Waymart is a borough in Wayne County, Pennsylvania. The borough's population was 1,341 at the time of the 2010 United States Census. Waymart is located at 41°34′51″N 75°24′25″W. Founded as a Borough in 1851. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.8 square miles, of which, 2.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. There is a large lake near the borough; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,429 people, 492 households, 344 families residing in the borough. The population density was 516.3 people per square mile. There were 515 housing units at an average density of 186.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98.67% White, 0.49% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.07% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population. There were 492 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families.
28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.10. In the borough the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 25.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 78.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 69.5 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $35,208, the median income for a family was $40,417. Males had a median income of $30,395 versus $19,583 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $14,498. About 8.1% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.0% of those under age 18 and 20.7% of those age 65 or over. The United States Postal Service operates the Waymart Post Office; the Federal Bureau of Prisons United States Penitentiary, Canaan is in Canaan Township, near Waymart.
The Pennsylvania Department of Corrections runs the State Correctional Institution - Waymart in Waymart
Alma is a statutory town located in Park County, United States. The town population was 270 at the 2010 United States Census. At an elevation of 10,578 feet, it is the highest incorporated municipality in the United States with permanent residents, its United States Post Office is located at the highest elevation of any in the country. Alma, a town, did not take the title as highest incorporated city from Leadville, Colorado, as is believed. Leadville is still the highest incorporated city in North America. Using administrative boundaries as a measure, not settled areas, in 2006 Winter Park, Colorado became the highest incorporated town due to its annexation of a ski area. Alma, has a contiguous residential area extending to 11,680 feet above sea level, while any such area in or near Winter Park reaches only 9,550 feet, Leadville 10,360 feet; the town was named by a merchant named Mr. James, after his wife. Another tradition states. Alma is located at 39°17′03″N 106°03′48″W, along State Highway 9.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.362 square miles all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 179 people, 94 households, 40 families residing in the town; the population density was 523.6 people per square mile. There were 147 housing units at an average density of 430.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.74% White, 2.23% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 3.35% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 3.35% of the population. There were 94 households, of which 18.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 2.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 57.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.90 and the average family size was 2.63. The age distribution was 12.8% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 53.1% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 4.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 132.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 140.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,563, the median income for a family was $59,688. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $26,563 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,165. None of the families and 4.3% of the population were living below the poverty line. Alma's climate is subarctic and borders on an alpine climate with July average of 10.9 C. Two miles from Alma are the remains of the defunct Orphan Boy mine, which produced gold, silver and zinc over a number of decades; the historic Sweet Home Mine near Alma a silver mine, now produces spectacular rhodochrosite mineral specimens. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Park County, Colorado Colorado metropolitan areas Front Range Urban Corridor North Central Colorado Urban Area Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area List of highest towns by country Town of Alma Website Alma Foundation Website CDOT map of the Town of Alma SteveGarufi.com - Alma, CO Ghost Town photos of Alma featured by RockyMountainProfiles.com
Fairplay is the statutory town, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Park County, United States. Fairplay is located in South Park at an elevation of 9,953 feet; the town is the fifth-highest incorporated place in the State of Colorado. The population was 679 at the U. S. Census 2010. A historic gold mining settlement, the town was founded in 1859 during the early days of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush; the town was named by settlers who were upset by the generous mining claims given to the earliest prospectors and promised a more equitable system for its residents. The town of Fairplay was incorporated in 1872, it is the largest community in the grassland basin of Colorado known as South Park, sitting on the west edge of the basin at the junction of U. S. Highway 285 and State Highway 9, it is on a hillside just east of the Middle Fork South Platte River, near where Highway 9 ascends the river valley northward to Alma and Hoosier Pass. It is a quiet town, the roads surrounding it have a low volume of traffic.
Although it was founded during the initial placer mining boom, the mines in the area continued to produce gold and silver ore for many decades up through the middle of the 20th century. The town consists of modern retail businesses along the highway, as well as a historic town on the bluff above the river along Front Street; the northern extension of Front Street along the river has been preserved and has become the site of relocated historic structures as an open-air museum called South Park City, intended to recreate the early days of the Colorado Gold Rush. Most of the residences in town are located on the hillside west of US Highway 285 and east of State Highway 9, in the vicinity of the schools and Park County Courthouse; the majority of the streets in town were paved in 2005. The Town of Fairplay is the visual basis for the Town of South Park in the television series South Park; the people in the show are influenced by Boulder, where creators Matt Stone and Trey Parker attended college at the University of Colorado.
From 1966 to 1984, the asbestos-ridden McNamara Building in Fairplay, now demolished, had been the community hospital. It was named for Dr. Edward Bradley McNamara, a former U. S. Army doctor in World War II, he died working in the emergency room of his namesake hospital in August 1973. The hospital, built with Hill-Burton Act funds, had financial woes from the start. Before it was condemned and vacated in 2009, it had been used by several successive clinics and by Park County for office space. A previous eight-bed Park County Hospital had operated in Fairplay as early as 1892 and preceded the McNamara Hospital. Both facilities had been for emergencies and minor surgery, for nursing home care. In 1874, the Presbyterian missionary Sheldon Jackson built in Fairplay the still-standing Sheldon Jackson Memorial Chapel, since renamed the South Park Community Church, a one-room Victorian Gothic Revival structure, listed in 1977 on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all of it land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 610 people, 259 households, 169 families residing in the town. The population density was 576.3 people per square mile. There were 337 housing units at an average density of 318.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.1% White, 1.3% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.8% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population. There were 259 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.79. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 37.5% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 5.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,385, the median income for a family was $51,979. Males had a median income of $34,286 versus $26,429 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,742. About 6.6% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. The Burro Days festival is held on the last weekend of July; the event celebrates the town's mining heritage. The main feature of the festival is a 29-mile burro race over rough terrain and 3,000-ft elevation gain from downtown Fairplay to the 13,000-ft summit of Mosquito Pass. Teams consist of one burro; the race takes about five hours to complete. The first prize included an ounce of gold. There are several other burro races in Colorado, the most notable takes place in Leadville; the Fairplay event is the World Championship of Burro Racing, an ultra-marathon and the longest burro race in the state.
For many years the Burro race took place from Leadville to Fairplay, or vice versa, crossing over Mosquito Pass. This followed the route that Father John Lewis Dyer of the Methodist Episcopal Church used for circuit riding and for carrying mail. With time, the rivalry between the two cities ended this cooperative endeavor; the 64th burro race, held in Fairpla
Nassau County, New York
Nassau County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. At the 2010 census, the county's population was 1,400,000 estimated to have increased to 1,400,514 in 2017; the county seat is Mineola and the largest town is the Town of Hempstead. Nassau County is situated in western Long Island, bordering New York City's borough of Queens to the west, Suffolk County to the east, it is the most densely populated and second-most populous county in New York state outside of New York City, with which it maintains extensive rail and highway connectivity, is considered one of the central counties within the New York metropolitan area. Nassau County contains two cities, three towns, 64 incorporated villages, more than 60 unincorporated hamlets. Nassau County has a designated police department, fire commission, elected executive and legislative bodies. A 2012 Forbes article based on the American Community Survey reported Nassau County as the most expensive county and one of the highest income counties in the United States, the most affluent in the state of New York, with four of the nation's top ten towns by median income located in the county.
Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards. The name of the county comes from an old name for Long Island, at one time named Nassau, after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, a member of the House of Nassau, itself named for the German town of Nassau; the county colors are the colors of the House of Orange-Nassau. Several alternate names had been considered for the county, including "Bryant", "Matinecock", "Norfolk", "Sagamore". However, "Nassau" had the historical advantage of having at one time been the name of Long Island itself, was the name most mentioned after the new county was proposed in 1875; the area now designated Nassau County was the eastern 70% of Queens County, one of the original 12 counties formed in 1683, was contained within two towns: Hempstead and Oyster Bay. In 1784, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead.
Nassau County was formed in 1899 by the division of Queens County, after the western portion of Queens had become a borough of New York City in 1898, as the three easternmost towns seceded from the county. When the first European settlers arrived, among the Native Americans to occupy the present area of Nassau County were the Marsapeque and Sacatogue. Dutch settlers in New Netherland predominated in the western portion of Long Island, while English settlers from Connecticut occupied the eastern portion; until 1664, Long Island was split at the present border between Nassau and Suffolk counties, between the Dutch in the west and Connecticut claiming the east. The Dutch did grant an English settlement in Hempstead, but drove settlers from the present-day eastern Nassau hamlet of Oyster Bay as part of a boundary dispute. In 1664, all of Long Island became part of the English Province of New York within the Shire of York. Present-day Queens and Nassau were just part of a larger North Riding. In 1683, Yorkshire was dissolved, Suffolk County and Queens County were established, the local seat of government was moved west from Hempstead to Jamaica.
By 1700 little of Long Island had not been purchased from the native Indians by the English colonists, townships controlled whatever land had not been distributed. The courthouse in Jamaica was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. In 1784, following the American Revolutionary War, the Town of Hempstead was split in two, when Patriots in the northern part formed the new Town of North Hempstead, leaving Loyalist majorities in the Town of Hempstead. About 1787, a new Queens County Courthouse was erected in the new Town of North Hempstead, near present-day Mineola, known as Clowesville; the Long Island Rail Road reached as far east as Hicksville in 1837, but did not proceed to Farmingdale until 1841 due to the Panic of 1837. The 1850 census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition of the old courthouse and the inconvenience of travel and accommodations, with the three eastern and three western towns divided on the location for the construction of a new one.
Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola. As early as 1875, representatives of the three eastern towns began advocating the separation of the three eastern towns from Queens, with some proposals including the towns of Huntington and Babylon. In 1898, the western portion of Queens County became a borough of the City of Greater New York, leaving the eastern portion a part of Queens County but not part of the Borough of Queens; as part of the city consolidation plan, all town and county governments within the borough were dissolved. The areas excluded from the consolidation included all of the Town of North Hempstead, all of the Town of Oyster Bay, most of the Town of Hempstead. In 1899, following approval from the New York State Legislature, the three towns were separated from Queens County, the new county of Nassau was constituted. In preparation for the new county, in November 1898, voters had selected Mineol
Margaret Brown, posthumously known as "The Unsinkable Molly Brown", was an American socialite and philanthropist. She is best remembered for encouraging the crew in Lifeboat No. 6 to return to the debris field of the 1912 sinking of RMS Titanic to look for survivors. Accounts differ on whether the boat returned to look for survivors, if so, whether any survivors were found. During her lifetime, her friends called her "Maggie", but by her death, obituaries referred to her as the "Unsinkable Mrs. Brown"; the reference was further reinforced by a 1960 Broadway musical based on her life and its 1964 film adaptation which were both entitled The Unsinkable Molly Brown. Margaret Tobin was born in a small three-room cottage, near the Mississippi River in Hannibal, Missouri, on what is now known as Denkler's alley, her parents were Johanna Tobin. Her siblings were Daniel Tobin, Michael Tobin, William Tobin, Helen Tobin. Both of Margaret's parents had been widowed young. Brown had two half-sisters: Catherine Bridget Tobin, by her father's first marriage, Mary Ann Collins, by her mother's first marriage.
At age 18, Margaret relocated to Leadville, with her siblings Daniel Tobin, Mary Ann Collins Landrigan, Mary Ann's husband John Landrigan. Margaret and her brother Daniel shared a two-room log cabin, she found a job in a department store. In Leadville, she met and married James Joseph Brown, nicknamed "J. J.", an enterprising, self-educated man. He wasn't a rich man, but she married J. J. for love. She said, I wanted a rich man, but I loved Jim Brown. I thought about how I wanted comfort for my father and how I had determined to stay single until a man presented himself who could give to the tired old man the things I longed for him. Jim was as poor as we were, had no better chance in life. I struggled hard with myself in those days. I loved Jim. I decided that I'd be better off with a poor man whom I loved than with a wealthy one whose money had attracted me. So I married Jim Brown. Margaret and J. J. were married in Leadville's Annunciation Church on September 1, 1886. They had two children: Lawrence Palmer Brown, known as Larry and Catherine Ellen Brown, known as Helen.
The Brown family acquired great wealth when in 1893 J. J.'s mining engineering efforts proved instrumental in the production of a substantial ore seam at the Little Jonny Mine of his employers, Ibex Mining Company, he was awarded 12,500 shares of stock and a seat on the board. In Leadville, Margaret helped by working in soup kitchens to assist miners' families. In 1894, the Browns bought a $30,000 Victorian mansion in Denver, in 1897, they built a summer house, Avoca Lodge in Southwest Denver near Bear Creek, which gave the family more social opportunities. Margaret became a charter member of the Denver Woman's Club, whose mission was the improvement of women's lives by continuing education and philanthropy. Adjusting to the trappings of a society lady, Brown became well-immersed in the arts and fluent in French, German and Russian. Brown co-founded a branch in Denver of the Alliance Française to promote her love of French culture. Brown gave parties that were attended by Denver socialites, but she was unable to gain entry into the most elite group, Sacred 36, who attended exclusive bridge parties and dinners held by Louise Sneed Hill.
Brown called her "the snobbiest woman in Denver". After 23 years of marriage, Margaret and J. J. signed a separation agreement in 1909. Although they never reconciled, they continued to communicate and cared for each other throughout their lives; the agreement gave Margaret a cash settlement, she maintained possession of the house on Pennsylvania Street in Denver and the summer house, Avoca Lodge. She received a $700 monthly allowance to continue her travels and social work. Brown assisted in fundraising for Denver's Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, completed in 1911, she worked with Judge Ben Lindsey to help destitute children and establish one of the United States' first juvenile courts, which helped form the basis of the modern U. S. juvenile courts system. Brown had spent the first months of 1912 traveling in Egypt as part of the John Jacob Astor IV party, until she received word from Denver that her eldest grandchild Lawrence Palmer Brown Jr. was ill. She booked passage on the first available liner leaving for New York, the RMS Titanic.
Her daughter Helen was supposed to accompany her, but she decided to stay on in Paris, where she was studying at the Sorbonne. Brown was conveyed to the passenger liner RMS Titanic as a first class passenger on the evening of April 10, aboard the tender SS Nomadic at Cherbourg, France; the Titanic sank early on April 15, 1912, at around 2:20 a.m. after striking an iceberg at around 11:40 p.m. Brown helped others board the lifeboats but was persuaded to leave the ship in Lifeboat No. 6. Brown was called "The Unsinkable Molly Brown" by authors because she helped in the ship's evacuation, taking an oar herself in her lifeboat and urging that the lifeboat go back and save more people, her urgings were met with opposition from Quartermaster Robert Hichens, the crewman in charge of Lifeboat 6. Hichens was fearful that if they went back, the lifeboat would either be pulled down due to suction or the people in the water would swamp the boat in an effort to get in. After several attempts to urge Hichens to turn back, Brown threatened to throw the crewman overboard.
Sources vary as to whether the boat went back and if they found
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north, it is the only triply landlocked U. S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles with a population of 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln, its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River. Indigenous peoples, including Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota tribes, lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration; the state is crossed including that of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nebraska was admitted as the 37th state of the United States in 1867, it is the only state in the United States whose legislature is unicameral and nonpartisan. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Great Plains; the Dissected Till Plains region consist of rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities and Lincoln. The Great Plains region, occupying most of western Nebraska, is characterized by treeless prairie, suitable for cattle-grazing.
Nebraska has two major climatic zones. The eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate; the western half of the state has a semi-arid climate. The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, variations that decrease moving south in the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur during spring and summer and sometimes in autumn. Chinook winds tend to warm the state in the winter and early spring. Nebraska's name is derived from transliteration of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced, or the Omaha Ní Btháska, meaning "flat water", after the Platte River that flows through the state. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration; the historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota, some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region.
In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, whose territory included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720; the party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied to the French. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century. In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain; this left Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri in 1794 and 1795; that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer. In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U.
S. Army post west of the Missouri River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun; the army abandoned the fort in 1827. European-American settlement was scarce until the California Gold Rush. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act; the Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha. In the 1860s, after the U. S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska to claim free land granted by the federal government; because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had Native Americans such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood.
Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster renamed Lincoln after the assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux. During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents; the first was. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area; the second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use of Nebraska as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi