Taego Bou, alternatively romanized as Taego Bowoo or Taego Bowu, was a Korean Seon master who lived in Goryeo, was the cofounder of the Jogye Order with Jinul, is credited as the founder of the modern Taego Order. According to tradition, he unified five different branches of Buddhism and nine different Seon lineages into a single order which still continues. For his efforts, he was appointed as a supreme patriarch for the dynasty; this helped set the standard for Korean Buddhism by bringing both doctrinal and practice-oriented sects together under a single umbrella
Yogachara is an influential tradition of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing the study of cognition and consciousness through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. It is variously termed Vijñānavāda, Vijñaptivāda or Vijñaptimātratā-vāda, the name given to its major epistemic theory. There are several interpretations of this main theory, some scholars see it as a kind of Idealism while others argue that it is closer to a kind of phenomenology or representationalism. According to Dan Lusthaus, this tradition developed "an elaborate psychological therapeutic system that mapped out the problems in cognition along with the antidotes to correct them, an earnest epistemological endeavor that led to some of the most sophisticated work on perception and logic engaged in by Buddhists or Indians." The 4th century Indian brothers, Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, are considered the classic philosophers and systematizers of this school. It was associated with Indian Mahayana Buddhism in about the fourth century, but included non-Mahayana practitioners of the Dārṣṭāntika school.
Yogācāra continues to be influential in East Asian Buddhism. However, the uniformity of an single assumed "Yogācāra school" has been put into question. Yogācāra philosophy is meant to aid in the practice of yoga and meditation and thus it sets forth a systematic analysis of the Mahayana spiritual path. Yogācārins made use of ideas from previous traditions, such as Prajñāpāramitā and the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma, to develop a new schema for spiritual practice. According to Thomas Kochumuttom, Yogācāra is "meant to be an explanation of experience, rather than a system of ontology". For this reason, Yogācārins developed. In its analysis, Yogācāra works like the Saṅdhinirmocana Sūtra developed various core concepts such as vijñapti-mātra, the ālaya-vijñāna, the turning of the basis, the three natures, emptiness, they form a complex system, each can be taken as a point of departure for understanding Yogācāra. One of the main features of Yogācāra philosophy is the concept of vijñapti-mātra. According to Lambert Schmithausen, the earliest surviving appearance of this term is in chapter 8 of the Saṅdhinirmocana Sūtra, which has only survived in Tibetan and Chinese translations that differ in syntax and meaning.
The passage is depicted as a response by the Buddha to a question which asks "whether the images or replicas which are the object of meditative concentration, are different/separate from the contemplating mind or not." The Buddha says they are not different, "Because these images are vijñapti-mātra." The text goes on to affirm. Regarding existing Sanskrit sources, the term appears in the first verse of Vasubandhu's Vimśatikā, a locus classicus of the idea, it states: vijñaptimātram evaitad asad arthāvabhāsanāt yathā taimirikasyāsat keśa candrādi darśanam This is vijñaptimātra, since it manifests itself as an unreal object, Just like the case of those with cataracts seeing unreal hairs in the moon and the like." According to Mark Siderits, what Vasubandhu means here is that we are only aware of mental images or impressions which manifest themselves as external objects, but "there is no such thing outside the mind." The term appears in Asaṅga's classic Yogācāra work, the Mahāyānasaṃgraha:These representations are mere representations, because there is no thing/object...
Just as in a dream there appear without a thing/object, just in the mind alone, forms/images of all kinds of things/objects like visibles, smells, tangibles, forests and mountains, yet there are no things/objects at all in that. MSg 11.6The term is sometimes used as a synonym with citta-mātra, used a name for the school that suggests Idealism. Schmithausen writes that the first appearance of this term is in the Pratyupanna samadhi sutra, which states:This triple world is nothing but mind. Why? Because however I imagine things, how they appear; some modern scholars believe. David Kalupahana argues that citta-mātra signifies a metaphysical reification of mind into an absolute, while vijñapti-mātra refers to a certain epistemological approach. While the standard translations for these terms are "consciousness only" and "mind-only", several modern scholars object to these, as well as to Idealistic interpretation. According to Bruce Cameron Hall, the interpretation of this doctrine as a form of subjective or absolute idealism has been "the most common "outside" interpretation of Vijñānavāda, not only by modern writers, but by its ancient opponents, both Hindu and Buddhist."Different alternative translations for vijñapti-mātra have been proposed, such as representation-only, ideation-only, impressions-only and perception-only.
Alex Wayman notes that one's interpretation of Yogācāra will depend on how the qualifier mātra is to be understood in this context, he objects to interpretations which claim that Yogācāra rejects the external world altogether, preferring translations such as "amounting to mind" or "mirroring mind" for citta-mātra. Fo
Dongshan Liangjie was a Chan Buddhist monk of ninth-century China. He founded the Caodong school, transmitted to Japan in the thirteenth century by Dōgen and developed into the Sōtō school of Zen. Dongshan is known for the poetic Five Ranks. Dongshan was born during the Tang dynasty in Kuaiji to the south of Hangzhou Bay, his secular birth surname was Yu. He started his private studies in Chan Buddhism at a young age, as was popular among educated elite families of the time. At the village cloister, Dongshan showed promise by questioning the fundamental Doctrine of the Six Roots during his tutor's recitation of the Heart Sutra. Though aged only ten, he was sent away from his home village to train under Lingmo at the monastery on nearby Wutai Mountain, he had his head shaved and took on yellow robes, which represented the first steps in his path to becoming a monk, ordaining as a śrāmaṇera. At the age of twenty-one, he went to Shaolin Monastery on Mount Song, where he took the complete monk's precepts as a bhikṣu.
Dongshan Liangjie spent a large portion of his early life wandering between Chan masters and hermits in the Hongzhou region. He obtained instruction from Nanquan Puyuan, from Guishan Lingyou, but the teacher of preeminent influence was Master Yunyan Tansheng, of whom Dongshan became the dharma heir. According to the work Rentian yanmu, Dongshan inherited from Yunyan Tansheng the knowledge of the Three Types of Leakage and the baojing sanmei". Most of what is recorded regarding his journey and studies exists in the form of philosophical dialogues, or kōan, between him and his various teachers; these provide little insight into his personality or experiences beyond his daily rituals, style of spiritual education, a few specific events. During the years of his pilgrimage Emperor Wuzong's Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution reached its height, but it had little effect on Dongshan or his newfound followers. A little over a decade in 859, Dongshan felt he had completed his role as an assistant instructor at Hsin-feng Mountain, so with the blessing of his last masters, he took some students and left to establish his own school.
At the age of fifty-two, Dongshan established a mountain school at the mountain named Dongshan. The cloister temple he founded bore such names as Guanfu, Chongxian Longbao but was named Puli Yuan in the early Song dynasty period. Here, according to tradition, he composed the Song of the Precious Mirror Samādhi, his disciples here are said to have numbered between one thousand. This Caodong school became regarded as one of the Five Houses of Zen. At the time, they were just considered schools led by individualistic masters with distinct styles and personalities. Dongshan died at the age of sixty-three, in the tenth year of the Xiantong era, having spent forty-two years as a monk, his shrine, built in keeping with Buddhist tradition, was named the Stūpa of Wisdom-awareness, his posthumous name was Chan Master Wu-Pen. According to one of the kōans of his sect, Dongshan announced the end of his life several days before the event, used the opportunity to teach his students one, final time. In response to their grief over the news of his impending death, he told them to create a "delusion banquet."
After a week of preparations, he took one bite of the meal and, telling the students not to "make a great commotion over nothing," went to his room and died. Although Lin-chi and Liang-chieh shared pupils, Liang-chieh had a particular style. Since his early life he had utilized gātha, or small poems, in order to try better to understand and to expound the meaning of Chan principles for himself and others. Examples are Avoid seeking elsewhere, for. Now I travel alone, everywhere I meet it. Now it's me, now I'm not it, it must thus be understood to merge with thusness. and Students as numerous as sands in the Ganges but none are awakened. They err by searching for the path in another person's mouth. If you wish to forget form and not leave any traces,Wholeheartedly strive to walk in emptiness. Further features of the school included particular interpretations of kōan, an emphasis on "silent illumination" Chan, organization of students into the "three root types." He is still well known for his creation of the Five Ranks.
Some descendants of Dongshan much in the Song dynasty, around the twelfth century, argued that the kōan, which developed over centuries based on dialogues attributed to Dongshan and his contemporaries, should not have a specific goal, because that would " a dualist distinction between ignorance and enlightenment." This view is based on Dongshan's perspective of not basing practice on stages of attainment. Instead, such Dongshan lineage descendants as Hongzhi encouraged the use of Silent Illumination Chan as a way to take a self-fulfilling, rather than a competitive, path to enlightenment; these two differences contrasted with the style of Linji's descendants.
Ten Bulls or Ten Ox Herding Pictures is a series of short poems and accompanying drawings used in the Zen tradition to describe the stages of a practitioner's progress toward enlightenment, his or her return to society to enact wisdom and compassion. The calf, bull or ox is one of the earliest similes for meditation practice, it comes from the Maha Gopalaka Sutta. It is used in the commentaries the one on the Maha Satipatthana Sutta and the Satipatthana Sutta; as Buddhism spread throughout South-East Asia, the simile of the bull spread with it. The well-known ten ox-herding pictures emerged in China in the 12th century. D. T. Suzuki mentions four Chinese versions of the Oxherding Pictures, by Ching-chu, Tzu-te Hui, an unknown author, Kuòān Shīyuǎn; the best-known of these is the version by Kuòān Shīyuǎn. The first series was made by Ching-chu, who may have been a contemporary of Kuòān Shīyuǎn. In Ching-chu's version only five pictures are being used, the ox's colour changes from dark to white, representing the gradual development of the practitioner, ending in the disappearance of the practitioner.
Tzu-te Hui made a version with six pictures. The sixth one goes beyond the stage of absolute emptiness. Just like Ching-chu's version, the ox grows whiter along the way. A third version by an unknown author, with ten pictures, was most popular in China, it belongs to the Ching-chu and Tzu-te Hui series of pictures, has a somewhat different serie of pictures compared to Kuòān Shīyuǎn's version. The 1585-edition contains a preface by Chu-hung, it has ten pictures, each of, preceded by Pu-ming's poem, of whom Chu-hung furtherwise provides no information. In this version too the ox's colour changes from dark to white; the best known version of the oxherding pictures was drawn by the 12th century Chinese Rinzai Chán master Kuòān Shīyuǎn, who wrote accompanying poems and introductory words attached to the pictures. In Kuòān Shīyuǎn's version there is no whitening process, his series doesn't end with mere emptiness, or absolute truth, but shows a return to the world, depicting Putai, the laughing Buddha.
According to Chi Kwang Sunim, they may represent a Zen Buddhist interpretation of the ten Bodhisattva bhumi, the ten stages on the Bodhisattva-path. In Japan, Kuòān Shīyuǎn's version gained a wide circulation, the earliest one belonging to the fifteenth century, they first became known in the West after their inclusion in the 1957 book, Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings, by Paul Reps and Nyogen Senzaki. Liaoan Qingyu made another version with five pictures. Verses by Kuòān Shīyuǎn; the ox-herding pictures had an immediate and extensive influence on the Chinese practice of Chan Buddhism. In the West, Alan Watts included a description of the Ten Bulls in The Spirit of Zen; the pictures were to influence the work of John Cage in his emphasis on rhythmic silence, on images of nothingness. At the same time, through the last picture –'In the Marketplace' – they have provided a conceptual umbrella for those Buddhists seeking a greater engagement with the post-industrial global marketplace.
An equivalent series of stages is depicted in the Nine Stages of Tranquility, used in the Mahamudra tradition, in which the mind is represented by an elephant and a monkey. The Dharma Fellowship, a Kagyu organisation, notes that the practice starts with studying and pondering the dharma, where-after the practice of meditation commences. Buddhist Paths to liberation Bodhi Five Ranks Monomyth Nirvana Spiritual bypass BackgroundRahula, Walpola and the Taming of the Bull: Towards the Definition of Buddhist Thought, Gordon Fraser Book Publishers Tan, The Taming of the Bull. Mind-training and the formation of Buddhist traditions CommentariesYamada, Lectures On The Ten Oxherding Pictures, University of Hawaii Press Samy, AMA, Zen: Awakening to Your Original Face, Cre-A Shibayama, Zenkei, A Flower Does Not Talk: Zen Essays, Tuttle Publishing Daido Loori, The Eight Gates of Zen: A Program of Zen Training, Shambhala Publications GeneralTerebess Online, Oxherding Pictures Index, huge collection of resources on the oxherding picturesZide Huihui version Terebess Asia Online, The Six Oxherding Pictures by 自得慧暉 Zide Huihui, 1090-1159Chinese Pu-Ming version Terebess Asia Online, The Ten Oxherding Pictures by 普明 Puming, an unknown authorKuòān Shīyuǎn version Paul Reps, Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings Reverend Eshin, Ten Oxherding Pictures John M. Koller, Ox-herding: stages of Zen-practiceExtended commentariesCommentary by D.
T. Suzuki Commentary by Shodo Harada Commentary by Sheng Yen Commentary by Ruben Habito Commentary by Martine Batchelor Commentary by Chögyam TrungpaTaming the ElephantDharma Fellowship, Deepening Calm-Abiding - The Nine Stages of Abiding Skyflower Dharmacenter, Mahamudra Tranquility and InsightOtherA comparison between the Zen Buddhist Ten Oxherding Pictures and the Theory of Positive Disintegration Dward Muzika, Awakening versus Liberation
Hakuyū Taizan Maezumi was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher and rōshi, lineage holder in the Sōtō, Sanbo Kyodan traditions of Zen. He combined the Rinzai use of kōans and the Sōtō emphasis on shikantaza in his teachings, influenced by his years studying under Hakuun Yasutani in Sanbo Kyodan, he founded or co-founded several institutions and practice centers, including the Zen Center of Los Angeles, White Plum Asanga, Yokoji Zen Mountain Center and the Zen Mountain Monastery. Taizan Maezumi left behind twelve dharma successors, appointed sixty-eight priests and gave Buddhist precepts to more than five hundred practitioners. Along with Zen teachers like Shunryū Suzuki and Hsuan Hua, Maezumi influenced the American Zen landscape. Several Dharma Successors of his—including Tetsugen Bernard Glassman, Dennis Merzel, John Daido Loori, Jan Chozen Bays, Gerry Shishin Wick, Joko Beck, William Nyogen Yeo—have gone on to found Zen communities of their own. Maezumi died unexpectedly while visiting Japan in 1995.
Maezumi was born in Japan on February 24, 1931 to Yoshiko Kuroda-Maezumi and Baian Hakujun Kuroda, a prominent Sōtō priest, in his father's temple in Ōtawara, Tochigi. In years, he took the name Maezumi, his mother's maiden name, he was ordained as a novice monk in the Sōtō lineage at age eleven, in high school began studying Zen under a lay Rinzai instructor, Koryū Osaka. While studying under Koryu he attended Komazawa University—receiving degrees in oriental literature and philosophy. After college he trained at Sōji-ji, received shihō from his father in 1955. In 1956 he was sent to the United States to serve as a priest at the Zenshuji in Little Tokyo, Los Angeles, a Japanese-American neighborhood, he worked part-time at a factory. The Zenshuji Soto Mission consisted of a Japanese-American congregation that placed little emphasis on zazen. Maezumi began sitting zazen with Nyogen Senzaki, in nearby Boyle Heights, Los Angeles for the next two years. In 1959 Maezumi took classes in English at San Francisco State University, the year he first met Shunryū Suzuki visiting Suzuki's temple, for ceremonies.
Early in the 1960s, Maezumi began holding zazen at Zenshuji for Western students, which led to the opening of the Zen Center of Los Angeles in 1967. That same year he married his first wife, Charlene Also in 1967, Maezumi began studying with Hakuun Yasutani, completing kōan study under him and receiving inka in 1970, he received inka from Koryū Osaka in 1973, making him a lineage-holder in the Sōtō, Rinzai and Sanbo Kyodan schools. In 1975 Maezumi married his second wife, Martha Ekyo Maezumi, the couple had three children. In 1976, Maezumi founded the non-profit Kuroda Institute for the Study of Buddhism and Human Values, promoting academic scholarship on Buddhist topics; the White Plum Asanga was established during this period. His senior student Tetsugen Bernard Glassman opened the Zen Community of New York in 1979 with Maezumi's blessing and encouragement. Another student, John Daido Loori, acquired land in the Catskill Mountains of New York and in 1980 established Zen Mountain Monastery with Maezumi.
That following year Maezumi founded a summer retreat for the ZCLA called the Yokoji Zen Mountain Center, which today serves as a year-round residential and non-residential Zen training center. In 1984 another student, Dennis Merzel, left ZCLA to establish the Kanzeon Sangha, an international network practicing in the Sanbo Kyodan lineage. Maezumi died on May 1995 while visiting his family in Japan, he had been out drinking. Not long before dying, he had given inka to Tetsugen Bernard Glassman, he did this to emphasize the Sanbo Kyodan connection of his past into the Dharma transmission of White Plum Asanga, naming Glassman President of the organization in his will. Due to his training in three Japanese lineages, Maezumi employed both Rinzai kōan study and Sōtō shikantaza in his teaching curriculum—an approach developed by his teacher Hakuun Yasutani, he was known to be strict about the posture of his students while sitting zazen. Maezumi used a range of kōans from different Zen traditions, including the Blue Cliff Record, The Gateless Gate, Transmission of the Lamp, the Book of Equanimity.
According to author and Dharma Successor Gerry Shishin Wick, Maezumi was fond of a particular saying—"appreciate your life." This is the title of a compiled book of teachings by Maezumi, published by Shambhala Publications. In it Maezumi says, "I encourage you. Please enjoy this wonderful life together. Appreciate the world just this! There is nothing extra. Genuinely appreciate your life as the most precious treasure and take good care of it." Maezumi publicly admitted he was an alcoholic in 1983, sought treatment at the Betty Ford Center. This coincided with revelations that he had been having sexual relationships with some of his female followers at the Zen Center of Los Angeles despite being married to his wife, Martha Ekyo Maezumi, "including one of the recipients of his dharma transmission". According to Kirsten Mitsuyo Maezumi, this "caused the separation of my parents and was the reason my mother left the Zen Center of Los Angeles with my brother and in 1983". Maezumi did not justify his behaviors.
These events caused much turmoil in his school, many students left as a result. Some members who stayed described themselves as forced to see Maezumi on a more human level seeing this period as a breakthrough for them
In Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is any person, on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it. In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so. In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. In early Buddhism, the term bodhisatta is used in the early texts to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. During his discourses, to recount his experiences as a young aspirant he uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being, "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is described as someone, still subject to birth, death, sorrow and delusion.
Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jataka tales. According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant; the oldest known story about how Gautama Buddha becomes a bodhisattva is the story of his encounter with the previous Buddha, Dīpankara. During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha. Dīpankara confirms that they will attain Buddhahood. Early Buddhist authors saw this story as indicating that the making of a resolution in the presence of a living Buddha and his prediction/confirmation of one's future Buddhahood was necessary to become a bodhisattva. According to Drewes, "all known models of the path to Buddhahood developed from this basic understanding."The path is explained differently by the various Nikaya schools.
In the Theravāda Buddhavaṃsa, after receiving the prediction, Gautama took four asaṃkheyyas and a hundred thousand, shorter kalpas to reach Buddhahood. The Sarvāstivāda school had similar models about, they held it took him three asaṃkhyeyas and ninety one kalpas to become a Buddha after his resolution in front of a past Buddha. During the first asaṃkhyeya he is said to have encountered and served 75,000 Buddhas, 76,000 in the second, after which he received his first prediction of future Buddhahood from Dīpankara, meaning that he could no longer fall back from the path to Buddhahood. Thus, the presence of a living Buddha is necessary for Sarvāstivāda; the Mahāvibhāṣā explains that its discussion of the bodhisattva path is meant to “stop those who are in fact not bodhisattvas from giving rise to the self-conceit that they are.”The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames: Natural, one first plants the roots of merit in front of a Buddha to attain Buddhahood.
Resolution, one makes their first resolution to attain Buddhahood in the presence of a Buddha. Continuing, one continues to practice. Irreversible, at this stage, one cannot fall back; the Sri Lankan commentator Dhammapala in his commentary on the Cariyāpiṭaka, a text which focuses on the bodhisatta path, notes that to become a bodhisatta one must make a valid resolution in front of a living Buddha, which confirms that one is “irreversible” from the attainment of Buddhahood. The Nidānakathā, as well as the Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyāpiṭaka commentaries makes this explicit by stating that one cannot use a substitute for the presence of a living Buddha, since only a Buddha has the knowledge for making a reliable prediction; this is the accepted view maintained in orthodox Theravada today. The idea is that any resolution to attain Buddhahood may be forgotten or abandoned during the aeons ahead; the Burmese monk Ledi Sayadaw explains that though it is easy to make vows for future Buddhahood by oneself, it is difficult to maintain the necessary conduct and views during periods when the Dharma has disappeared from the world.
One will fall back during such periods and this is why one is not a full bodhisatta until one receives recognition from a living Buddha. Because of this, it was and remains a common practice in Theravada to attempt to establish the necessary conditions to meet the future Buddha Maitreya and thus receive a prediction from him. Medieval Theravada literature and inscriptions report the aspirations of monks and ministers to meet Maitreya for this purpose. Modern figures such as Anagarika Dharmapala, U Nu both sought to receive a prediction from a Buddha in the future and believed meritorious actions done for the good of Buddhism would help in their endeavor to become bodhisattas in the future. Over time the term came to be applied to other figures besides Gautama Buddha in Theravada lands due to the influence of Mahayana; the Theravada Abhayagiri tradition of Sri Lanka practiced Mahayana Buddhism and was influential until the 12th century. Kings of Sri Lanka