University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Martin Davy was an English physician and academic, Master of Caius College, Cambridge from 1803. In life he was a cleric. Davy's father was a country gentleman at Norfolk, he was educated first at Norwich grammar school was a pupil of a Great Yarmouth surgeon. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, adopted the Brunonian system. Davy entered Caius College, Cambridge in 1786, graduated M. B. in 1792 and M. D. in 1797. In 1795 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the mastership of Caius, when Richard Belward was elected. For the next two years he accompanied Lord Ossulton on a tour including Italy. In 1803, on Belward's death, Davy became Master of Caius. Both before and after his election to the mastership Davy practised medicine with success. Vice-chancellor in 1803–4, he took steps to exclude a local medical practitioner, Frederick Thackeray, from taking a medical degree, by a restrictive interpretation given to a statute relating to medical study; as a college man, however, he is credited with a meritocratic approach.
He was vice-chancellor a second time in 1827–8. Critical accounts by Henry Gunning and Joseph Romilly affected his subsequent reputation, he had Whig principles, supported a move of 1834 in favour of the university education of nonconformists. In 1811 Davy took holy orders, was admitted D. D. In 1827 the Tory ministry gave him the rectory of Cottenham, he was made prebendary of Chichester in the year 1832. Davy was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1801, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1812, he died at Cambridge on 18 May 1839, was buried on 25 May in the antechapel of his college. He bequeathed Norfolk, to follow the mastership of Caius. Davy wrote in 1809 a pamphlet Observations upon Mr. Fox's Letter to Mr. Grey contained in Lord Holland's preface to C. J. Fox's History of the Early Part of the Reign of James the Second, 1808, a verbal quibble with Charles James Fox. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie, ed..
"Davy, Martin". Dictionary of National Biography. 14. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Martin Davy at Find a Grave
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, known by the epithet "The Proud Duke", was a British peer. He rebuilt Petworth House in Sussex, the ancient Percy seat inherited from his wife, in the palatial form which survives today. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, he was a remarkably handsome man, inordinately fond of taking a conspicuous part in court ceremonial. Charles was the second son of Charles Seymour, 2nd Baron Seymour of Trowbridge, of Marlborough Castle in Wiltshire, by his wife Elizabeth Alington; the 2nd baron was a great-great-grandson of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, brother of Queen Jane Seymour, uncle of King Edward VI and Lord Protector of England. Charles was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, where his portrait by Nathaniel Dance-Holland survives in the College's collection. In 1675, Charles's elder brother Francis Seymour, 5th Duke of Somerset, aged 16, inherited the Dukedom of Somerset from their father's childless first cousin, John Seymour, 4th Duke of Somerset.
However, the 5th Duke did not inherit the unentailed Seymour estates, including the family seat of Wulfhall and other Wiltshire estates, much of the lands of the feudal barony of Hatch Beauchamp in Somerset, which were bequeathed to the 4th duke's niece, Elizabeth Seymour, wife of Thomas Bruce, 2nd Earl of Ailesbury. In 1660, following the Restoration of the Monarchy, the 4th duke's own father, a Royalist commander in the Civil War, had been restored to the dukedom created for and forfeited by his own great-grandfather, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset. Three years in 1678, Charles's brother, the 5th duke, was murdered in Italy, aged 20, unmarried and without progeny, having been shot at the door of his inn at Lerice; the 16-year-old Charles Seymour became the 4th Baron Seymour of Trowbridge. In 1682, at the age of 20 he married a great heiress, the 15-year-old Lady Elizabeth Percy and sole heiress of Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, who brought him immense estates, including Alnwick Castle, Northumberland.
It had been agreed in the marriage settlement, although both parties to the marriage were minors, thus incapable of being bound by a contract, that: "... for the preservation of the noble family and name of the Percys, he the said duke and all and every the issue of his body on her the said duchess begotten, should forever take upon him and them and be called and named only by the name and surname of Percy". However, on attaining her majority of 21 the duchess under her hand and seal dated 30 January 1687 consented to waive and dispense with the agreement; the intention stated in the marriage contract was however fulfilled in 1749 by their granddaughter Lady Elizabeth Seymour and her husband the former Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet when in 1749 they obtained a private Act of Parliament entitled: "An Act to enable Hugh Earl of Northumberland and Elizabeth Countess of Northumberland and Barones Percy, his Wife, their Children and Issue, to take and use the Name of Percy, bear and quarter the Arms of the Percies Earls of Northumberland".
The reason for the name-change was stated in the preamble to the Act as follows: "And as Algernon, late Duke of Somerset, did in his lifetime express his desire that the name of Percy should be used by and be the surname and family name of the Earls of Northumberland... Sir Hugh Smithson now Earl of Northumberland and Lady Elizabeth his wife, Countess of Northumberland and Baroness Percy, as well out of their great regard to, in compliance with the desire of, the said late duke, as for preserving the noble and ancient family and name of Percy and the coats of arms borne and quartered by the Percys Earls of Northumberland should be... confirmed... upon them... by authority of Parliament". Between 1688 and 1696 the Duke rebuilt Petworth House on a palatial scale. A painting made in about 1700 of his new house was identified by the art historian Sir Anthony Blunt in the collection of the Duke of Rutland at Belvoir Castle, it shows evidence of a French chateau style, with original central dome, now lost.
A similar image is included in Laguerre's wall-painting on the Grand Staircase at Petworth. Horace Walpole called it "in the style of the Tuileries"; the parapets of the walls are surmounted by urns. On the three sections of the parapet in front of the central dome and the domed roofs of the two projecting wings are placed gesticulating statues. Today the roofline is lower and flat, giving the building a plain appearance following the fire of 1714 and subsequent repairs; the statues and urns are now lost and the entrance front has been moved to the rear. One of the few elements of the old mansion he retained is the mediaeval chapel, which retains the large early 17th century Percy Window, depicting the coats of arms of several Percy Earls of Northumberland. In 1683, Somerset received an appointment in the royal household of the King Charles II and in August 1685 he was appointed Colonel of the Queen Consort's Light Dragoons when James II expanded his army after the Monmouth rebellion. However, he fell from favour in 1687 when as Lord of the Bedchamber he refuse
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
John Venn, FRS, FSA, was an English mathematician and philosopher noted for introducing the Venn diagram, used in the fields of set theory, logic, competition math, computer science. In 1866, Venn published The Logic of Chance, a ground-breaking book which espoused the frequency theory of probability, offering that probability should be determined by how something is forecast to occur as opposed to “educated” assumptions. Venn further developed George Boole's theories in the 1881 work Symbolic Logic, where he highlighted what would become known as Venn diagrams. John Venn was born on 4 August 1834 in Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, to Martha Sykes and Rev. Henry Venn, the rector of the parish of Drypool, his mother died. Venn was descended from a long line including his grandfather John Venn. Venn was brought up in a strict atmosphere at home, his father Henry had played a significant part in the Evangelical movement and he was the secretary of the ‘Society for Missions to Africa and the East’, establishing eight bishoprics overseas.
His grandfather was pastor to William Wilberforce of the abolitionist movement, in Clapham. He began his education in London joining Sir Roger Cholmeley's School, now known as Highgate School, with his brother Henry in September 1846, he moved on to Islington proprietary school and in October 1853 he went to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. In 1857, he became a fellow. In 1903 he was elected President of a post he held until his death, he followed his family vocation and became an Anglican priest, ordained in 1859, serving first at the church in Cheshunt, in Mortlake, Surrey. In 1862, he returned to Cambridge as a lecturer in moral science and teaching logic and probability theory, beginning around 1869, giving intercollegiate lectures; these duties led to his developing the diagram which would bear his name. He built rare machines. A certain machine was meant to bowl cricket balls; the machine was so fascinating that when Australian cricketers were visiting Cambridge, the machines were used to entertain their arrival.
The bowl cricket ball machine that Venn built bowled out the top ranked player of the team four times consecutively. I began at once somewhat more steady work on the subjects and books which I should have to lecture on. I now first hit upon the diagrammatical device of representing propositions by inclusive and exclusive circles. Of course the device was not new but it was so representative of the way in which any one, who approached the subject from the mathematical side, would attempt to visualise propositions, that it was forced upon me at once. In 1868, he married Susanna Carnegie Edmonstone with whom he had John Archibald Venn, his son entered the mathematics field as well. In 1883, he resigned from the clergy, having concluded that Anglicanism was incompatible with his philosophical beliefs. In that same year, Venn was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1884, he was awarded a Sc. D. by Cambridge. He died on 4 April 1923. Newspaper archives show that Venn was a active member of local civic society in Cambridge, a committee member of the Cambridge Charitable Organisations Society elected vice-chairman in December 1884.
Venn was president of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society in 1908–1909. He is listed as a vice president of the Cambridge Provident Medical Institution. Venn was a prominent supporter of votes for women, he co-signed with his wife Susanna, a letter to the Cambridge Independent Press published 16 October 1908, encouraging women to put themselves forward as candidates for the up-and-coming Cambridge town council elections. The letter was co-sponsored by wife of Sir George Darwin and Florence Ada Keynes; the newspaper archives reveal that Venn was a passionate gardener taking part in local competitions organised by groups such as the Cambridgeshire Horticultural Society, winning prizes for his roses in July 1885 and for his white carrots that September. In 2017 The Drypool Bridge in Hull was decorated in honour of Venn. Venn is commemorated at the University of Hull by the Venn Building. A stained glass window in the dining hall of Gonville and Caius College, commemorates Venn's work. In commemoration of the 180th anniversary of Venn's birth, on 4 August 2014, Google replaced its normal logo on global search pages with an interactive and animated Google doodle that incorporated the use of a Venn diagram.
Venn Street in Clapham, the home of his grandfather, shows a Venn diagram on the street sign. Venn compiled Alumni Cantabrigienses, a biographical register of former members of the University of Cambridge, his other works include: A Cambridge Alumni Database The Venn archives clarify the confusing timeline of the various Venns. Obituary of John Venn Portrait of Venn by Charles Brock, a link to a site about Venn Another view of the Venn stained glass window John Venn at Find a Grave
In the Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest, or deacon, the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Churches recognizing these orders include the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and some Lutheran churches. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament; the Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination. Denominations have varied conceptions of holy orders. In the Anglican churches and some Lutheran churches the traditional orders of bishop and deacon are bestowed using ordination rites; the extent to which ordination is considered sacramental in these traditions has, been a matter of some internal dispute. Baptists are among the denominations that do not consider ministry as being sacramental in nature and would not think of it in terms of "holy orders" as such.
The word "order" designated an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, ordinatio meant legal incorporation into an ordo. The word "holy" refers to the Church. In context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. Other positions, such as pope, cardinal, archbishop, archpriest, hieromonk and archdeacon, are not sacramental orders but specialized ministries; the Eastern Orthodox Church considers ordination to be a Sacred Mystery. Although all other mysteries may be performed by a presbyter, ordination may only be conferred by a bishop, ordination of a bishop may only be performed by several bishops together. Cheirotonia always takes place during the Divine Liturgy, it was the mission of the Apostles to go forth into all the world and preach the Gospel, baptizing those who believed in the name of the Holy Trinity. In the Early Church those who presided over congregations were referred to variously as episcopos or presbyteros; these successors of the Apostles were ordained to their office by the laying on of hands, according to Orthodox theology formed a living, organic link with the Apostles, through them with Jesus Christ himself.
This link is believed to continue in unbroken succession to this day. Over time, the ministry of bishops and presbyters or priests came to be distinguished. In Orthodox terminology, priesthood or sacerdotal refers to the ministry of priests; the Eastern Orthodox Church has ordination to minor orders, performed outside of the Divine Liturgy by a bishop, although certain archimandrites of stavropegial monasteries may bestow cheirothesia on members of their communities. A bishop is the collector of the money of the diocese and the living Vessel of Grace through whom the energeia of the Holy Spirit flows into the rest of the church. A bishop is consecrated through the laying on of hands by several bishops; the consecration of a bishop takes place near the beginning of the Liturgy, since a bishop can, in addition to performing the Mystery of the Eucharist ordain priests and deacons. Before the commencement of the Holy Liturgy, the bishop-elect professes, in the middle of the church before the seated bishops who will consecrate him, in detail the doctrines of the Orthodox Christian Faith and pledges to observe the canons of the Apostles and Councils, the Typikon and customs of the Orthodox Church and to obey ecclesiastical authority.
After the Little Entrance, the arch-priest and arch-deacon conduct the bishop-elect before the Royal Gates where he is met by the bishops and kneels before the altar on both knees. The Gospel Book is laid over his head and the consecrating bishops lay their hands upon the Gospel Book, while the prayers of ordination are read by the eldest bishop. After this, the newly consecrated bishop ascends the synthranon for the first time. Customarily, the newly consecrated bishop ordains a priest and a deacon at the Liturgy during which he is consecrated. A priest may serve only at the pleasure of his bishop. A bishop bestows faculties giving a priest an antimins; the ordination of a priest occurs before the Anaphora in order that he may on the same day take part in the celebration of the Eucharist: During the Great Entrance, the candidate for ordination carries the Aër over his head as a symbol of giving up his diaconate, comes last in the procession and stands at the end of the pair of lines of the priests.
After the Aër is taken from the candidate to cover the chalice and diskos, a chair is brought for the bishop to sit on by the northeast corner of the Holy Table. Two deacons go to priest-elect who, at that point, had been standing alone in the middle of the church, bow him down to the west and to the east, asking their consent by saying “Command ye!” and lead him through the holy doors of the altar where the archdeacon asks the bishop’s co