Charles Homer Haskins
Charles Homer Haskins was a history professor at Harvard University. He was an American historian of the Middle Ages, and advisor to U. S. President Woodrow Wilson and he is widely recognized as the first academic medieval historian in the United States. Haskins was born in Meadville, Pennsylvania and he was a prodigy, fluent in both Latin and Greek while still a young boy, taught by his father. He graduated from Johns Hopkins University at the age of 16 and he received a Ph. D. in history from Johns Hopkins University and began teaching there before the age of 20. In 1890, he was appointed instructor at the University of Wisconsin, in 1902 he moved to Harvard University, where he taught until 1931. Haskins became politically involved enough to become an advisor of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson. He died on May 14,1937 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and he was primarily a historian of institutions, like medieval universities and governments. His works reflect the mostly twentieth-century optimistic, liberal view that government by the best and brightest is the way to go.
His histories of medieval Europes institutions stress the efficiency and successes of their governing bureaucracies, haskinss most well known pupil was medieval historian Joseph Strayer, who went on to teach many American medievalists of the next generation at Princeton University, some still active today. Other eminent medievalists trained by Haskins included Lynn White, Jr. Carl Stephenson, the Haskins Society, named in his honor was organized in 1982, a Founding Father being the late C. Warren Hollister. It publishes an annual Journal whose volume 11 reconsidered Haskins magnum opus seventy years after its publication, from 1920 to 1926, he was the first chairman of the American Council of Learned Societies, which still offers a distinguished lecture series named after him. His son George Haskins was a University of Pennsylvania Law School professor, Haskins most famous work is The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. The Italian Renaissance was preceded by similar, if less wide-reaching, Haskins fresh assessment of a sort of pre-renaissance, ushering in the High Middle Ages around 1070, was resisted by some scholars at first.
His approach was broader than a literary revival, he found that the 12th century in Europe was in many respects an age of fresh. Haskins focused on high culture to prove that the century was indeed a period of dynamic growth. He looked at the history of art and science, the universities, philosophy and literature, more recent views of the renewal have expanded the focus, e. g. By 1960, Erwin Panofsky could write of Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art, new York, The Knickerbocker Press,1891. A History of Higher Education in Pennsylvania, some Problems of the Peace Conference
Charles Francis Adams Jr.
Charles Francis Adams Jr. was a member of the prominent Adams family, and son of Charles Francis Adams Sr. He served as a colonel in the Union Army during the American Civil War, after the war, he was a railroad regulator and executive, an author of historical works, and a member of the Massachusetts Park Commission. Adams was born into a family with a legacy in American public life. He was the great-grandson of United States President John Adams, and his father Charles Francis Adams Sr. was a lawyer, politician and writer. Adams graduated from Harvard University in 1856, Adams served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the 1st Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry on December 28,1861 and he was promoted to captain on December 1,1862. He fought with distinction during the Gettysburg Campaign, where his company was engaged at the Battle of Aldie. When the regiments 3-years enlistment ended it was reduced to a battalion, on September 8,1864 he was commissioned as the lieutenant colonel of the 5th Massachusetts Cavalry.
He was promoted to colonel and assumed command of the regiment on March 14,1865, when he assumed command, the regiment was assigned guarding Confederate prisoners of war at Point Lookout, Maryland. Adams, who wished to lead his regiment in combat, was able to get horses for his regiment and had it reassigned to front line duty during the days of the campaign against Richmond. Adams wrote in his autobiography that he regretted having his unit reassigned since he came to the conclusion that the black soldiers were ill suited for combat duty. He led his regiment into Richmond shortly after it was captured in April 1865, Adams returned to Massachusetts in May due to illness and resigned from the Army on August 1,1865. S. Senate confirmed the award on July 23,1866, Adams was a Veteran Companion of the Massachusetts Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. On November 8,1865, he married Mary Elizabeth Ogden, daughter of Abram Ogden of New York City, following the Civil War, he was appointed to the Massachusetts Railroad Commission.
There he attempted to persuade railroads into compliance with accepted business norms and it was in this vein that he wrote Chapters of Erie. However, true to his philosophy, he favored the protection of businessmen over that of the consumers. He saw regulation as necessary to protect investors and other businessmen from the capriciousness of a public or the machinations of other unscrupulous stock jobbers. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts, congress distrusted the Union Pacific Railroad and in 1884 forced it to hire Adams as the new president
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Justin Winsor was a prominent American writer and historian. His historical work had strong bibliographical and cartographical elements and he was an authority on the early history of North America. His self-confidence and congeniality augmented his entrepreneurial skills and were received by his peers. Winsor was born in Boston, son of Nathaniel Winsor III and his father was a shipping merchant who had established the Winsor Line, one of the first regular lines of clipperships between Boston and San Francisco. Shortly before his birth, his parents had moved to Boston from Duxbury. His grandfathers home, the Nathaniel Winsor, Jr. House, is now the headquarters of the Duxbury Rural and Historical Society, Justin Winsor graduated from the Boston Latin School. He entered Harvard, but left in his year and never finished his education at the university. He studied in Paris and Heidelberg, in 1855, Winsor married Caroline Tufts Barker, daughter of Ebenezer and Sally Fuller Barker of Charlestown, Massachusetts.
They had two children, Mary who died in infancy, and Constance, Justin Winsor published his first book, A History of the Town of Duxbury, during his first year at Harvard. The latter was a standard reference for decades. Winsor was one of the creators of the profession, a strong proponent of the ability of libraries to uplift. He started his career as a trustee, superintendent of the Boston Public Library. As a member of the Boston Brahmins, Winsor found an opportunity to engage in social reform while pursuing intellectual interests and he reflected the Brahmins’ strong belief in self-help and social progress. They espoused the Socratic idea that knowledge creates virtue and Winsor saw the library as a way to educate common people so that the traditional order of the republic would be maintained. At Boston Public Library, Winsor undertook many projects used to track and he employed innovative statistical analysis of the library’s use and used the finding to promote the idea that libraries were not just institutions and repositories of books, but were a process.
He dedicated a great deal of attention to the compilation of bibliographies and guides to public reading, Winsor annotated the catalog to give it an educational character. In an effort to increase book use, he worked for the establishment of libraries, extended hours. In his dual career as librarian-historian, he was a prototype of the ideal academic librarian, Winsor came to Harvard at a time when research was gaining emphasis
Jean Jules Jusserand
Jean Adrien Antoine Jules Jusserand was a French author and diplomat. He was the French Ambassador to the United States during World War I, Jean Jules Jusserands career started in 1878 when he applied to the Foreign Affairs national competition, at the age of 23. He first started as a student-consul, and he was kept as a help-consul in London under the direction of Mr. Langlet. In 1880, he became sous-chef of the cabinet de Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire and his literatry work enabled him to reach a higher status as Paul Cambons partner, Minister of France in Tunisia, in 1882. Where he will be in charge of the organisation of the protectorate. He is named a respected diplomate, thanks to his contributions to the humanization of the protectorate. Jusserand came back to the Quai d’Orsay in 1887, in a delicate moment, in 1898 he exerced in the role of emissary near Saint-Siège, Minister of France in Copenhagen. He will be finally named ambassador in Washington in 1902, under the presidency of Loubet and he was born on 18 February 1855 in Lyon.
Jusserand studied at the University of Lyon and a Ph. D. in history, Jusserand entered the diplomatic service in 1876. Two years later, he became consul in London, after an interval spent in Tunis, he returned to London in 1887 as a member of the French Embassy. In 1890, Jusserand became French minister at Copenhagen, in 1902, he was transferred to Washington, where he married an American citizen, Eliza Richards, and remained there until 1925. He represented France during the Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Warren Harding and he was a confidant of President Theodore Roosevelt and part of his secret du roi group. During the Polish-Soviet War, Jusserand took part in a mission to the Second Polish Republic. In 1919 he was involved with the Treaty of Versailles and he died on 18 July 1932 at his home in Paris. A pink granite bench in Rock Creek Park honoring Jusserand was dedicated by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on 7 November 1936 and it is the first memorial erected on Federal property to a foreign diplomat.
In 2014 Washington City Paper called it the best obscure memorial in D. C, with Americans of Past and Present Days, for which he earned the first Pulitzer Prize for History. What Me Befell, The Reminiscences of J. J. Jusserand and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Jusserand, Jean Adrien Antoine Jules. Works by Jean Jules Jusserand at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jean Jules Jusserand at Internet Archive
Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin, law professor and the 65th Governor of Connecticut, was the son of jurist, Connecticut governor and U. S. Senator Roger Sherman Baldwin and Emily Pitkin Perkins, on 19 October 1865 he married Susan Mears Winchester, daughter of Edmund Winchester and Harriet Mears. Simeon and Susan had three children, Florence and Helen, as a boy he attended the Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven, Connecticut. Ties of loyalty and interest bound him to school for the rest of his life. From the Hopkins Grammar School he went to Yale College, from which he was graduated with the class of 1861, there is scant information as to his four years at college. During that period he kept a diary from which he read extracts on the reunion of his class. That the studious traits which he manifested were not altogether lacking at this time may be inferred from the fact that he was elected a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Skull & Bones. For the two following his graduation from college he studied law at Yale, at Harvard.
In 1863 he was admitted to the bar and began the practice of law, in the practice of the law he won distinction both in his own state and outside, and with it the financial emoluments that usually accompany success at the bar. He was keenly alive to the side of the lawyers work. Till almost the end of his life he maintained a law office, which he visited daily as long as his health would permit. As late as 1919 his book The Young Man and the Law revealed him still at heart a lawyer, in 1878, he was one of the founders of the American Bar Association and served as President of the American Bar Association from 1890-1891. For twelve years he was the director of the American Bar Associations Comparative Law Bureau, during the middle portion of his life he was actively engaged in teaching law. Probably in his day not a dozen teachers of the law in our country could be placed in his class. To the same effect may be interpreted the action of the Association of American Law Schools, in 1869 he was appointed to the faculty of the Yale Law School, in a moribund condition.
His active participation in the affairs of school was to continue for just fifty years. The revival of the law school was largely his work and he increased the size of the faculty, instituted new courses, developed graduate work, and for a long time carried much of the financial responsibility for the schools existence. In addition to his work as lawyer and teacher he took a part in the public affairs of New Haven
Henry Brooks Adams was an American historian and member of the Adams political family, being descended from two U. S. Presidents. After the American Civil War, he became a political journalist who entertained America’s foremost intellectuals at his homes in Washington and Boston. In his lifetime, he was best known for his History of the United States During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, a 9-volume work, praised for its literary style. His posthumously published memoirs, The Education of Henry Adams, won the Pulitzer Prize and he was born in Boston, the son of Charles Francis Adams, Sr. and Abigail Brooks into one of the countrys most prominent families. After his graduation from Harvard University in 1858, he embarked on a tour of Europe. He was initiated into the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity as honorary member at the 1893 Columbian Exposition by Harris J. Ryan, through that organization, he was a member of the Irving Literary Society. He tried his hand again at law, taking employment with Judge Horace Grays Boston firm, Henry shouldered the responsibility reluctantly and with much self-doubt.
Had little to do, he reflected later, and knew not how to do it rightly, during this time, Adams was the anonymous Washington correspondent for Charles Hales Boston Daily Advertiser. On March 19,1861, Abraham Lincoln appointed Charles Francis Adams, Henry accompanied his father to London as his private secretary. He became the anonymous London correspondent for the New York Times, the two Adamses were kept very busy, monitoring Confederate diplomatic intrigues and trying to obstruct the construction of Confederate commerce raiders by British shipyards. Henrys writings for the Times argued that Americans should be patient with the British, while in Britain, Adams was befriended by many noted men, including Charles Lyell, Francis T. Palgrave, Richard Monckton Milnes, James Milnes Gaskell, and Charles Milnes Gaskell. He worked to introduce the young Henry James to English society, with the help of his closest and lifelong friend Charles Milnes Gaskell, while in Britain, Henry read and was taken with the works of John Stuart Mill.
Henry wrote to his brother Charles that Mill demonstrated to him that democracy is still capable of rewarding a conscientious servant and his years in London led Adams to conclude that he could best provide that knowledgeable and conscientious leadership by working as a correspondent and journalist. In 1868, Henry Adams returned to the United States and settled in Washington, DC, Adams saw himself as a traditionalist longing for the democratic ideal of the 17th and 18th centuries. Accordingly, he was keen on exposing political corruption in his journalism, Adams said, I think that Lee should have been hanged. It was all the worse that he was a good man and its always the good men who do the most harm in the world. In 1870, Adams was appointed professor of history at Harvard. As an academic historian, Adams is considered to have been the first to conduct historical seminar work in the United States, among his students was Henry Cabot Lodge, who worked closely with Adams as a graduate student
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, explorer, soldier and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900.
Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe.
Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century. Mahan was born on September 27,1840, at West Point, New York, to Dennis Hart Mahan and Mary Helena Okill Mahan, daughter of John Okill, Mahans middle name honors the father of West Point, Sylvanus Thayer. Mahan attended Saint James School, an Episcopal college preparatory academy in western Maryland and he studied at Columbia for two years, where he was a member of the Philolexian Society debating club. Against the better judgment of his father, Mahan entered the Naval Academy, in 1865, he was promoted to lieutenant commander, and to commander, and captain. As commander of the USS Wachusett he was stationed at Callao, while in actual command of a ship, his skills were not exemplary, and a number of vessels under his command were involved in collisions, with both moving and stationary objects. He had an affection for old square-rigged vessels rather than the smoky, noisy steamships of his time, in 1885, he was appointed as a lecturer in naval history and tactics at the Naval War College.
Before entering on his duties, College President Rear Admiral Stephen B, Luce pointed Mahan in the direction of writing his future studies on the influence of sea power. During his first year on the faculty, he remained at his home in New York City researching and writing his lectures. Though he was prepared to become a professor in 1886, Luce was given command of the North Atlantic Squadron, there, in 1888, he met and befriended future president Theodore Roosevelt, a visiting lecturer. Mahan stressed the importance of the individual in shaping history and extolled the values of loyalty, courage. Mahan sought to resurrect Horatio Nelson as a hero in Britain and used his biography as a platform for expressing his views on naval strategy. Mahan was criticized for so strongly condemning Nelsons love affair with Lady Emma Hamilton, Mahan struck up a friendship with pioneering British naval historian Sir John Knox Laughton, the pair maintaining the relationship through correspondence and visits when Mahan was in London.
Mahan was described as a disciple of Laughton, but the two were at pains to distinguish each others line of work. Laughton saw Mahan as a theorist while Mahan called Laughton the historian, Mahans views were shaped by 17th-century conflicts between the Dutch Republic, England and Spain, and by the nineteenth-century naval wars between France and Great Britain. British naval superiority eventually defeated France, consistently preventing invasion and an effective blockade, Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive battles and blockades. In the 19th-century United States, emphasis on controlling seaborne commerce was radical, Mahans emphasis on sea power as the crucial fact behind Britains ascension neglected the well-documented roles of diplomacy and armies. Furthermore, Mahans theories did not explain the success of terrestrial empires, Mahans framework derived from Antoine-Henri Jomini, and emphasized strategic locations, as well as quantifiable levels of fighting power in a fleet.
Control of the sea could be achieved not by destruction of commerce, Mahan contended that with a command of the sea, even if local and temporary, naval operations in support of land forces could be of decisive importance
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of California, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.
In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War.
In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives
George Frisbie Hoar
George Frisbie Hoar was a prominent American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts. Hoar was born in Concord, Massachusetts and he was a member of an extended family that was politically prominent in 18th and 19th century New England. Hoar graduated from Harvard University in 1846, studied at Harvard Law School and settled in Worcester, Massachusetts where he practiced law before entering politics. Initially a member of the Free Soil Party, he joined the Republican Party shortly after its founding, and was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, and the Massachusetts Senate. In 1865, Hoar was one of the founders of the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science and he represented Massachusetts as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1869 through 1877, served in the U. S. Senate until his death. He was a Republican, who generally avoided party partisanship and did not hesitate to criticize members of his party whose actions or policies he believed were in error.
Hoar was long noted as a fighter against political corruption, and campaigned for the rights of African Americans and he argued in the Senate in favor of Womens suffrage as early as 1886. He opposed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, describing it as nothing less than the legalization of racial discrimination, however, he believed that Portuguese and Italian immigrants were unfit for U. S. citizenship. As a member of the Congressional Electoral Commission, he was involved with settling the highly disputed U. S. presidential election,1876 and he authored the Presidential Succession Act of 1886, and in 1888 he was chairman of the 1888 Republican National Convention. Unlike many of his Senate colleagues, Hoar was not an advocate for an American intervention into Cuba in the late 1890s. After this, the islands were annexed by means of joint resolution, after the Spanish–American War, Hoar became one of the Senates most outspoken opponents of the imperialism of the McKinley administration. He denounced the U. S.
intervention in Panama, in addition to his political career, Hoar was active in the American Historical Association and the American Antiquarian Society, serving terms as president of both organizations. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1853, and served as vice-president from 1878 to 1884 and he was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution in 1880, and a trustee of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Hoar was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and his autobiography, Autobiography of Seventy Years, was published in 1903, it first appeared in serial form in Scribners magazine. Hoar enjoyed good health until June 1904 and he died in Worcester, and was buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord. After his death, a statue of him was erected in front of Worcesters city hall, through his mother, Sarah Sherman, G. F. Hoar was a grandson of prominent political figure, Roger Sherman and Shermans second wife, Roger Sherman signed the Articles of Confederation, United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Hoars father, Samuel Hoar, was a prominent lawyer who served on the Massachusetts state senate and the United States House of Representatives