Senior Wrangler (University of Cambridge)
The Senior Wrangler is the top mathematics undergraduate at Cambridge University in England, a position, described as "the greatest intellectual achievement attainable in Britain."Specifically, it is the person who achieves the highest overall mark among the Wranglers – the students at Cambridge who gain first-class degrees in mathematics. The Cambridge undergraduate mathematics course, or Mathematical Tripos, is famously difficult. Many Senior Wranglers have become world-leading figures in mathematics and other fields, they include George Airy, John Herschel, Arthur Cayley, James Inman, George Stokes, Isaac Todhunter, Morris Pell, Lord Rayleigh, Arthur Eddington, J. E. Littlewood, Jayant Narlikar, Frank Ramsey, Donald Coxeter, Jacob Bronowski, Lee Hsien Loong, Kevin Buzzard, Christopher Budd, Ben Green, John Polkinghorne. Senior Wranglers were once fêted with torchlit processions and took pride of place in the University's graduation ceremony. Years in Cambridge were remembered by, Senior Wrangler that year.
The annual ceremony in which the Senior Wrangler becomes known was first held in the 18th century. Standing on the balcony of the University's Senate House, the examiner reads out the class results for mathematics, printed copies of the results are thrown to the audience below; the examiner no longer announces the students' exact rankings, but they still identify the Senior Wrangler, nowadays by tipping their academic hat when reading out the person's name. The difficulty of the examinations is illustrated by the identities of some of those who have performed well, but less well than the Senior Wrangler; those who have achieved second place, known as Second Wranglers, include Alfred Marshall, James Clerk Maxwell, J. J. Thomson, Lord Kelvin, William Clifford, William Whewell; those who have finished between third and 12th include Karl Pearson and William Henry Bragg, George Green and G. H. Hardy, Adam Sedgwick, John Venn, Bertrand Russell and Nevil Maskelyne, Thomas Malthus, John Maynard Keynes.
Between 1748 and 1909, the University publicly announced the ranking, reported in newspapers such as The Times. The examination was considered to be by far the most important in the Empire; the prestige of being a high Wrangler was great. Andrew Warwick, author of Masters of Theory, describes the term'Senior Wrangler' as "synonymous with academic supremacy". Since 1910, successful students in the examinations have been told their rankings and not all Senior Wranglers have become publicly known as such. In recent years, the custom of discretion regarding ranking has progressively vanished, all Senior Wranglers since 2010 have announced their identity publicly; the youngest person to be Senior Wrangler is Arran Fernandez, who came top in 2013, aged 18 years and 0 months. The previous youngest was James Wilkinson in 1939, aged 19 years and 9 months; the youngest up to 1909 were Alfred Flux in 1887, aged 20 years and 2 months and Peter Tait in 1852, aged 20 years and 8 months. Two individuals have placed first without becoming known as Senior Wrangler.
One was the student Philippa Fawcett in 1890. At that time, although the University allowed women to take the examinations, it did not allow them to be members of the University, nor to receive degrees; therefore they could not be known as'Wranglers', were told how they had performed compared to the male candidates, for example, "equal to the Third Wrangler", or "between the Seventh and Eighth Wranglers". Having gained the highest mark, Fawcett was declared to have finished "above the Senior Wrangler"; the other was the mathematics professor George Pólya. As he had contributed to reforming the Tripos with the aim that an excellent performance would be less dependent on solving hard problems and more so on showing a broad mathematical understanding and knowledge, G. H. Hardy asked Pólya to sit the examinations himself, during his stay in England in 1924–5. Pólya did so, to Hardy's surprise, received the highest mark, an achievement which, had he been a student, would have made him the Senior Wrangler.
Senior Wrangler's Walk is a path in Cambridge, the walk to and along, considered to be sufficient constitutional exercise for a student aspiring to become the Senior Wrangler. The route was shorter than other walks, such as Wranglers' Walk and the Grantchester Grind, undertaken by undergraduates whose aspirations were lower. Senior Wrangler sauce is a Cambridge term for brandy butter, a type of hard sauce made from brandy and sugar, traditionally served in Britain with Christmas pudding and warm mince pies. Senior Wrangler is the name of a solitaire card game, alternatively known as Mathematics and Double Calculation, played with two decks of cards and involving elementary modular arithmetic. Fictional Senior Wranglers appearing in novels include Roger Hamley, a character in Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, Tom Jericho, the cryptanalyst in Robert Harris's novel Enigma, described as having been Senior Wrangler in 1938. In George Bernard Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, the title character's daughter Vivie is praised for "tieing with the third wrangler," and she comments that "the mathematical tripos" means "grind, grind for six to eight hours a day at mathematics, nothing but mathematics."
In Ford Madox Ford's Parade's End, the character Christopher Tietjens is described as having settled deliberately for only being Second Wrangler, in order to avoid the weight of expectation that the title would create. In his Discworld series of novels, Terry Pratchett has a character called the Senior Wrangler, a faculty member at the Unseen University
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Computer science is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate and communicate digital information. A computer scientist studies the theory of computation and the practice of designing software systems, its fields can be divided into practical disciplines. Computational complexity theory is abstract, while computer graphics emphasizes real-world applications. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming itself involves the use of programming languages and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful and accessible; the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.
Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity before the development of sophisticated computing equipment. Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623. In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner, he may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry when he released his simplified arithmometer, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine, he started developing this machine in 1834, "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer".
"A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom" making it infinitely programmable. In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, considered to be the first computer program. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, making all kinds of punched card equipment and was in the calculator business to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit; when the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.
As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. In 1945, IBM founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City; the renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world; the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946. Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s; the world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962.
Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights. Although many believed it was impossible that computers themselves could be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it became accepted among the greater academic population, it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM released the IBM 704 and the IBM 709 computers, which were used during the exploration period of such devices. "Still, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, you would have to start the whole process over again". During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was much in its developmental stages, such issues were commonplace. Time has seen significant improvements in the effectiveness of computing technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base.
Computers were quite costly, some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage. Despite its short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society—in fact, along with electronics, it is
Marvin Lee Minsky was an American cognitive scientist concerned with research of artificial intelligence, co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy. Marvin Lee Minsky was born in New York City, to an eye surgeon father, to a mother, an activist of Zionist affairs, his family was Jewish. He attended the Bronx High School of Science, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He served in the US Navy from 1944 to 1945, he received a B. A. in mathematics from Harvard University and a Ph. D. in mathematics from Princeton University. He was on the MIT faculty from 1958 to his death, he joined the staff at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1958, a year he and John McCarthy initiated what is known now as the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He was the Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, professor of electrical engineering and computer science. Minsky's inventions include the confocal microscope.
He developed, with Seymour Papert, the first Logo "turtle". Minsky built, in 1951, the first randomly wired neural network learning machine, SNARC. In 1962, Minsky came up with a 7,4 Turing machine. At that point in time, it was known to be the simplest universal Turing machine–a record that stood for 40 years until Stephen Wolfram published a 2,5 universal Turing machine in his 2002 book, A New Kind of Science. Minsky wrote the book Perceptrons, which became the foundational work in the analysis of artificial neural networks; this book is the center of a controversy in the history of AI, as some claim it to have had great importance in discouraging research of neural networks in the 1970s, contributing to the so-called "AI winter". He founded several other famous AI models, his book A framework for representing knowledge created a new paradigm in programming. While his Perceptrons is now more a historical than practical book, the theory of frames is in wide use. Minsky has written on the possibility that extraterrestrial life may think like humans, permitting communication.
In the early 1970s, at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab and Papert started developing what came to be known as the Society of Mind theory. The theory attempts to explain how what we call intelligence could be a product of the interaction of non-intelligent parts. Minsky says that the biggest source of ideas about the theory came from his work in trying to create a machine that uses a robotic arm, a video camera, a computer to build with children's blocks. In 1986, Minsky published The Society of Mind, a comprehensive book on the theory which, unlike most of his published work, was written for the general public. In November 2006, Minsky published The Emotion Machine, a book that critiques many popular theories of how human minds work and suggests alternative theories replacing simple ideas with more complex ones. Recent drafts of the book are available from his webpage. Minsky was an adviser on Stanley Kubrick's movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. Minsky himself is explicitly mentioned in Arthur C. Clarke's derivative novel of the same name, where he is portrayed as achieving a crucial break-through in artificial intelligence in the then-future 1980s, paving the way for HAL 9000 in the early 21st century: In the 1980s, Minsky and Good had shown how artificial neural networks could be generated automatically—self replicated—in accordance with any arbitrary learning program.
Artificial brains could be grown by a process strikingly analogous to the development of a human brain. In any given case, the precise details would never be known, if they were, they would be millions of times too complex for human understanding. In 1952, Minsky married pediatrician Gloria Rudisch. Minsky was a talented improvisational pianist who published musings on the relations between music and psychology. Minsky was an atheist, a signatory to the Scientists' Open Letter on Cryonics, he was a critic of the Loebner Prize for conversational robots, argued that a fundamental difference between humans and machines was that while humans are machines, they are machines in which intelligence emerges from the interplay of the many unintelligent but semi-autonomous agents that comprise the brain. He argued that "somewhere down the line, some computers will become more intelligent than most people," but that it was hard to predict how fast progress would be, he cautioned that an artificial superintelligence designed to solve an innocuous mathematical problem might decide to assume control of Earth's resources to build supercomputers to help achieve its goal, but believed that such negative scenarios are "hard to take seriously" because he felt confident that AI would go through a lot of testing before being deployed.
Minsky died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 88. Minsky was a member of Alcor's Scientific Advisory Board, is believed to have been cryonically preserved by Alcor as'Patient 144', whose cooling procedures began on January 27, 2016. 1967 – Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines, Prentice-Hall 1986 – The Society of Mind 2006 – The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, the Future of the Human Mind Minsky won the Turing Award in 1969, the Japan Prize in 1990, the IJCAI Award for Research Exce
Donald Ervin Knuth is an American computer scientist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming, he contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, the Computer Modern family of typefaces; as a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. Knuth opposes granting software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation. Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning.
His father had two jobs: running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, received academic accolades there because of the ingenious ways that he thought of solving problems. For example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create. Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found 4,500 words, winning the contest; as prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat. In 1956, Knuth received a scholarship to the Case Institute of Technology in Ohio, he joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity. While studying physics at the Case Institute of Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, one of the early mainframes. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school, because he believed he could do it better.
In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team win their games. He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News reported on. Knuth was one of the founding editors of the Engineering and Science Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in 1959, he switched from physics to mathematics, in 1960 he received his bachelor of science degree being given a master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who considered his work exceptionally outstanding. In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser, he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an assistant professor, he accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming.
He planned to publish this as a single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes, seven, to cover the subject, he published the first volume in 1968. Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division situated on the Princeton University campus, performing mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security Agency. Knuth left this position to join the Stanford University faculty, where he is now Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus. Knuth is a writer, as well as a computer scientist. Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms". In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a new field with no real identity, and the standard of available publications was not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite wrong.... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story, badly told."
By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published. Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science 2nd ed. which originated with an expansion of the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has been published. Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a good programmer... You should send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing." Knuth is the author of Surreal Numbers, a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing creative research. In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek, Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger. Knuth is an occasional contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics. Knuth has delved into recreational mathematics.
He contributed articles to the Journal of Recreational Mathematics beginning in the 1960s, was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's Mathematics on Vacation. Knuth has appeared in a number of Numberphile and Computerphile videos on YouTube where he has discussed topics f
British Computer Society
The British Computer Society is a professional body and a learned society that represents those working in Information Technology and Computer Science, both in the United Kingdom and internationally. Founded in 1956, BCS has played an important role in educating and nurturing IT professionals, computer scientists, computer engineers, upholding the profession, accrediting chartered IT professional status, creating a global community active in promoting and furthering the field and practice of computing. With a worldwide membership of over 68,000 members in over 150 countries, BCS is a registered charity and was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1984, its objectives are to promote the study and application of communications technology and computing technology and to advance knowledge of education in ICT for the benefit of professional practitioners and the general public. BCS is a member institution of Engineering Council, through which it is licensed to award the designation of Incorporated Engineer and Chartered Engineer and therefore is responsible for regulation of ICT and computer science fields within the UK.
The BCS is a member of the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies and the Seoul Accord for international tertiary degree recognition. BCS was a member organisation of the Science Council through which it was licensed to award the designation of Chartered Scientist. BCS has offices off the Strand in Southampton Street, south of Covent Garden in central London; the main administrative offices are in Swindon, west of London. It has two overseas offices in Sri Lanka and Mauritius. Members are sent the quarterly IT professional magazine ITNOW. BCS is a member organization of the Federation of Enterprise Architecture Professional Organizations, a worldwide association of professional organizations which have come together to provide a forum to standardize and otherwise advance the discipline of Enterprise Architecture; the forerunner of BCS was the "London Computer Group", founded in 1956. BCS was formed a year from the merger of the LCG and an unincorporated association of scientists into an unincorporated club.
In October 1957, BCS was incorporated, by Articles of Association, as "The British Computer Society Ltd": the first President of BCS was Sir Maurice Wilkes, FRS. In 1966, the BCS was granted charitable status and in 1970, the BCS was given Armorial Bearings including the shield and crest; the major ethical responsibilities of BCS are emphasized by the leopard's face, surmounting the whole crest and depicting eternal vigilance over the integrity of the Society and its members. The BCS patron is HRH The Duke of Kent, KG, he became patron in December 1976 and has been involved in BCS activities having been President in the Silver Jubilee Year in 1982–1983. In 2007, BCS launched BCSrecruit.com — a job site aimed at IT professionals. In 2008 the BCS was labelled "irrelevant" by an IT training company, in connection with claims it made that nine out of ten IT professionals were "unaware" of the BCS's Chartered accreditation scheme. On 21 September 2009, the British Computer Society went through a transformation and re-branded itself as "BCS — The Chartered Institute for IT".
In 2010, an Extraordinary General Meeting was called to discuss the direction of the BCS. The debate has been covered by the computing press. BCS is governed by a Trustee Board comprising the President, the Deputy President, the immediate past President, up to nine Vice Presidents, five Professional Members elected by the advisory Council. Sir Maurice Wilkes, Professor of Computer Science at Cambridge University, served as its first president; each president serves for a 2-year term. A list of presidents of the British Computer Society can be found at BCS web site; the BCS advisory Council elects the Honorary Officers — the President, the Deputy President and up to nine Vice-Presidents, together with the immediate past President and five members of Council. Lists of Trust Board and Advisory Council members are maintained online; the advisory Council provides advice to the Trustee Board on the direction and operation of BCS. The Council is a representative body of the membership, with members elected directly by the professional membership, by the Branches and Forums.
The Fellow of BCS title is conferred to individuals to recognize their outstanding achievements and contributions to Information Technology. Fellows are expected to give something back to the profession, by promoting and evangelizing the profession to the public and society, contributing to debates in conferences, meetings, etc. Fellows are nominated to the society each year and have to be supported by one or more existing fellows. Criteria for election to fellow include: Demonstrate leadership in the profession Wide acknowledgement of specific IT expertise Contribution to advancement of knowledge Eminent individual Authority and seniority, including leading major projects and managing teamsCurrent fellows include distinguished individuals from industries and universities; some of the prominent fellows include: Dame Wendy Hall, FBCS - ex-President of BCS Andy Harter, FBCS - CEO of RealVNC Tony Hey, FBCS - ex-VP of Microsoft Research Hermann Hauser, Distinguished FBCS - founder of ARM Ltd. The BCS is the only professional body in the United Kingdom with the ability to grant chartered status to IT professionals under its Royal Charter, granted to them by the Privy Council.
Thus having the ability to grant Chartered status to both its Fellows and Professional members. Known as Chartered IT Professional, they are
National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)
The National Physical Laboratory is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, England. It comes under the management of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the National Physical Laboratory was established in 1900 at Bushy House "to bring scientific knowledge to bear upon our everyday industrial and commercial life". It grew to fill a large selection of buildings on the Teddington site. NPL procured a large state-of-the-art laboratory under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 1998; the construction, being undertaken by John Laing, the maintenance of this new building, being undertaken by Serco, was transferred back to the DTI in 2004 after the private sector companies involved made losses of over £100m. The laboratory was run by the UK government, with members of staff being part of the civil service. Administration of the NPL was contracted out in 1995 under a Government Owned Contractor Operated model, with Serco winning the bid and all staff transferred to their employ.
Under this regime, overhead costs halved, third party revenues grew by 16% per annum, the number of peer-reviewed research papers published doubled. It was decided in 2012 to change the operating model for NPL from 2014 onward to include academic partners and to establish a postgraduate teaching institute on site; the date of the changeover was postponed for up to a year. The candidates for lead academic partner were the Universities of Edinburgh, Southampton and Surrey with an alliance of the Universities of Strathclyde and Surrey chosen as preferred partners. In January 2013 funding for a new £25m Advanced Metrology Laboratory was announced that will be built on the footprint of an existing unused building; the operation of the laboratory transferred back to the Department for Business and Skills ownership on 1 January 2015. The National Physical Laboratory is involved with new developments in metrology, such as researching metrology for, standardising, nanotechnology, it is based at the Teddington site, but has a site in Huddersfield for dimensional metrology and an underwater acoustics facility at Wraysbury Reservoir.
Notable researchers at NPL Researchers who have worked at NPL include: D. W. Dye who did important work in developing the technology of quartz clocks; the inventor Sir Barnes Wallis did early development work there on the "Bouncing Bomb" used in the "Dam Busters" wartime raids. H. J. Gough, one of the pioneers of research into metal fatigue, worked at NPL for 19 years from 1914 to 1938. Sydney Goldstein and Sir James Lighthill worked in NPL's aerodynamics division during World War II researching boundary layer theory and supersonic aerodynamics respectively. Dr Clifford Hodge worked there and was engaged in research on semiconductors. Others who have spent time at NPL include Robert Watson-Watt considered the inventor of radar, Oswald Kubaschewski, the father of computational materials thermodynamics and the numerical analyst James Wilkinson. NPL research has contributed to physical science, materials science and bioscience. Applications have been found in ship design, aircraft development, computer networking and global positioning.
The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, was built by Louis Essen and Jack Parry in 1955 at NPL. Calibration of the caesium standard atomic clock was carried out by the use of the astronomical time scale ephemeris time; this led to the internationally agreed definition of the latest SI second being based on atomic time. NPL has undertaken computer research since the mid-1940s. From 1945, Alan Turing led the design of the Automatic Computing Engine computer; the ACE project was floundered, leading to Turing's departure. Donald Davies took the project over and concentrated on delivering the less ambitious Pilot ACE computer, which first worked in May 1950. Among those who worked on the project was American computer pioneer Harry Huskey. A commercial spin-off, DEUCE was manufactured by English Electric Computers and became one of the best-selling machines of the 1950s. Beginning in the mid-1960s, Donald Davies and his team at the NPL pioneered packet switching, now the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide.
Davies designed and proposed a national data network based on packet switching in his 1965 Proposal for the Development of a National Communications Service for On-line Data Processing. Subsequently, the NPL team developed the concept into a local area network which operated from 1969 to 1986, carried out work to analyse and simulate the performance of packet switching networks, their research and practice influenced the ARPANET in the United States, the forerunner of the Internet, other researchers in the UK and Europe. Directors of NPL Directors of NPL include a number of notable individuals. Sir Richard Tetley Glazebrook, 1900–1919 Sir Joseph Ernest Petavel, 1919–1936 Sir Frank Edward Smith, 1936–1937 Lawrence Bragg, 1937–1938 Sir Charles Galton Darwin, 1938–1949 Sir Edward Victor Appleton, 1941 Sir Edward Crisp Bullard, 1948–1955 Dr Reginald Leslie Smith-Rose, 1955–1956 Sir Gordon Brims Black McIvor Sutherland, 1956–1964 Dr John Vernon Dunworth, 1964–1977 Dr Paul Dean, 1977–1990 Dr Peter Clapham, 1990–1995Managing Directors Dr John Rae, 1995–2000 Dr Bob McGuiness, 2000–2005 Steve McQuillan, 2005–2008 Dr Martyn Sené, 2008–2009, 2015 Dr Brian Bowsher, 2009–2015Chief Executive Officers Dr Peter Thompson, 2015–presentN