Augustus W. Peters
Augustus Winniett Peters was a Canadian-born New York City political figure who served as the 1st Manhattan Borough President. Peters was born in Saint John, New Brunswick on June 10, 1844, he was raised and educated in New Brunswick, studied law, became an attorney. In 1867, he moved to New York City as the lawyer for Ralph, King & Halleck, a firm that traded on the New York Gold Exchange. In 1875, he became a member of the Gold Exchange, in 1876 he was appointed its Secretary. Peters later became a member of the New York Mining Exchange. In 1878 Peters became Chairman of the New York Consolidated Exchange, a combination of the several different commodities exchanges. Peters remained as Chairman until resigning to take office as Manhattan Borough President. Upon his resignation as Chairman, he was appointed the Exchange's Second Vice President. Peters, a lifelong bachelor, was a veteran of the militia in New Brunswick, he continued his military service in New York, attaining the rank of Sergeant Major in the New York Old Guard, a ceremonial unit whose members were veterans of previous military service.
A large, athletic man, Peters was involved in several amateur sports clubs and competitions, was an accomplished cricket player and swimmer. Peters was a capable singer and amateur actor, belonged to choirs and drama clubs in New York City. Peters was a Freemason and attained the 33rd Degree of the Scottish Rite. Having become a citizen of the United States soon after arriving in New York, Peters became active in the Tammany Hall Democratic Party organization. In 1893 he became President of Tammany's General Committee, in 1894 he was an unsuccessful candidate for New York County Sheriff. In 1894 Peters was an unsuccessful candidate for President of the Board of Aldermen. In 1897, Peters was elected borough president of Manhattan; the five borough presidencies were created as the result of organizing Greater New York, which consolidate the five boroughs under one Mayor. Peters served as borough president until his sudden death from a heart attack at his Manhattan, New York City home on December 29, 1898.
His remains were returned to New Brunswick for burial
Richard Welstead Croker Sr. known as "Boss Croker," was an American politician, a leader of New York City's Tammany Hall and a political boss. Richard Croker was born in the townland of Ballyva, in the parish of Ardfield, six miles south of Clonakilty in County Cork on November 24, 1843, son of Eyre Coote Croker and Frances Laura Welsted, he was taken to the United States by his parents. They headed for the land of opportunity. There were significant differences between this family and the typical family leaving Ireland at that time, they were Protestant, were not land tenants. Eyre Coote Croker owned an estate in south west Cork. Upon arrival in the United States, Eyre Coote Croker was without a profession, but he had a general knowledge of horses and soon became a veterinary surgeon. During the Civil War, he served in that same capacity under General Daniel Sickles. Richard Croker was educated in New York public schools. Croker dropped out of school at age twelve or thirteen to become an apprentice machinist in the Harlem Railroad machine shops.
Not long after, he became a valued member of the Fourth Avenue Tunnel Gang, a street gang that attacked teamsters and other workers that gathered around the Harlem line's freight depot. Croker became the gang's leader, he joined one of the Volunteer Fire Departments in 1863, becoming an engineer of one of the engine companies. That was his gateway into public life. James O'Brien, a Tammany associate, took notice of Croker after Croker won a boxing match against Dick Lynch whereby Crocker knocked out all of Lynch's teeth. Croker active in its politics. In the 1860s he was well known for being a "repeater" at elections, voting multiple times at the poles, he was an alderman from 1868–70, Coroner of New York County, New York from 1873-76. Croker was charged with the murder of John McKenna, a lieutenant of James O'Brien during a fight on election day of 1874 with O'Brien's rival political group. O'Brien was running for Congress against the Tammany-backed Abram S. Hewitt. John Kelly, the new Tammany Hall boss, attended the trial and Croker was freed after the jury was undecided.
Croker moved to Harrison, New York by 1880. He was appointed the New York City Fire Commissioner in 1883 and 1887 and city Chamberlain from 1889-90. After the death of John Kelly, he became the leader of Tammany Hall, for some time completely controlled that organization; as head of Tammany, Croker received bribe money from the owners of brothels and illegal gambling dens. Croker received no salary for his position. Croker became a partner in the real estate firm Meyer and Corker with Peter F. Meyer, from which he made substantial money; this money was derived from sales under the control of the city through city judges. Other income came by way of gifts of stock for example; the city police were still under the control of Tammany Hall, payoffs from vice protection operations contributed to Tammany income. He became a wealthy man. Several committees were established in the 1890s at the behest of Thomas C. Platt and other Republicans to investigate Tammany and Croker, including the 1890 Fassett Committee, the 1894 Lexow Committee, during which Croker left the United States for his European residences for three years, the Mazet Investigation of 1899.
Croker's greatest political success was his bringing about the 1897 election of Robert A. Van Wyck as first mayor of the five-borough "greater" New York, during Van Wyck's administration Croker is popularly supposed to have dominated the government of the city. Croker was in the newspapers in 1899 after a disagreement with Jay Gould's son, George Gould, president of the Manhattan Elevated Railroad Company, when Gould refused Croker's attempt to attach compressed-air pipes to the Elevated company's structures. Croker owned many shares of the New York Auto-Truck Company, a company which would have benefited from the arrangement. In response to the refusal, Croker used Tammany influence to create new city laws requiring drip pans under structures in Manhattan at every street crossing and the requirement that the railroad run trains every five minutes with a $100 violation for every instance. Croker held 2,500 shares of the American Ice Company worth $250,000, which came under scrutiny in 1900 upon the company's attempt to raise the price of ice in the city.
After Croker's failure to carry the city in the presidential election of 1900 and the defeat of his mayoralty candidate, Edward M. Shepard in 1901, he resigned from his position of leadership in Tammany and was succeeded by Lewis Nixon, he departed the United States in 1905. An associate described Croker as having " strong frame, a deep chest, a short neck and a pair of hard fists... He speaks in monosyllables, commands a vocabulary that appears to be limited to about three hundred words..." Croker operated a stable of thoroughbred racehorses in the United States in partnership with Mike Dwyer. In January 1895, they sent a stable of horses to England under the care of trainer Hardy Campbell, Jr. and jockey Willie Simms. Following a dispute, the partnership was dissoved in Croker continued to race in England. In 1907, his horse Orby won The Derby. Orby was ridden by American jockey John Reiff whose brother Lester had won the race in 1901. Croker was the breeder of Orby's son Grand Parade who won the Derby in 1919.
Richard Croker married twice. He first married in 1
Andrew Stein is an American Democratic politician who served on the New York City Council and was its last president, as Manhattan Borough President. Stein's father, Jerry Finkelstein, was the multi-millionaire publisher of the New York Law Journal, among other publications. Andrew Stein shortened his name. Stein attended Southampton College, he was a member of the New York State Assembly from 1969 to 1977, sitting in the 178th, 179th, 180th, 181st and 182nd New York State Legislatures. He was well known for his series of public hearings into the management practices of nursing homes in the state. In 1977, Stein was elected as borough president of Manhattan, defeating New York City Clerk David Dinkins in the Democratic primary. Stein defeated Dinkins again in the 1981 Democratic primary for the borough presidency, he was the Democratic nominee for Congress in the "Silk Stocking District" on Manhattan's East Side in 1984, but was defeated by incumbent Republican S. William Green. Stein declined a race for a third term as borough president in 1985 to run for city council president.
As city council president, Stein served as the presiding officer of the city council, was acting mayor in the absence or disability of Mayor Edward I. Koch, was a voting member of the New York City Board of Estimate, handled constituent and policy issues. Stein derived most of his power from his seat on the Board of Estimate, made up of the mayor, the city comptroller and the city council president, each of whom had two votes, the five borough presidents, each with one vote. Stein was re-elected City Council President in 1989. In 1989, a decision by the United States Supreme Court declared the Board of Estimate was unconstitutional, in that it violated the principle of "one man, one vote", a rewriting of the city charter called for the city council presidency to be abolished and the office of public advocate to be created as the presiding officer of the council and first in line of succession to the mayor; the change in duties would occur when Stein's term expired on January 1, 1994. In 1993, Stein announced.
Despite his reputation as a liberal, Stein had tried to get the endorsement of the Republican and Conservative parties, but was unsuccessful. Stein dropped out before the primary and tried a bid for public advocate against City Consumer Affairs Commissioner Mark J. Green, City Councilwoman Susan Alter, State Sen. David Paterson, but withdrew from the race after a few weeks. Stein retired from public life in the city. Since leaving office, he has pursued private business as a partner in Arapaho Partners, LLC, a business consulting firm based in New York City. On May 27, 2010, Stein was indicted and arrested for lying about his involvement during the investigation of the multimillion-dollar Ponzi scheme involving Ken Starr, a financial advisor to various Hollywood celebrities, he was sentenced to 500 hours of community service. Stein has been married twice: He and his first wife have one daughter named Paige. Stein's second marriage to attorney, Lynn Forester, lasted from 1983 to 1993 with the couple having two sons: Ben and Jake Stein.
He is ridiculed in the media for wearing what is considered to be an excessively luxurious toupee. According to a report in the New York Post on October 10, 2007, Stein had begun dating the conservative writer Ann Coulter; when asked about the relationship, Stein told the paper, "She's attacked a lot of my friends, but what can I say, opposites attract!" On January 7, 2008, Stein told the Post that the relationship was over, citing irreconcilable differences. In the 2016 Presidential Election, Stein voted for Donald Trump
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is the largest borough geographically and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the southwestern end of Long Island. To its east is Nassau County. Queens shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Coterminous with Queens County since 1899, the borough of Queens is the second largest in population, with an estimated 2,358,582 residents in 2017 48% of them foreign-born. Queens County is the second most populous county in the U. S. state of New York, behind Brooklyn, coterminous with Kings County. Queens is the fourth most densely populated county among New York City's boroughs, as well as in the United States. If each of New York City's boroughs were an independent city, Queens would be the nation's fourth most populous, after Los Angeles and Brooklyn. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York; the settlement was named for the English queen Catherine of Braganza.
Queens became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, from 1683 until 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City, it is home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, both among the world's busiest, which in turn makes the airspace above Queens among the busiest in the United States. Landmarks in Queens include Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; the borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in the urban areas of western and central Queens, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing and Long Island City, to somewhat more suburban neighborhoods in the eastern part of the borough, including Douglaston–Little Neck and Bayside. European colonization brought English settlers, as a part of the New Netherland colony. First settlements occurred in 1635 followed by early colonizations at Maspeth in 1642, Vlissingen in 1643. Other early settlements included Jamaica.
However, these towns were inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area became known as Yorkshire; the Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens. Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County, it was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683. The county is assumed to have been named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time; the county was founded alongside Kings County, Richmond County. However, the namesake is in dispute. On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island.
On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County. Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn, where the Battle of Long Island was fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the Revolutionary War. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Though many local people were against unannounced quartering, sentiment throughout the county remained in favor of the British crown; the quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay in Queens before being executed by hanging in Manhattan for gathering intelligence.
From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Jamaica and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead; the seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 in an area near Mineola known as Clowesville; the 1850 United States Census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, several sites were in contention for the constru
Gale Arnot Brewer is the 27th and current Borough President of the New York City borough of Manhattan and a Democratic politician from the state of New York. She was a member of the New York City Council, where she represented the Upper West Side and the northern part of Clinton in Manhattan, she was elected Manhattan Borough President on November 5, 2013. Brewer obtained her undergraduate degrees from Columbia University, she earned her Master of Public Administration degree from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. From 1975 to 1978, Brewer served as director of scheduling for Mary Anne Krupsak, the former Lieutenant Governor of New York. From 1978 to 1990, she was chief of staff to then-New York City Council member Ruth Messinger. From 1990 to 1994, Brewer was director of the New York City Office of Federal Relations in New York in the administration of David Dinkins. From 1994 to 1998, she was Deputy Public Advocate for Intergovernmental Affairs under Mark J. Green. Brewer served as Project Manager for the NYC Nonprofits Project and worked with the Telesis Corporation, a private firm that builds affordable housing.
She was a member of Manhattan's Community Board 7 and Chair of the New York State chapter of the National Women's Political Caucus. In 2000, she was cited by the New York Daily News as #20 of "50 New Yorkers to Watch". Brewer began serving on the New York City Council in 2002. In each re-election vote in 2003, 2005, 2009, she received over 80% of the votes cast. Brewer has helped to pass legislation protecting domestic workers, establishing the New York City Broadband Advisory Committee, establishing an electronic death registration system and requiring New York City publications to be made available via the Internet, as well as two bills aimed at eliminating graffiti and unwanted stickers. Brewer chaired the Select Committee on Technology in Government from 2002 to 2009 and remains a member of that committee. In June 2004, in conjunction with a graduate student Digital Opportunities Team at CUNY Hunter College departments of Urban Affairs and Planning supervised by Professor Lisa Tolliver, the committee published a study and recommendations titled Expanding Digital Opportunity in New York City Public Schools: Profiles of Innovators and Leaders Who Make a Difference.
The report was one of numerous initiatives and events implemented by the Select Committee, which included roundtables, conferences and collaborative partnerships. Brewer chairs the Committee on Governmental Operations. Other committees on which Council Member Brewer serves include: Aging. In addition, she co-chairs the Manhattan Delegation, sits on the Council's Budget Negotiating Team, is a member of the Rules Committee Working Group. Brewer was a member of the New York State Universal Broadband Initiative’s Digital Literacy and Community Outreach Action Team and served as a member of the New York State Attorney General’s Real Estate Working Group/Subcommittee on Enforcement and Mediation, the Foundation Center Library Advisory Committee, the Information Technology and Communications Committee of the National League of Cities. Brewer is a member of the Board of Directors of the Eleanor Roosevelt Legacy Committee. Gale sits on the New York Academy of Medicine's Age-Friendly Board. Brewer was ineligible to run for re-election to the City Council in 2013 because of term limits.
In February 2013 Brewer announced. On September 10, 2013, Brewer won the Democratic primary, taking nearly 40% of the vote in a tight four-way race. Brewer won the general election on Tuesday, November 5, 2013 and assumed office on January 1, 2014. Brewer is married to Cal Snyder, they have adopted several children. Their son Mo Sumbundu, now 27, works for Empire State Development. Official Manhattan Borough President Website Friends of Gale Brewer Gale Brewer Facebook Page Gale Brewer Twitter Profile
Mayor of New York City
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, enforces all city and state laws within New York City; the budget, overseen by New York City Mayor's Office of Management and Budget, is the largest municipal budget in the United States at $82 billion a year. The city employs 325,000 people, spends about $21 billion to educate more than 1.1 million students and levies $27 billion in taxes. It receives $14 billion from the state and federal governments; the mayor's office is located in New York City Hall. The mayor appoints a large number of officials, including commissioners who head city departments, his deputy mayors; the mayor's regulations are compiled in title 43 of the New York City Rules. According to current law, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break, it was changed from two to three terms on October 23, 2008, when the New York City Council voted 29–22 in favor of passing the term limit extension into law.
However, in 2010, a referendum reverting the limit back to two terms passed overwhelmingly. The current mayor is Democrat Bill de Blasio, elected on November 5, 2013 and reelected to a second term on November 7, 2017. In 1665, Governor Richard Nicolls appointed Thomas Willett as the first mayor of New York. For 156 years, the mayor had limited power. Between 1783 and 1821 the mayor was appointed by the Council of Appointments in which the state's governor had the loudest voice. In 1821 the Common Council, which included elected members, gained the authority to choose the mayor. An amendment to the New York State Constitution in 1834 provided for the direct popular election of the mayor. Cornelius W. Lawrence, a Democrat, was elected that year. Gracie Mansion has been the official residence of the mayor since Fiorello La Guardia's administration in 1942, its main floor serves as a small museum. The mayor is entitled to a salary of $258,750 a year. Michael Bloomberg, mayor of the city from 2002 to 2013 and one of the richest people in the world, declined the salary and instead was paid $1 yearly.
In 2000 direct control of the city's public school system was transferred to the mayor's office. In 2003 the reorganization established the New York City Department of Education. Tammany Hall, which evolved from an organization of craftsmen into a Democratic political machine, gained control of Democratic Party nominations in the state and city in 1861, it played a major role in New York City politics into the 1960s and was a dominant player from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the era of Robert Wagner. The Mayor of New York City may appoint several deputy mayors to help oversee major offices within the executive branch of the city government; the powers and duties, the number of deputy mayors, are not defined by the City Charter. The post was created by Fiorello La Guardia to handle ceremonial events that the mayor was too busy to attend. Since deputy mayors have been appointed with their areas of responsibility defined by the appointing mayor. There are five deputy mayors, all of whom report directly to the mayor.
Deputy mayors do not have any right to succeed to the mayoralty in the case of vacancy or incapacity of the mayor. The current deputy mayors are: First deputy mayor: Dean FuleihanAdvises the mayor on citywide administrative and policy matters. Deputy mayor for housing and economic development: Alicia GlenOversees and coordinates the operations of the Economic Development Corporation, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Buildings, the Department of City Planning, Department of Housing Preservation and Development, New York City Housing Development Corporation and related agencies. Deputy mayor for health and human services: Herminia PalacioOversees and coordinates the operations of the Human Resources Administration, Department of Homeless Services, the Administration for Children's Services, New York City Health and Hospitals, related agencies. Deputy mayor for operations: Laura AnglinDeputy mayor for strategic initiatives: J. Phillip Thompson Lilliam Barrios-Paoli 2014–2016, Anthony Shorris 2014-2017, under Bill de Blasio Daniel L. Doctoroff, Stephen Goldsmith 2010–2011, Patricia Harris 2002–2013, Robert K. Steel, Dennis M. Walcott, Howard Wolfson—under Michael Bloomberg Joe Lhota—under Rudolph Giuliani William Lynch 1990s—under David Dinkins Herman Badillo 1977–1979—under Ed Koch Robert W. Sweet 1966–1969 "The mayor has the power to appoint and remove the commissioners of more than 40 city agencies and members of City boards and commissions."
These include: New York City Police Commissioner New York City Fire Commissioner New York City Criminal Court judges New York City Marshals New York City Schools Chancellor New York City Office of Management and Budget Commissioner of Health of the City of New York The Mayor of New York City is an ex-officio board member of the following organizations: Local tabloid newspapers refer to the mayor as "Hizzoner", a corruption of the title His Honor. Spin City, a 1990s TV sitcom, starred Michael J. Fox as a deputy mayor of New York under Barry Bostwick's fictional Mayor Randall Winston. Several mayors have appeared in television and movies, as well as on Broadway, most notably in The Will Rogers Follies. In
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai