Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J
Columbus is a consolidated city-county located on the west central border of the U. S. state of Georgia. Located on the Chattahoochee River directly across from Phenix City, Columbus is the county seat of Muscogee County, with which it merged in 1970. Columbus is the third-largest city in the fourth-largest metropolitan area. According to the 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, Columbus has a population of 194,058 residents, with 303,811 in the Columbus metropolitan area; the metro area joins the nearby Alabama cities of Auburn and Opelika to form the Columbus–Auburn–Opelika Combined Statistical Area, which has a 2017 estimated population of 499,128. Columbus lies 100 miles southwest of Atlanta. Fort Benning, the United States Army's Maneuver Center of Excellence and a major employer, is located south of the city in Chattahoochee County. Columbus is home to museums and tourism sites, including the National Infantry Museum, dedicated to the United States Army's Infantry Branch, it has the longest urban whitewater rafting course in the world constructed on the Chattahoochee River.
This was for centuries and more the traditional territory of the Creek Indians, who became known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast after European contact. Those who lived closest to white-occupied areas conducted considerable trading and adopted some European-American ways. Founded in 1828 by an act of the Georgia Legislature, Columbus was situated at the beginning of the navigable portion of the Chattahoochee River and on the last stretch of the Federal Road before entering Alabama; the city was named for Christopher Columbus, its founders influenced by the writings of Washington Irving. The plan for the city was drawn up by Dr. Edwin L. DeGraffenried, who placed the town on a bluff overlooking the river. Across the river to the west, where Phenix City, Alabama is now located, Creek Indians still lived until they were forcibly removed in 1836 by the federal government to make way for European-American settlers; the river served as Columbus's connection to the world enabling it to ship its commodity cotton crops from the plantations to the international cotton market via New Orleans and Liverpool, England.
The city's commercial importance increased in the 1850s with the arrival of the railroad. In addition, textile mills were developed along the river, bringing industry to an area reliant upon agriculture. By 1860, the city was one of the more important industrial centers of the South, earning it the nickname "the Lowell of the South," referring to an important textile mill town in Massachusetts; when the Civil War broke out in 1861, the industries of Columbus expanded their production. During the war, Columbus ranked second to Richmond in the manufacture of supplies for the Confederate army; the Eagle Manufacturing Company made textiles of various sorts but woolens for Confederate uniforms. The Columbus Iron Works manufactured cannons and machinery and Gray made firearms, Louis and Elias Haimon produced swords and bayonets. Smaller firms provided additional sundries; as the war turned negative, each faced exponentially growing struggled shortages of raw materials and skilled labor, as well as worsenting financial opportunities.
In addition to textiles, the city had an ironworks, a sword factory, a shipyard for the Confederate Navy. Unaware of Lee's surrender to Grant and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and Confederates clashed in the Battle of Columbus, Georgia, on Easter Sunday, April 16, 1865, when a Union detachment of two cavalry divisions under Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson attacked the lightly-defended city and burned many of the industrial buildings. John Stith Pemberton, who developed Coca-Cola in Columbus, was wounded in this battle. Col. Charles Augustus Lafayette Lamar, owner of the last slave ship in America, was killed here. A historic marker has been erected in Columbus, it notes that this was the site of the "Last Land Battle in the War from 1861 to 1865." Reconstruction began immediately and prosperity followed. Factories such as the Eagle and Phenix Mills were revived and the industrialization of the town led to rapid growth; the Springer Opera House was built on 10th Street, attracting such notables as Irish writer Oscar Wilde.
The Springer is now the official State Theater of Georgia. By the time of the Spanish–American War, the city's modernization included the addition of trolleys extending to outlying neighborhoods such as Rose Hill and Lakebottom, a new water works. Mayor Lucius Chappell brought a training camp for soldiers to the area; this training camp named Camp Benning would grow into present-day Fort Benning, named for General Henry L. Benning, a native of the city. In the spring of 1866 the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus passed a resolution to set aside one day annually to memorialize the Confederate dead; the secretary of the association, Mrs. Charles J. Williams, was directed to write a letter inviting the ladies of every Southern state to join them in the observance; the letter was written in March 1866 and sent to representatives of all of the principal cities in the South, including Atlanta, Montgomery, Richmond, St. Louis, Alexandria and New Orleans; this was the beginning of the influential work by ladies' organizations to honor the war dead.
The date for the holiday was selected by Elizabeth "Lizzie" Rutherford Ellis. She chose April 26, the first anniversary of Confederate General Johnston's final surrender to Union General Sherman at Bennett Place, North Carolina. For many in the South, that act marked the official end of the Civil War. In
Joseph E. Brown
Joseph Emerson Brown referred to as Joe Brown, was an attorney and politician, serving as the 42nd Governor of Georgia from 1857 to 1865, the only governor to serve four terms. After the American Civil War, he was elected by the state legislature as a two-term U. S. Senator, serving from 1880 to 1891. Brown was a leading secessionist in 1861, led his state into the Confederacy. A former Whig, a firm believer in slavery and Southern states' rights, he defied the Confederate government's wartime policies, he resisted the military draft, believing that local troops should be used only for the defense of Georgia. He denounced Confederate President Jefferson Davis as an incipient tyrant, challenged Confederate impressment of animals and goods to supply the troops, slaves to work in military encampments and on the lines. Several other governors followed his lead. After the war, Brown joined the Republican Party for a time, was appointed as chief justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia from 1865 to 1870.
He rejoined the Democrats, became president of the Western and Atlantic Railroad and began to amass great wealth. He earned high profits from two decades of using black convicts leased from state and local governments in his coal mining operations in Dade County, his Dade Coal Company bought all based on the use of convict labor. By 1889 it was known as the Georgia Mining and Investment Company. Brown and his wife, Elizabeth Grisham Brown, were honored in 1928 by a statue installed on the state capitol grounds, he saved The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary financially in the 1870s. There is now an endowed chair, the Joseph Emerson Brown Chair of Christian Theology at the institution. Joseph Emerson Brown was born April 15, 1821 in Pickens County, South Carolina to Mackey Brown and Sally Brown. At a young age he moved with his family to Georgia. In 1840, he decided to seek an education. With the help of his younger brother James and his father's plow horse, Brown drove a yoke of oxen on a 125-mile trek to an academy near Anderson, South Carolina.
There Brown traded the oxen for eight months' lodging. In 1844, Brown moved to Canton, where he served as headmaster of the academy at Canton, he went to Yale University to study law returned to Canton to practice. In 1847 he opened a law office in the county seat, began to make the connections on which he built his fortune, he married daughter of a major land developer. They had several children together. Brown joined the Democratic Party and was soon elected to the Georgia state senate in 1849 from the developing Etowah River valley, he rose as a leader in the party. He was elected as state circuit court judge in 1855. In 1857, at the young age of 36, Brown was elected governor of the state, he supported public education for free white children, believing that it was key to development of the state. He asked the state legislature to divert a portion of profits from the state-owned railroad, the Western & Atlantic, to help fund the schools. Most planters did not support public education and paid for private tutors and academies for their children.
Nonetheless, Brown won re-election in 1859 when he defeated a young Warren Akin Sr. by a margin of 60%-40%. Brown was a minor slave owner. By 1860 when he was governor, he owned a total of 19 slaves and several farms in Cherokee County, Georgia. Brown became a strong supporter of secession from the United States after Lincoln's election and South Carolina's secession in 1860, he feared. Considering it the basis of the South's lucrative plantation economy, he called upon Georgians to oppose the efforts to end slavery: What will be the result to the institution of slavery, which will follow submission to the inauguration and administration of Mr. Lincoln as the President... it will be the total abolition of slavery... I do not doubt, that submission to the administration of Mr. Lincoln will result in the final abolition of slavery. If we fail to resist now, we will never again have the strength to resist. Once the Confederacy was established, Brown, a states' rights advocate, spoke out against expansion of the Confederate central government's powers.
He denounced President Jefferson Davis in particular. Brown tried to stop Colonel Francis Bartow from taking Georgia troops out of the state to the First Battle of Bull Run, he objected strenuously to military conscription by the Confederacy. After the fall of Atlanta, Union General William Tecumseh Sherman began his March to the Sea. On the route from Atlanta to Savannah the left wing of Sherman's army entered the city of Milledgeville Georgia's state capital; as U. S. troops closed in on the city, with the fall of the capital imminent, Governor Brown ordered Quartermaster General Ira Roe Foster to remove the state records. The task proved to be difficult. After the loss of Atlanta, Brown withdrew the state's militia from the Confederate forces to harvest crops for the state and the army; when Union troops under Sherman overran much of Georgia in 1864, Brown called for an end to the war. After the war, Brown was held as a political prisoner in Washington, D. C, he supported President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policies, joining the Republican Party for a time.
As a Republican, Brown was appointed as chief justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia, serving from 1865 to 1870. He resigned as judge when offered the presidency of the Atlantic Railroad. In this role, Brown opposed efforts by a commi
Crawford Williamson Long was an American surgeon and pharmacist best known for his first use of inhaled sulfuric ether as an anesthetic. Long was born in Danielsville, Madison County, Georgia on November 1, 1815 to James and Elizabeth Long, his father was a state senator, a merchant and a planter, named his son after his close friend and colleague, Georgia statesman William H. Crawford. By the age of fourteen he had graduated from the local academy and applied to the University of Georgia in Athens, it was here he met and shared a room with Alexander Stephens, future Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. In 1835, he received his A. M. degree. He began his study at Transylvania College in the fall of 1836 in Kentucky. Here, Long was able to study under a revered surgeon, he observed and participated in many surgeries and noted the effects of operating without anesthesia. Long transferred to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia after spending only a year at Transylvania College, was exposed to some of the most advanced medical technology of the time.
He received his M. D. degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1839. After an 18-month internship in New York, Long returned to Georgia, he took over a rural medical practice in Jefferson, Jackson County, in 1841. After observing the same physiological effects with diethyl ether that Humphry Davy had described for nitrous oxide in 1800, Long used ether for the first time on March 30, 1842, to remove a tumor from the neck of a patient, James M. Venable, he administered sulfuric ether on a towel and had the patient inhale. He performed many other surgeries using this technique during the next few years, introducing the technique to his obstetrics practice as well. Long subsequently removed a second tumor from Venable and used ether as an anesthetic in amputations and childbirth. Despite his continued use of the ether anesthetic, Long did not publish his findings; the results of these trials were published in 1849 in The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. An original copy of this publication is held in the U.
S. National Library of Medicine. Crawford Long was a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society while a student at the University of Georgia. Long was a cousin of the western legend Doc Holliday, may have operated on Doc's cleft lip. On October 16, 1846, unaware of Long's prior work with ether during surgery, William T. G. Morton administered ether anesthesia before a medical audience at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, his work was published in the December 1846 issue of Medical Examiner which alerted Long to this other claim. Furthermore, the January 1847 issue of the editorial featured more evidence and etherization experiments. Although Long had informed several surgical colleagues who had administered ether in their practices, performed six additional surgeries since his initial discovery, Morton is credited with the first public demonstration of ether anesthesia. After these articles surfaced, Long began documenting the details of his experiments, collecting patient accounts, notarizing their letters.
He reported his own findings to the Medical College of Georgia in 1849. While he was in Augusta, he learned of two additional physicians staking an ether claim – Charles Jackson and Horace Wells, it was at this time that his findings were published. An excerpt from his first publication, addressing the controversy is below: A controversy soon ensued between Messrs. Jackson and Wells, in regard to, entitled to the honor of being the discoverer of the anaesthetic powers of ether, a considerable time elapsed before I was able to ascertain the exact period when their first operations were performed. Ascertaining this fact, through negligence I have now permitted a much longer time to elapse than I designed, or than my professional friends with whom I consulted advised. My friends think I would be doing myself injustice, not to notify my brethren of the medical profession of my priority of the use of ether by inhalation in surgical practice. In 1854, Long requested William Crosby Dawson, a U. S. Senator, to present his claims of ether anesthesia discovery to the attention of Congress.
Despite his extensive petitioning and documented proof, he never received full credit for his discovery during his lifetime. Long married Caroline Swain in 1842 and together they had twelve children, seven of whom survived to adulthood; the family moved to Atlanta in 1850 again to Athens in 1851 to be closer to friends and family. Here and his brother Robert opened a private practice and pharmacy on Broad Street, just across from campus. During the Civil War, he was never called to duty. Instead he served there as a surgeon to soldiers on both sides, he died of a stroke on June 1878 shortly after helping to deliver a baby. He is buried alongside his wife in Oconee Cemetery in Georgia. Throughout his professional career, Long was convinced of his calling to serve humanity, he said that his profession was a "ministry from God" and that "his highest ambition was to do good and leave the world better by his labors." Long was the first obstetric anesthetist. In 1845, he had his wife inhale; until his practice of using inhalation anesthesia dominated obstetrics.
In 1849, Long announced his discovery in a small local magazine. However, he did not receive significant recognition until Marion Sims, a New York surgeon, published the fir
The Ocmulgee River is a western tributary of the Altamaha River 255 mi long, in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is the westernmost major tributary of the Altamaha; the Ocmulgee River and its tributaries provide drainage for some 6,180 square miles in parts of 33 Georgia counties, a large section of the Piedmont and coastal plain of central Georgia. The Ocmulgee River basin has three river subbasins designated by the U. S. Geological Survey: the Upper Ocmulgee River subbasin; the name of the river may have come from a Hitchiti words oki plus molki meaning "where the water boils up." The river rises at a point in north central Georgia southeast of Atlanta, at the confluence of the Yellow and Alcovy rivers. Since the construction of the Lloyd Shoals Dam in the early 20th century, these rivers join as arms of the Jackson Lake reservoir; the river's source is formed at an elevation of around 530 feet above sea level. The Ocmulgee River flows from the dam southeast past Macon, founded on the Fall Line.
It joins the Oconee from the northwest to form the Altamaha near Lumber City. Four power plants in the Ocmulgee basin that use the river's water, including the coal-fired Plant Scherer in Juliette, operated by the Georgia Power Company. Plant Scherer is the seventh-largest power plant in the United States by capacity, the largest to be fueled by coal. A diverse array of fish—105 species in twenty-one families—inhabit the Ocmulgee River basin; the family with the largest representation in the river basin is Cyprinidae, with 27 species. It is followed by Centrarchidae; the Ocmulgee basin contains ten species in the family Ictaluridae and eight species of in the family Catostomidae. The river basin is inhabited by one State of Georgia-designated endangered fish species, the Altamaha shiner and two designated rare species, the goldstripe darter and redeye chub; the Ocmulgee River is popular with anglers for its excellent fishing for redbreast sunfish, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, black crappie, channel catfish, flathead catfish.
The world record for largest recorded catch of a largemouth bass was achieved in 1932 in Montgomery Lake, an oxbow lake off the Ocmulgee River in Telfair County. The record-setting fish, caught by farmer George Washington Perry, weighed 4 ounces; the International Game Fish Association declared the world record for largemouth bass tied in 2010, following Manabu Kurita's catch of a 22 pound, 4 ounce largemouth bass in Lake Biwa in Japan. There are some fifteen invasive species of fish. According to a Georgia Department of Natural Resources report, "many of these species are well-established and are detrimental to native fish populations; the fifteen invasives are threadfin shad, grass carp, blacktail shiner. Archeological evidence shows that Native Americans first inhabited the Ocmulgee basin about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. Scraping tools and flint spearpoints from nomadic Paleoindians hunters have been discovered in the Ocmulgee floodplain. In the Archaic period which followed, hunter-gatherers in Ocmulgee basin used fiber-tempered pottery and stone tools.
During the Woodland period, there were various villages in the area, evidenced by earthen mounds and pottery sherds. There is evidence that the Mississippian culture reached the Ocmulgee basin by 900 CE; these areas are now part of the Ocmulgee National Monument, a National Park Service-administered protected area established in 1936. Europeans first explored the Ocmulgee basin in 1540, during the expedition of the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his party, who visited the late Mississippian chiefdom of Ichisi, now identified by archeologists as the floodplain south of Macon; the Ichisi served corncakes, wild onion, roasted venison to De Soto and his party. Over the next hundred years, the Native Americans in the area were devastated from disease and chaos following European contract. Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin stimulated development of short-staple cotton plantations in the uplands, where it grew well; the gin made it profitable. Demand for land in the Southeast increased, as well as demand for slave labor in the Deep South.
In 1806, the U. S. acquired the area between the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers from the Creek Indians by the First Treaty of Washington. That same year United States Army established Fort Benjamin Hawkins overlooking the Ocmulgee Fields. In 1819 the Creek held their last meeting at Ocmulgee Fields, they ceded this territory in 1821. In the same year, the McCall brother established a barge-building oper