Clinton B. Fisk
Clinton Bowen Fisk, for whom Fisk University is named, was a senior officer during Reconstruction in the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. He endowed Fisk University with $30,000. In addition, he helped establish the first free public schools in the South for European-American and African-American children. Fisk was born in Livingston County, New York, the son of Benjamin and Lydia Fisk; as part of the 19th-century westward migration, his family soon moved to Michigan. He studied in the preliminary course at Albion Seminary before becoming one of the five students to matriculate on the opening day of Michigan Central College in 1844. Fisk became a merchant and banker in Coldwater, he suffered financial disaster in the Panic of 1857. He moved to Missouri where he started working in the insurance business. An abolitionist, Fisk was appointed colonel of the 33rd Missouri Volunteer Infantry of the Union Army on September 5, 1862, he organized a brigade and was commissioned brigadier general November 24, 1862.
He served most of the American Civil War in Missouri and Arkansas, commanding first the District of Southeast Missouri and the Department of North Missouri. The primary duty of these commands was opposing raids into Missouri by Confederate States of America cavalry and guerrillas. After the Civil War, Fisk was appointed assistant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for Kentucky and Tennessee, he worked through the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands and the American Missionary Association to establish the first free schools in the Southern United States for both African-American and European-American children. He made the abandoned barracks in Nashville, Tennessee available to the American Missionary Association for the creation of the Fisk School, endowed it with a total of $30,000. After authorizing legislation expired for the Freedmen's Bureau, Fisk returned to his native New York, he became successful in banking. In 1874 President Ulysses S. Grant appointed him to the Board of Indian Commissioners.
Fisk was a leader in the temperance movement and became the presidential candidate for the Prohibition Party in the 1888 election. He came in third with 249,506 votes; the election was won by Benjamin Harrison of the Republican Party. Fisk was surpassed by the incumbent President of the United States Grover Cleveland of the Democratic Party. But, Fisk did receive one of the highest results of any Prohibition Party candidate in history; the Party has run candidates in every presidential election since 1872. Fisk died in New York City on July 9, 1890, was buried in Coldwater, Michigan. Fisk University was named after him. In 2001 he was the first to be inducted into the new Hillsdale County, Michigan Veterans' Hall of Fame, for his distinguished service in the American Civil War. Prohibition Park, a planned community on Staten Island, New York, named one of its major streets Clinton B. Fisk Avenue in his honor; the name remains. List of American Civil War generals Alphonso A. Hopkins, The Life of Clinton Bowen Fisk Reavis L. Mitchell Jr. Fisk University Since 1866: Thy Loyal Children Make Their Way.
Clinton B. Fisk Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
1876 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876. It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history, is known for being the catalyst for the end of Reconstruction. Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. After a controversial post-election process, Hayes was declared the winner. After President Ulysses S. Grant declined to seek a third term despite being expected to do so, Congressman James G. Blaine emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination. However, Blaine was unable to win a majority at the 1876 Republican National Convention, which settled on Governor Hayes of Ohio as a compromise candidate; the 1876 Democratic National Convention nominated Governor Tilden of New York on the second ballot. The results of the election remain among the most disputed although it is not disputed that Tilden outpolled Hayes in the popular vote.
After a first count of votes, Tilden won 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes from four states unresolved. In Florida and South Carolina, each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was replaced after being declared illegal for being an "elected or appointed official"; the question of who should have been awarded these electoral votes is the source of the continued controversy. An informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877, which awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. In return for the Democrats' acquiescence to Hayes' election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction; the Compromise ceded power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers, who proceeded to disenfranchise black voters thereafter. The 1876 election is the second of five presidential elections in which the person who won the most popular votes did not win the election, the only such election in which the popular vote winner received a majority of the popular vote.
To date, it remains the election that recorded the smallest electoral vote victory and the election that yielded the highest voter turnout of the eligible voting age population in American history, at 81.8%. Despite not becoming president, Tilden was the first Democratic presidential nominee since James Buchanan in 1856 to win the popular vote and the first since Franklin Pierce in 1852 to do so in an outright majority, it was assumed during the year 1875 that incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant would run for a third term as president in spite of the poor economic conditions, the numerous political scandals that had developed since he assumed office in 1869, a long-standing tradition set by the first president, George Washington, not to stay in office longer than two terms. Grant's inner circle advised him to go for a third term and he did, but the House, by a sweeping 233 to 18 vote, passed a resolution declaring that the two-term tradition was to prevent a dictatorship. Late in the year, President Grant ruled himself out of running in 1876.
When the Sixth Republican National Convention assembled in Cincinnati, Ohio, on June 14, 1876, it appeared that James G. Blaine would be the nominee. On the first ballot, Blaine was just 100 votes short of a majority, his vote began to slide after the second ballot, however, as many Republicans feared that Blaine could not win the general election. Anti-Blaine delegates could not agree on a candidate until Blaine's total rose to 41% on the sixth ballot. Leaders of the reform Republicans met and considered alternatives, they chose Ohio's reform governor, Rutherford B. Hayes. On the seventh ballot, Hayes was nominated with 384 votes to 351 for Blaine and 21 for Benjamin Bristow. William A. Wheeler was nominated for vice-president by a much larger margin over his chief rival, Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, who served as a member of the electoral commission that awarded the election to Hayes. Democratic candidates: Samuel J. Tilden, governor of New York Thomas A. Hendricks, governor of Indiana Winfield Scott Hancock, United States Army major general from Pennsylvania William Allen, former governor of Ohio Thomas F. Bayard, U.
S. senator from Delaware Joel Parker, former governor of New Jersey The 12th Democratic National Convention assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, in June 1876, the first political convention held by one of the major American parties west of the Mississippi River. Five thousand people jammed the auditorium in St. Louis with hopes for the Democratic Party's first presidential victory in 20 years; the platform called for immediate and sweeping reforms in response to the scandals that had plagued the Grant administration. Tilden won more than 400 votes on the nomination by a landslide on the second. Tilden defeated Thomas A. Hendricks, Winfield Scott Hancock, William Allen, Thomas F. Bayard, Joel Parker for the presidential nomination. Tilden overcame strong opposition from "Honest John" Kelly, the leader of New York's Tammany Hall, to obtain the nomination. Thomas Hendricks was nominated for vice-president, since he was the only person put forward for the position; the Democratic platform pledged to replace the corruption of the Grant administration with honest, efficient government and to end "the rapacity of carpetbag tyrannies" in the South.
It called for treaty protection for naturalized United States citizens visiting their homelands, restrictions on Asian immigration, tariff reform, opposition to land grants for railroads. It has been claimed that the voting Democrats received Tilden's nomination w
1916 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916. Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson defeated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. Wilson was the only sitting Democratic president to win re-election between 1832 and 1936. Wilson was re-nominated without opposition at the 1916 Democratic National Convention; the 1916 Republican National Convention chose Hughes as a compromise between the conservative and progressive wings of the party. Hughes defeated John W. Weeks, Elihu Root, several other candidates on the third ballot of the convention, becoming the only Supreme Court Justice to serve as a major party's presidential nominee. While conservative and progressive Republicans had been divided in the 1912 election between the candidacies of then-incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt, they united around Hughes in his bid to oust Wilson.
The election took place during the time of the Mexican Revolution and World War I. Although neutral in the European conflict, public opinion in the United States leaned towards the Allied forces headed by Great Britain and France against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, due in large measure to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army in Belgium and northern France and the militaristic character of the German and Austrian monarchies, but in spite of their sympathy with the Allied forces most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. Wilson's campaign used the popular slogans "He kept us out of war" and "America First" to appeal to those voters who wanted to avoid a war in Europe or with Mexico. Hughes criticized Wilson for not taking the "necessary preparations" to face a conflict, which only served to strengthen Wilson's image as an anti-war candidate; the United States would enter the war in April 1917, one month after Wilson's inauguration as president.
After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by nearly 600,000 votes in the popular vote. The 1916 election saw an increase in Wilson's popular vote from the four-way election of 1912, but a major decline in the number of electoral votes won. Wilson secured a narrow majority in the Electoral College by sweeping the Solid South and winning several swing states with razor-thin margins. Wilson won California by just 3,773 votes. Allan L. Benson of the Socialist Party and Frank Hanly of the Prohibition Party each finished with greater than 1% of the popular vote. Republican candidates: Charles Evans Hughes, U. S. Supreme Court Justice and former Governor of New York John W. Weeks, U. S. senator from Massachusetts Elihu Root, former U. S. senator from New York Theodore E. Burton, former U. S. senator from Ohio Charles W. Fairbanks, former Vice President of the United States from Indiana Albert B. Cummins, U. S. senator from Iowa The 1916 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago between June 7 and 10.
A major goal of the party's bosses at the convention was to heal the bitter split within the party that had occurred in the 1912 presidential campaign. In that year, Theodore Roosevelt bolted the Republican Party and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, which attracted most of the Republican liberals. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president, won the nomination of the regular Republican Party; this split in the Republican ranks divided the Republican vote and led to the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Although several candidates were competing for the 1916 nomination—most prominently conservative Senator Elihu Root from New York and liberal Senator John W. Weeks from Massachusetts—the party's bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to both factions of the party, they turned to Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, serving on the court since 1910 and had the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political issues in six years. Although he had not sought the nomination, Hughes made it known that he would not turn it down.
Former Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated as his running mate. Hughes was the only Supreme Court Justice. Democratic candidate: Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States The 1916 Democratic National Convention was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 14 and 16. Given Wilson's enormous popularity within the party as well as being an incumbent President, he was overwhelmingly re-nominated. Vice President Thomas R. Marshall was re-nominated with no opposition. In the campaign Edward M. House declined any public role, but was Wilson's top campaign advisor. Hodgson says, "he planned its structure; the Progressives re-nominated former President Theodore Roosevelt and nominated John Parker of Louisiana as his running-mate. However, Roosevelt telegraphed the convention and declared that he could not accept their nomination and would be endorsing Republican nominee Charles Hughes for the Presidency. With Roosevelt refusing to be their candidate, the Progressive Party fell into disarray.
1880 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1880 was the 24th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1880. The voter turnout rate was one of the highest in the nation's history. Incumbent President Rutherford B. Hayes did not seek re-election, keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign. After the longest convention in the party's history, the divided Republicans chose another Ohioan, Representative James A. Garfield, as their standard-bearer; the Democratic Party chose General Winfield Scott Hancock of Pennsylvania as their nominee. The dominance of the two major parties began to fray as an upstart left-wing party, the Greenback Party, nominated another Civil War general for president, Iowa Congressman James B. Weaver. In a campaign fought over issues of Civil War loyalties and Chinese immigration and Hancock each took just over 48 percent of the popular vote. Weaver and two other minor candidates, Neal Dow and John W. Phelps, together made up the remaining percentage.
The election of 1880 was the sixth consecutive presidential election won by the Republicans, the second longest winning streak in American history after the Democratic-Republican Party during the period 1800–1824. In the end, the popular vote totals of the two main candidates were separated by 1,898 votes, the smallest victory in the popular vote recorded. In the electoral college, Garfield's victory was decisive. Hancock's sweep of the Southern states was not enough for victory, but it cemented his party's dominance of the region for generations; this is the first presidential election in which people in every state were able to vote for president. Since before the Civil War, the two major parties were the Republicans and the Democrats, after the end of the Reconstruction Era in 1877, the national electorate was divided between them. Party membership was only based on ideology. Most Northern Protestants voted Republican. On the other hand, white Southerners and Northern Catholics voted Democratic.
Tariff reform and the gold standard divided the country and the major parties. The monetary debate was over the basis for the value of the United States dollar. Nothing but gold and silver coin had been legal tender in the United States until the Civil War, when the mounting costs of the war forced the United States Congress to issue "greenbacks". Greenbacks helped pay for the war, but resulted in the most severe inflation since the American Revolution. After the war and other creditors wanted to return to a gold standard. At the same time, debtors benefited from the way inflation reduced the real value of their debts, workers and some businessmen liked the way inflation made for easy credit; the issue cut across parties, producing dissension among Republicans and Democrats alike and spawning a third party, the Greenback Party, in 1876, when both major parties nominated "hard money" candidates. Monetary debate intensified as Congress demonetized silver in 1873 and began redeeming greenbacks in gold by 1879, while limiting their circulation.
As the 1880 election season began, the nation's money was backed by gold alone, but the issue was far from settled. Tariff policy was a source of conflict in late 19th-century American politics. During the Civil War, Congress raised protective tariffs to new heights; this was done to pay for the war, but because high tariffs were popular in the North. A high tariff meant that foreign goods were more expensive, which made it easier for American businesses to sell goods domestically. Republicans supported high tariffs as a way to increase prosperity. Democrats condemned them as a source of higher prices for goods, whereas the higher revenues that they generated for the federal government were not needed after the conclusion of the Civil War. Many Northern Democrats supported high tariffs, for the same economic reasons that Northern Republicans did. In the interest of party unity, they sought to avoid the question as much as possible. Four years earlier, in the election of 1876, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio defeated Democrat Samuel J. Tilden of New York in one of the most hotly contested presidential elections in the nation's history.
The results indicated a Democratic victory, but the electoral votes of several states were disputed until just a few days before the new president was to be inaugurated. Members of both parties in Congress agreed to convene a bipartisan Electoral Commission, which decided the race for Hayes. For Democrats, the "stolen election" became a rallying cry, the Democratic majority in the House of Representatives spent much of 1878 investigating it, although they failed to turn up any new evidence against their Republican foes. At first, Tilden was seen as the front-runner for the 1880 nomination. For leading Republicans, Hayes's inauguration in 1877 signaled the start of backroom maneuverings for the nomination in 1880. Before his elec
1908 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1908 was the 31st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1908. Secretary of War and Republican Party nominee William Howard Taft defeated three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan. Popular incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt honored his promise not to seek a third term, persuaded his close friend, Taft, to become his successor. With Roosevelt's support, Taft won the presidential nomination of the 1908 Republican National Convention on the first ballot. Having lost the 1904 election badly, the Democratic Party re-nominated Bryan, defeated in 1896 and 1900 by Republican William McKinley. Despite his two previous defeats and the waning of the Free Silver issue, Bryan remained popular among the more liberal and populist elements of the Democratic Party. Bryan ran a vigorous campaign against the nation's business elite, but the Democrat suffered the worst loss of his three presidential campaigns. Taft carried most states outside of the Solid South.
Taft's triumph gave Republicans their fourth straight presidential election victory. Two third party candidates, Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party and Eugene W. Chafin of the Prohibition Party, each took over 1% of the popular vote. Republican candidates: Charles W. Fairbanks, Vice President of the United States Joseph B. Foraker, Senator from Ohio Philander C. Knox, Senator from Pennsylvania Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Senator from Wisconsin L. M. Shaw, former Secretary of the Treasury William Howard Taft, Secretary of War The Republican nomination contest marked the introduction of the presidential preference primary; the idea of the primary to nominate candidates was sponsored by anti-machine politicians such as New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes and Senator Albert B. Cummins; the first state to hold a presidential primary to select delegates to a national convention was Florida in 1904, when Democratic Party voters held a primary among uninstructed candidates for delegate. Early in 1908, the only two Republican contenders running nationwide campaigns for the presidential nomination were Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Governor Joseph B.
Foraker, both of Ohio. In the nomination contest, four states held primaries to select national convention delegates. In Ohio, the state Republican Party held a primary on February 11. Candidates pledged to Taft were printed on the ballot in a Taft column, candidates pledged to Foraker were printed in a column under his name. Taft won a resounding victory in Ohio; the three states holding primaries to select delegates without the preference component were split: California chose a slate of delegates that supported Taft. La Follette, Sr. and Pennsylvania elected a slate that supported its Senator Philander C. Knox; the 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago between June 16 and 19. William Howard Taft was nominated with 702 votes to 68 for Knox, 67 for Hughes, 58 for Cannon, 40 for Fairbanks, 25 for La Follette, 16 for Foraker, 3 for President Roosevelt, one abstention. Representative James S. Sherman from New York received the vice-presidential nomination; as the 1908 election approached, William Jennings Bryan was the front-runner for the Democratic presidential nomination.
Bryan's most formidable challenger for the nomination was Minnesota Governor John Albert Johnson. Johnson's rags-to-riches story, reformist credentials, ability to win in a Republican state made him popular within the Democratic Party. In March, the Minnesota Democratic State Convention endorsed Johnson for president. By the end of June, Bryan had amassed more than the requisite two-thirds of the delegates needed for nomination; the 1908 Democratic National Convention was held in Denver between July 7 and 10. Johnson, aware of the fact that Bryan's nomination was a foregone conclusion, released his delegates, thereby allowing Bryan to win the nomination on the first ballot. Bryan left the choice of vice-president to the delegates. John W. Kern from Indiana was unanimously declared the candidate for vice-president without a formal ballot after the names of Charles A. Towne, Archibald McNeil, Clark Howell were withdrawn from consideration. Kern was two-time gubernatorial candidate. In response to nomination of Bryan and Kern, The New York Times disparagingly pointed out that the Democratic national ticket was consistent because "a man twice defeated for the Presidency was at the head of it, a man twice defeated for governor of his state was at the tail of it."
Independence candidates: John T. Graves, Journalist from New York William Randolph Hearst, former U. S. representative and newspaper magnate from New York Thomas L. Hisgen and former Gubernatorial candidate from Massachusetts Milford W. Howard, former U. S. representative from Alabama Reuben R. Lyon, Lawyer from New York Disappointed with his performance in the 1904 Democratic presidential nomination campaign, disillusioned as to his chances of attaining it in 1908, William Randolph Hearst decided to run instead on the ticket of a third party of his own making. Borne from the Municipal Ownership League, a vehicle for Hearst's unsuccessful bid for the mayoralty of New York in 1905, it was Hearst's intention to fuse it with the remnants of the Populist Party led by Thomas Watson, a former Representative from Georgia, its presidential nominee in 1904. However, these intentions were dashed when every candidate that the Independence Party put forth in elections held in New York was elected except Hearst himself, despite an endorsement by the Democratic Party.
Devastated, Hearst declared his
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort; the main campus—designed by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. East Campus, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China; as of 2018, 13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university.
Further, Duke alumni include 25 Churchill Scholars. The university has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Truman and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015; as of 2018, Duke holds a top-ten position in several national rankings. Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter; the academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."
In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, the Methodist Church, four colleges. William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile west were completed, construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity awarded A. B. degrees to three sisters—Mary and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men.
With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had put on a donation to the college. A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, established and named Trinity College in 1924. Engineering, taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.
In 1963 the Board of Trustees desegregated the undergraduate college. Duke enrolled its first graduate students in 1961; the school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business' opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs; the separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's r