a collection of 981 different manuscripts – discovered in 1946/47 and in 1956 – from 11 caves. The 11 Qumran Caves lie in the immediate vicinity of the Hellenistic-period Jewish settlement at Khirbet Qumran in the eastern Judaean Desert, in the West Bank; the caves are located about one mile west of the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, whence they derive their name. Scholarly consensus dates the Qumran Caves Scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. Bronze coins found at the same sites form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus and continuing until the period of the First Jewish–Roman War, supporting the radiocarbon and paleographic dating of the scrolls. In the larger sense, the Dead Sea Scrolls include manuscripts from additional Judaean Desert sites, dated as early as the 8th century BCE and as late as the 11th century CE; the texts have great historical and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism.
Biblical texts older than the Dead Sea Scrolls have been discovered only in two silver scroll-shaped amulets containing portions of the Priestly Blessing from the Book of Numbers, excavated in Jerusalem at Ketef Hinnom and dated c. 600 BCE. The third-oldest surviving known piece of the Torah, the En-Gedi Scroll, consists of a portion of Leviticus found in the Ein Gedi synagogue, burnt in the 6th century CE and analyzed in 2015. Research has dated it palaeographically to the 1st or 2nd century CE, using the C14 method to sometime between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE. Most of the texts use Hebrew, with some written in Aramaic, a few in Greek. Discoveries from the Judaean Desert add Arabic texts. Most of the texts are written on parchment, some on papyrus, one on copper. Archaeologists have long associated the scrolls with the ancient Jewish sect called the Essenes, although some recent interpretations have challenged this connection and argue that priests in Jerusalem, or Zadokites, or other unknown Jewish groups wrote the scrolls.
Robert Eisenman vigorously posits his theory that the non-biblical "sectarian" scrolls must be viewed in the context of a wider first-century CE “Opposition Movement,” including Essenes, Sicarii, and/or Nazoreans, the early Judeo-Christian community of Jerusalem, the Ebionites, whose leader, the brother of Jesus, was acknowledged by the entire “Opposition Movement,” and, no other than the Scrolls' Teacher of Righteousness. He thus creates a strong link between the pre-Pauline Jewish Christian community. Owing to the poor condition of some of the scrolls, scholars have not identified all of their texts; the identified texts fall into three general groups: About 40% are copies of texts from the Hebrew Scriptures. Another 30% are texts from the Second Temple Period which were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152–155, etc; the remainder are sectarian manuscripts of unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular group or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher on Habakkuk, The Rule of the Blessing.
The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in a series of twelve caves around the site known as Wadi Qumran near the Dead Sea in the West Bank between 1946 and 1956 by Bedouin shepherds and a team of archeologists. The practice of storing worn-out sacred manuscripts in earthenware vessels buried in the earth or within caves is related to the ancient Jewish custom of Genizah; the initial discovery by Bedouin shepherd Muhammed edh-Dhib, his cousin Jum'a Muhammed, Khalil Musa, took place between November 1946 and February 1947. The shepherds discovered seven scrolls housed in jars in a cave near what is now known as the Qumran site. John C. Trever reconstructed the story of the scrolls from several interviews with the Bedouin. Edh-Dhib's cousin noticed the caves, but edh-Dhib himself was the first to fall into one, he retrieved a handful of scrolls, which Trever identifies as the Isaiah Scroll, Habakkuk Commentary, the Community Rule, took them b
Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort; the main campus—designed by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. East Campus, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China; as of 2018, 13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university.
Further, Duke alumni include 25 Churchill Scholars. The university has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Truman and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015; as of 2018, Duke holds a top-ten position in several national rankings. Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter; the academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."
In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, the Methodist Church, four colleges. William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile west were completed, construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity awarded A. B. degrees to three sisters—Mary and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men.
With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had put on a donation to the college. A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, established and named Trinity College in 1924. Engineering, taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.
In 1963 the Board of Trustees desegregated the undergraduate college. Duke enrolled its first graduate students in 1961; the school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business' opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs; the separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's r
Princeton Theological Seminary
Princeton Theological Seminary is a private and independent graduate school of theology in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1812 under the auspices of Archibald Alexander, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, the College of New Jersey, it is the second-oldest seminary in the United States, it is the largest of ten seminaries associated with the Presbyterian Church. Princeton Seminary has long been influential in theological studies, with many leading biblical scholars and clergy among its faculty and alumni. In addition, it operates one of the largest theological libraries in the world and maintains a number of special collections, including the Karl Barth Research Collection in the Center for Barth Studies; the Seminary manages an endowment of $986 million, making it the third-wealthiest institution of higher learning in the state of New Jersey—after Princeton University and Rutgers University. Today, Princeton Seminary enrolls 500 students. While around 40% of them are candidates for ministry in the Presbyterian Church, the majority are completing such candidature in other denominations, pursuing careers in academia across a number of different disciplines, or receiving training for other, non-theological fields altogether.
Seminarians hold academic reciprocity with Princeton University as well as the Westminster Choir College of Rider University, New Brunswick Theological Seminary, Jewish Theological Seminary, the School of Social Work at Rutgers University. The institution has an ongoing relationship with the Center of Theological Inquiry; the plan to establish a theological seminary in Princeton was in the interests of advancing and extending the theological curriculum. The educational intention was to go beyond the liberal arts course by setting up a postgraduate, professional school in theology; the plan met with enthusiastic approval on the part of authorities at the College of New Jersey to become Princeton University, for they were coming to see that specialized training in theology required more attention than they could give. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church established The Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey in 1812, with the support of the directors of the nearby College of New Jersey, as the second graduate theological school in the United States.
The Seminary remains an institution of the Presbyterian Church, being the largest of the ten theological seminaries affiliated with the 1.6-million-member denomination. In 1812, the seminary boasted Archibald Alexander as its first professor. By 1815 the number of students had increased and work began on a building: Alexander Hall was designed by John McComb Jr. a New York architect, opened in 1817. The original cupola was added in 1827, but it burned in 1913 and was replaced in 1926; the building was called "Seminary" until 1893, when it was named Alexander Hall. Since its founding, Princeton Seminary has graduated 14,000 men and women who have served the church in many capacities, from pastoral ministry and pastoral care to missionary work, Christian education and leadership in the academy and business; the seminary was made famous during the 19th and early 20th centuries for its defense of Calvinistic Presbyterianism, a tradition that became known as Princeton Theology and influenced Evangelicalism during the period.
Some of the institution's figures active in this movement included Charles Hodge, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Geerhardus Vos. In response to the increasing influence of theological liberalism in the 1920s and the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy at the institution, several theologians left to form the Westminster Theological Seminary under the leadership of J. Gresham Machen; the college was the center of the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy of the 1920s and 1930s. In 1929, the seminary was reorganized along modernist lines, in response, along with three of his colleagues: Oswald T. Allis, Robert Dick Wilson and Cornelius Van Til, with Machen and Wilson founding Westminster Theological Seminary in Glenside, Pennsylvania. In 1958, Princeton became a seminary of the United Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. following a merger between the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. and the United Presbyterian Church of North America, in 1983, it would become a seminary of the Presbyterian Church after the merger between the UPCUSA and the Presbyterian Church in the U.
S. Princeton Theological Seminary has been accredited by the Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological Schools since 1938 and by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education since 1968. Master of Divinity Masters of Arts Master of Arts in Theological Studies Master of Theology Doctor of Philosophy, although the Doctor of Theology was awarded Dual MDiv/MA in Christian Education with foci in Youth & Young Adults, Teaching Ministry, or Spiritual Development Dual MDiv/MSW in partnership with Rutgers School of Social work The Princeton Seminary Library is a destination for visiting scholars from around the world; the library has over 1,252,503 bound volumes and microfilms. It receives about 2,100 journals, annual reports of church bodies and learned societies, bulletins and periodically issued indices and bibliographies; the Libraries are: Princeton Theological Seminary Library was opened in 2013 and holds the bulk of the seminary's collection. The library is home to the Center for Barth Studies, the Reigner Reading Room, special collections including the Abraham Kuyper collection of Dutch Reformed
Francis Landey Patton
Francis Landey Patton, American educator, academic administrator, theologian, the twelfth president of Princeton University. He was born in Warwick Parish, part of the British Overseas Territories, attended Warwick Academy, he studied at Toronto and at the University of Toronto. In 1871, Patton moved to Chicago to become minister of the Jefferson Park Presbyterian Church, Chicago. From 1872 to 1881, he was a professor at McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, he wrote The Inspiration of the Scriptures, Summary of Christian Doctrine. Patton was opposed to the spread of liberal Christianity in his denomination, the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America; as editor of a Presbyterian weekly entitled Interior, he denounced the growth of liberalism in the Chicago Presbytery. He brought charges of heresy in 1874 against David Swing, was prosecuting attorney at Swing's trial, he accused Swing of subscribing to a modern version of the heresy of Sabellianism and of unduly countenancing Unitarianism.
Patton lost his case and Chicago Presbytery acquitted Swing, but Patton had gained a new prominence in the denomination and this was responsible for his election as moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in 1878. In 1881, he left Chicago and became Stuart professor "of the relation of philosophy and science to the Christian religion" at Princeton Theological Seminary, he co-edited the Presbyterian Review with Dr Charles A Briggs 1880-1888. At Princeton, Patton found like-minded theologians - proponents of the so-called Princeton theology - a conservative theological position that, within the Presbyterian church, was a competitor to the liberal "Chicago school". In 1888, he was elected president of the College of New Jersey, replacing out-going president James McCosh, his appointment was criticized by some alumni, who noted that Patton was not an American citizen, while some feared he would harangue students with John Knox-style sermons. He won over a large number of the alumni with a speech given in New York in 1888, in which he remarked "I am not prepared to say that it is better to have gone and loafed than never to have gone at all, but I do believe in the genius loci.
The phrase "Better to have gone and loafed than never to have gone at all" was quoted by proponents of the so-called "Gentleman's C." Patton was a popular president, his class in Ethics was one of the most popular on campus. During Patton's time as university president, Princeton more than doubled in size, growing from 600 students in 1888 to 1,300 students in 1902. Patton appointed many prominent Princeton professors, including: Woodrow Wilson, Bliss Perry, John Grier Hibben, Henry van Dyke, Paul Van Dyke, Howard C. Warren. Patton announced the name change from "the College of New Jersey" to "Princeton University" in the midst of the ceremonies celebrating the College's Sesquicentennial in 1896. Although Princeton founded a graduate school while Patton was president, Patton played little role in the foundation of the graduate school. In 1891, Dr Charles A. Briggs, Patton's former co-editor at the Presbyterian Review was appointed the first-ever Professor of Biblical Theology by Union Theological Seminary.
In his inaugural lecture, Briggs praised higher criticism, a component of liberal Christianity, argued that the Scriptures as a whole are riddled with errors and that the doctrine of biblical inerrancy taught at Princeton Theological Seminary "is a ghost of modern evangelicalism to frighten children." Patton was outraged by this lecture and moved that the General Assembly, which had the authority to veto all appointments of professors of theology at Presbyterian seminaries, should exercise this power and remove Briggs from the Union faculty. On Patton's urging, the General Assembly voted to remove Briggs from his position; the faculty of Union Theological Seminary voted to withdraw from the denomination rather than remove Briggs from his chair in order to defend the institution's academic freedom. Although Patton was popular as an academic, a theologian, a public speaker, he was not a gifted administrator. In the 1890s, clerical control over Princeton waned, more and more businessmen and lawyers were elected as Trustees of Princeton University.
Dissatisfied with Patton's management of the university, in 1902, the Trustees voted to replace Patton as president, naming Woodrow Wilson as his successor. Patton thus became president of Princeton Theological Seminary. In that capacity, he opposed Henry van Dyke's proposal to revise the Westminster Confession of Faith. Patton returned to his native Bermuda, he continued to speak out on controversies within the Presbyterian church, during the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, he supported the Fundamentalist side. He published a book entitled Fundamental Christianity, in which he wrote "We cannot change Christianity. We may reject it if we please, but its meaning is plain", he died in Bermuda on November 25, 1932. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Patton, Francis Landey". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambr
Oswald Thompson Allis
Oswald Thompson Allis was an American Presbyterian theologian and Bible scholar. He was born in 1880 and studied at the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton Theological Seminary, he received a master's degree from Princeton University and a doctorate from the University of Berlin. Allis received an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree from Hampden Sydney College in 1927. Allis taught in the Department of Semitic Philology at Princeton Theological Seminary. In 1929, Allis, J. Gresham Machen, Robert Dick Wilson and others founded Westminster Theological Seminary. Allis was independently wealthy and it was his property in Philadelphia which served as the home of the new seminary, he taught at Westminster for six years, resigned in 1935 to devote himself to writing and study. Two of his more notable works are Prophecy and the Church and God Spake By Moses. Allis was a conservative Christian theologian who believed in Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch as well as single authorship of the book of Isaiah.
He served as editor of the Princeton Theological Review from 1918 to 1929. In 1946 he lectured at Columbia Theological Seminary. A festschrift in his honor was published in 1974 under the Prophets. Contributors included Cornelius Van Til, John Murray, R. Laird Harris, Walter Kaiser, Allan Harman, John Whitcomb, Meredith Kline and E. J. Young; the Five Books of Moses. The Presbyterian and Reformed Pub. Co; the Old Testament: Its Claims and Its Critics The Five Books of Moses: A reexamination of the modern theory that the Pentateuch is a late compilation from diverse and conflicting sources by authors and editors whose identity is unknown God Spake by Moses: An Exposition of the Pentateuch Prophecy and the Church: An examination of the claim of dispensationalists that the Christian church is a mystery parenthesis which interrupts the fulfilment... the kingdom prophecies of the Old Testament The Unity of Isaiah: A Study in Prophecy The New English Bible, the New Testament of 1961: A comparative study The Mosaic Tradition and the Consequences Of Rejecting it – excerpt from The Five Books of Moses by Allis
Archibald Alexander Hodge
Archibald Alexander Hodge, an American Presbyterian leader, was the principal of Princeton Seminary between 1878 and 1886. He was born on July 1823 to Sarah and Charles Hodge in Princeton, New Jersey, he was named after the first principal of Princeton Seminary, Archibald Alexander. Hodge attended the College of New Jersey in 1841 and Princeton Theological Seminary in 1847, he served as a missionary in India for three years. He held pastorates at Lower West Nottingham, Fredericksburg and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. In 1864 he accepted a call to the chair of systematic theology in Western Theological Seminary in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. There he remained until in 1877 he was called to Princeton to be the associate of his father, Charles Hodge, in the distinguished chair of systematic theology, he took on the full responsibilities of the chair of systematic theology in 1878. He died on November 12, 1886 in Princeton, New Jersey from "a severe cold... which settled in his kidneys". At the time of his death, he was a trustee of the College of New Jersey and a leader in the Presbyterian Church.
His interests extended beyond religion. He touched the religious world at many points. During the years preceding his death he did not slacken his work, but continued his work of writing, lecturing, making addresses, coming into contact with men, influencing them, by doing so widening the influence of Christianity. Among the most influential was an article titled Inspiration that began a series in the Presbyterian Review which established the discipline of biblical theology as a historical science; this article was coauthored with B. B. Warfield in 1880. Hodge's distinguishing characteristic as a theologian was his power as a thinker, he had a mind of singular acuteness, though never a professed student of metaphysics, he was and by nature a metaphysician. His theology was that of the Reformed confessions, he had no peculiar method of organizing theological dogmas. Though he taught the same theology that his father had taught before him, he was independent as well as reverent, his first book and that by which he is best known was his Outlines of Theology, translated into Welsh, modern Greek, Hindustani.
The Atonement is still one of the best treatises on the subject. This was followed by his commentary on the Westminster Confession of Faith, a useful book, full of clear thinking and compact statement, he contributed some important articles to encyclopedias – Johnson's, McClintock and Strong's, the Schaff-Herzog. He was one of the founders of the Presbyterian Review, to the pages of which he was a frequent contributor. In the pulpit, Hodge was a man of marked power; as he was not under the necessity of making fresh preparation every week, he had but few sermons, he preached them frequently. They were never written, they grew from small beginnings and, as he went through the process of thinking them over as as he preached them, they became more elaborate and became possessed of greater literary charm. The Rule of Faith and Practice The Protestant rule of faith The Rules of Interpreting Scripture The Holy Scriptures - Canon and Inspiration The Inspiration of the Bible Commentary on the Westminster Confession of Faith God - His Nature And Relation To The Universe Assurance and Humility A Short History of Creeds and Confessions God's Covenants With Man--The Church Baptism The Mode of Baptism Sanctification Free Will Outlines of Theology Justification Predestination Selected Essays by Archibald Alexander Hodge A commentary on the Confession of Faith: with questions for theological students and Bible classes https://archive.org/details/commentaryonconf00hodguoft https://archive.org/details/acommentaryonthe00hodguoft https://archive.org/details/commentaryonconf00hodg https://archive.org/details/commentaryonconf1901hodg A commentary on the confession of faith ed. by W.
H. Goold https://archive.org/details/acommentaryonco00hodggoog Comentario de la Confesion de fe de Westminster de la Iglesia Presbiteriana https://archive.org/details/comentariodelaco00hodg The atonement https://archive.org/details/theatonement00hodguoft https://archive.org/details/atonement00hodguoft https://archive.org/details/atonement00publgoog https://archive.org/details/atonement00hodg Outlines of theology https://archive.org/details/outlinesoftheolo1860hodg https://archive.org/details/outlinesoftheolo00hodg https://archive.org/details/outlinestheolog03hodggoog https://archive.org/details/outlinestheolog01hodggoog (
Ohio Wesleyan University
Ohio Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts university in Delaware, Ohio. It was founded in 1842 by Methodist leaders and Central Ohio residents as a nonsectarian institution, is a member of the Ohio Five – a consortium of Ohio liberal arts colleges. Ohio Wesleyan has always admitted students irrespective of religion or race and maintained that the university "is forever to be conducted on the most liberal principles."The 200-acre site is 27 miles north of Columbus, Ohio. It includes the main academic and residential campus, the Perkins Observatory, the Kraus Wilderness Preserve. In 2010, Ohio Wesleyan had the eleventh highest percentage of international students among liberal arts colleges for the seventeenth straight year. In its 2015 edition of U. S. college rankings, Niche ranked Ohio Wesleyan the 56th most politically liberal college in the U. S. U. S. News & World Report ranked Ohio Wesleyan 95th among U. S. liberal arts colleges in its 2018 edition. In 1841, Ohio residents Adam Poe and Charles Elliott decided to establish a university "of the highest order" in central Ohio.
To that end, they purchased the Mansion House Hotel, a former health resort with its Sulphur Spring, using funds raised from local residents. Poe and Elliott wrote a charter emphasizing "the democratic spirit of teaching", approved by the Ohio State Legislature. Early in the following year they opened the college preparatory Academy and formed a Board of Trustees. Ohio Wesleyan University, named after John Wesley, founder of Methodism, opened on November 13, 1844 as a Methodist-related but nonsectarian institution, with a College of Liberal Arts for male students. Ohio Wesleyan's first president, Edward Thomson, stated in his inaugural address on August 5, 1846 that the school was "a product of the liberality of the local people." This liberal philosophy contributed to Ohio Wesleyan's vocal opposition to slavery in the 1850s. In the annual celebration for George Washington's birthday in 1862, second president Frederick Merrick endorsed Ohio Wesleyan's "ideals of democracy" during his oration.
During the mid-19th century, Ohio Wesleyan focused on attracting students, adding fields of study, fundraising, by which it increased its endowment. Sturges Hall was constructed as the University's first library in 1855. In 1873, the school added the Department of Natural History housed in Merrick Hall; the Ohio Wesleyan Female College, established in 1853, merged with the university in 1877. Between 1876 and 1888, enrollment tripled and music education increased, yet no major buildings were built in this time. By the end of the 19th century, Ohio Wesleyan had added a School of Music, School of Fine Arts, School of Oratory, Business School to the original College of Liberal Arts. To address the need for new departments and specialized instruction, the administration improved the facilities and courses to make them on par with OWU's new academic position. University Hall, Slocum Library, extensions to the Monnett campus, athletic facilities were all constructed during that period. Between 1891 and 1895, Ohio Wesleyan specialized the curriculum by establishing departments for physics, geology, history, French and economics.
This specialization encouraged undergraduates to continue studies at graduate level, allowed professional preparation for the Doctor of Philosophy degree, promoted exchange study in Europe. Two professional schools for law and medicine were formed in 1896. In 1905, the Board of Trustees decided to keep Ohio Wesleyan a college, despite the expansion of the curriculum and campus and the word "university" in the institution's name; the Bachelor of Science degree was abolished. Two students were selected as Rhodes Scholars in 1905 and 1909. Edwards Gymnasium was built in 1906. In 1907, the United Societies of Phi Beta Kappa, the oldest undergraduate honor society in the United States, installed the "Eta of Ohio" ΦΒΚ chapter on campus. In 1909, the school added housing the Music Department. In the 1920s, academic requirements for the bachelor's degree were reduced, Latin and mathematics were no longer emphasized. During the presidency of John W. Hoffman, the Academy and School of Business were closed.
In the 1920s, the chapel service was dropped and sororities were formed. Ohio Wesleyan increased the number of buildings on campus, including Selby Stadium, Austin Manor, Perkins Observatory. During the Great Depression, both enrollment and alumni donations shrank. While the faculty size remained stable, lack of tuition and alumni revenues precipitated financial problems which threatened the college's survival in the administrations of Edmund D. Soper, Acting President Edward Loranus Rice, Herbert John Burgstahler; the administration adjusted the curriculum during the early 1930s to address these problems. Greek and Latin declined, while business administration and economics thrived and the highest enrollments were in the social sciences, pre-medicine, history; the registrar reported that, in these years, the number of students from New England states, urban Ohio areas, from international locations increased. By the 1930s, the Methodist students were a minority among the student body.