Bertha Galland was an American dramatic stage actress remembered for her romantic roles. She was the daughter of the former Anna Miller Hawley. According to her New York Times obituary she was born near Wilkes-Barre, though early travel documents and census records give Bergen, New Jersey or New York City as her birthplace. Berthold Galland was a native of Posen, Prussia who came to America in 1860 where he became a. dry goods merchant and found success as a manufacturer of fashionable women’s lace undergarments. Anna Galland, born in Harford, was a talented marine and landscape artist. Anna’s sister, Effie Julia Hawley, was the wife of Louis Arthur Watres, a onetime Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania. Galland took to the stage about age twenty after studying drama for several years in Europe and in America as a student of George Edgar, a former instructor of actress Margaret Mather. In the summer of 1895 it was reported in the press that the following season Galland would debut playing Juliet, Lady Macbeth and Frou-Frou in a tour of New England.
Two months though, the tour was cancelled after her father and uncle withdrew their financial support for the venture. In 1896 she formed a stock company with George Edgar performing “Comedy and Tragedy” in engagements such as their December, 1896 presentations at the opera house in Adams and the Columbia Opera House in North Adams, playing five select scenes taken from plays by Shakespeare and Daly. An Adams theater critic wrote, “Lovers of good acting who failed to attend the performance of Miss Bertha Galland and George Edgar at the opera house at Adams last evening, missed one of the best attractions of the season.” Galland's first major success came in 1900 at the Criterion Theatre in New York playing Marie Ottilie in The Pride of Jennico opposite James K. Hackett; the following year she played the lead role Isoult the Desirous in The Forest Lovers at the Lyceum Theatre. She next appeared in The Love Match at the Lyceum as Pansy de Castro and in a long engagement as Esméralda, in a road production of The Hunchback of Notre Dame.
Her greatest success came in 1903 at the New York Theatre as Dorothy in the Elizabethan drama Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall. After the play ended its New York run it went on the road for several seasons before returning to New York for a brief revival production at the Lyric Theatre near the end of 1904, she found similar success with David Belasco playing the title role in Sweet Kitty Bellairs in New York and elsewhere. After a brief absence from the stage she returned in 1909 to star in the modern fantasy The Return of Eve, staged at the Herald Square Theatre early in 1909. Though only in her mid-thirties and still in demand, Galland chose to retire after touring with The Return of Eve in 1910. During the remainder of her life she stayed active among theater circles and traveled with her mother. At some point in her years Galland wrote The Coral Girl, a libretto for light opera. John James Donnelly, her former manager, had planned to produce the piece but, like Galland, did not live to see the project through completion.
On May 8, 1910, Bertha Galland was one of fourteen prominent actresses to greet President William Howard Taft before his inaugural address opening the Actors Fund Fair in New York. The fair was organized to raise $200,000 to benefit the Actors Fund of America and drew some 10,000 visitors on its first day. On May 2, 1929, Galland presented President Herbert Hoover with an illuminated copy of a song she composed as a possible American national anthem called America Beloved Land; the song had earlier been performed by the U. S. Marine Band at Hoover's inauguration celebration; the following year, at the Twelfth Night Club’s annual celebration held at the American Women’s Association ballroom on West Fifty- Seventh Street in New York, Galland recited a poem she composed for the club’s guest of honor, producer Daniel Frohman. Six months Frohman, president of the Actors Fund, read a poem by Galland at a luncheon following his annual inspection of the fund’s retirement home in Englewood, New Jersey.
Galland had some connection with her father’s business for in 1907 she was issued a patent by the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office for a design for a lace fastener/yoke for a nightgown or kimono which could be removed prior to washing the garment, thus protecting the lace fastener from damage; this design allowed a more expensive lace upper section to be attached to a common nightgown. Bertha Galland died in an automobile accident in White Plains, New York on November 20, 1932. At the time she was a passenger in a car with a family friend, their driver was unable to stop in time. The force of the accident was such that Galland’s car overturned striking a fire hydrant and injuring several people at a bus stop. Galland died on the way to her mother shortly after arriving. While both drivers claimed they were driving safely, eyewitness accounts indicated that the other driver ran a stop sign and that Galland’s car was traveling at an excessive speed, she was survived by Louis Watres. Seymour’s daughter, Dorothy Galland, was a 1920s vaudeville singer and quick-change artist.
Berthold Galland, a co-founder of the Galland-Stewart Co. died on March 2, 1911, while in his mid-sixties. Bertha Galland: Broadway Photographs
Olga Isabella Nethersole, CBE, RRC was an English actress, theatre producer, wartime nurse and health educator. Olga Isabella Nethersole was born in London, of Spanish descent on her mother's side, her father was a solicitor. She made her stage début at Theatre Royal, Brighton in 1887. In 1888, Nethersole began playing important parts in London, at first under Rutland Barrington and John Hare at the Garrick Theatre. Nethersole toured Australia and the United States playing leading parts in modern plays, notably Clyde Fitch's Sapho, where she and her male costar Hamilton Revelle were arrested for "violating public decency" for which she was acquitted, her powerful emotional acting, made a great effect in some other plays, such as Carmen, in which she again appeared in America in 1906. In 1904, Nethersole portrayed the lead role in La seconde madame Tanqueray at the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe in Paris, she was at the Théâtre Sarah-Bernhardt in Magda, Adrienne Lecouvreur, an adaptation of a French play by Eugène Scribe and Ernest Legouvé, Camille, an adaptation of a French play La Dame aux Camélias, The Spanish Gipsy, an adaptation of the French play Carmen de Mérimée in 1907.
Every summer, Nethersole spent a week at the house of playwright Edmond Rostand in Cambo les Bains. In 1907, she performed Rostand's play La Samaritaine. In a conference at the Théâtre de l'Athénée on 17 November 1908, Robert Eude said that Olga Nethersole invented the soul kiss. Nethersole inspired the character of "Miss Nethersoll", an American dancer, in the French novel La Danseuse nue et la Dame a la licorne by Rachel Gaston-Charles. During World War I, Nethersole served as a nurse in London and established the People's League of Health, for which she received the Royal Red Cross in 1920, she combined her theatre work with health work for the rest of her life. She was created a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1936. On 9 January 1951, Nethersole died in Bournemouth, England at the age of 83, her brother, Louis F. Nethersole, was a theatrical manager and press agent and one-time husband of the American actress and singer, Sadie Martinot. Mary Magdalene, 5 December 1910 - December 1910 The Writing on the Wall, 26 April 1909 - May 1909 The Enigma, 8 February 1908 - 1 March 1908 I Pagliacci, 8 February 1908 - 1 March 1908 Sapho, 1908 Between 1885 and 1890, Olga Nethersole’s portrait was painted in Omaha, Nebraska by artist Herbert A. Collins.
Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nethersole, Olga". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 421. Article about Olga Nethersole Olga Nethersole's photo section at the New York Public Library Olga Nethersole at the Internet Broadway Database People's League of Health papers at LSE Archives Olga Nethersole.
An actor-manager is a leading actor who sets up their own permanent theatrical company and manages the company's business and financial arrangements, sometimes taking over the management of a theatre, to perform plays of their own choice and in which they will star. It is a method of theatrical production and management, in use since the 16th-century, but, common in 19th-century England and the United States; the first actor-managers, such as Robert Browne, appeared in the late 16th century, to be followed by another Robert Browne and George Jolly in the 17th century. In the 18th century, actor-managers such as Colley Cibber and David Garrick gained prominence; the system of actor-management produced high standards of performance, as demonstrated by such 19th-century actors as William Macready, Charles Wyndham, Henry Irving, Frank Benson and Herbert Beerbohm Tree, by husband-wife teams such as Squire Bancroft and Effie Bancroft, Frank Wyatt and Violet Melnotte, William Hunter Kendal and Madge Robertson Kendal and Thomas and Priscilla German Reed, by women stars, such as Lucia Elizabeth Vestris, Selina Dolaro, Evelyn Millard, Sarah Bernhardt, Sarah Thorne, Gertrude Kingston, Emily Soldene, Laura Keene and Lydia Thompson, among many others.
In the 19th century, the negative reputation of actors was reversed, acting became an honored, popular profession and art. The rise of the actor as celebrity provided the transition, as audiences flocked to their favorite "stars." A new role emerged for the actor-managers who formed their own companies and controlled the actors, the production, the financing. When successful, they built up a permanent clientele, they could enlarge their audience by going on tour across the country, Performing a repertoire of well-known plays, such as Shakespeare. The newspapers, private clubs and coffee shops rang with lively debates palming the relative merits of the stars of their productions. Henry Irving was the most successful of the British actor-managers. Irving was renowned for his Shakespearean roles, for such innovations as turning out the house lights so that attention could focus more on the stage and less on the audience, his company toured across Britain, as well as Europe and the United States, demonstrating the power of star actors and celebrated roles to attract enthusiastic audiences.
His knighthood in 1895 indicated full acceptance into the higher circles of British society. The 19th-century repertoire consisted of a combination of the works of Shakespeare, popular melodramas, new dramas, comedies or musical theatre works; the era of the actor-manager was geared to star performances, such as Irving’s role in the 1871 play The Bells. The system of actor-management waned in the early 20th century, as actor-managers were replaced first by stage managers and by theatre directors. In addition, the system of actor-management was adversely affected by factors such as the increasing cost of mounting theatrical productions, more corporate ownership of theatres, such as by the Theatrical Syndicate, Edward Laurillard and The Shubert Organization, a trend toward ensemble-style acting, a move towards the financial security offered by long runs rather than rotating plays for a short period. After the end of World War II a combination of social and technological factors, combined with the rising popularity of film and radio, lead to the diminishing of the actor-manager system, with its last two great exponents being Sir Donald Wolfitt and Sir Laurence Olivier, both of whom were working within a old fashioned framework.
Though no longer the standard practice, modern actor-managers do exist and fringe work is being explored on this model as actors look to provide themselves with an artistic platform which they have the means to control. Examples include Kevin Spacey when he worked as the artistic director of the Old Vic in London, Samuel West when he ran the Sheffield Crucible and Kenneth Branagh in the Kenneth Branagh Theatre Company. Donaldson, Lady Frances Annesley; the Actor Managers Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London Thomas, James. The Art of the Actor-Manager: Wilson Barrett and the Victorian Theatre Bowker Pearson, Hesketh; the Last Actor-Managers Methuen and Co Ltd
Sir John Falstaff is a fictional character, mentioned in four plays by William Shakespeare and appears on stage in three of them. His significance as a developed character in Shakespeare is formed in the plays Henry IV, Part 1 and Part 2, where he is a companion to Prince Hal, the future King Henry V. A notable eulogy for Falstaff is presented in Act II, Scene III of Henry V, where Falstaff does not appear as a character on stage, as enacted by Mistress Quickly in terms that some scholars have ascribed to Plato's description of the death of Socrates after drinking hemlock. By comparison, in The Merry Wives of Windsor, Falstaff is presented by Shakespeare as the buffoonish suitor of two married women. Though a comic figure, Falstaff still embodies a kind of depth common to Shakespeare's major characters. A fat, vain and cowardly knight, he spends most of his time drinking at the Boar's Head Inn with petty criminals, living on stolen or borrowed money. Falstaff leads the wayward Prince Hal into trouble, is repudiated after Hal becomes king.
Falstaff has since appeared in other media, notably in operas by Giuseppe Verdi, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Otto Nicolai, in Orson Welles' 1966 film Chimes at Midnight. The operas focus on his role in The Merry Wives of Windsor, while the film adapts from the Henriad and The Merry Wives. Welles, who played Falstaff in his film, considered the character to be "Shakespeare's greatest creation". Falstaff appears in three of Shakespeare's plays, Henry IV, Part 1, Henry IV, Part 2, The Merry Wives of Windsor, his death is mentioned in Henry V but he has no lines, nor is it directed that he appear on stage. However, many stage and film adaptations have seen it necessary to include Falstaff for the insight he provides into King Henry V's character; the most notable examples in cinema are Laurence Olivier's 1944 version and Kenneth Branagh's 1989 film, both of which draw additional material from the Henry IV plays. The character is known to have been popular with audiences at the time, for many years afterwards.
According to Leonard Digges, writing shortly after Shakespeare's death, while many plays could not get good audiences, "let but Falstaff come, Poins, the rest, you scarce shall have a room". King Henry is troubled by the behaviour of his heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions; this calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. Hal makes no pretense at being like him, he enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins' plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff lie about it after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some noble exploits.
Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably", not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle. Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill. Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do"; the play focuses on Prince Hal's journey toward kingship, his ultimate rejection of Falstaff.
However, unlike Part One, Hal's and Falstaff's stories are entirely separate, as the two characters meet only twice and briefly. The tone of much of the play is elegiac, focusing on Falstaff's age and his closeness to death, which parallels that of the sick king. Falstaff is still engaging in petty criminality in the London underworld, he first appears, followed by a new character, a young page whom Prince Hal has assigned him as a joke. Falstaff enquires what the doctor has said about the analysis of his urine, the page cryptically informs him that the urine is healthier than the patient. Falstaff delivers one of his most characteristic lines: "I am not only witty in myself, but the cause that wit is in other men." Falstaff promises to outfit the page in "vile apparel". He complains of his insolvency, blaming it on "consumption of the purse." They go off, Falstaff vowing to find a wife "in the stews". The Lord Chief Justice enters. Falstaff at first feigns deafness in order to avoid conversing with him, when this tactic fails pretends to mistake him for someone else.
As the Chief Justice attempts to question Falstaff about a recent robbery, Falstaff insists on turning the subject of the conversation to the nature of the illness afflicting the King. He adopts the pretense of being a much younger man than the Chief Justice: "You that are old con
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Mary Mannering was an English actress, born in London. She studied for the stage under Hermann Vezin, she made her debut at Manchester in 1892 under her own name of Florence Friend. Born Florence Friend, she was the daughter of Elise Whiting, she was induced by producer Daniel Frohman to come to New York in 1896. In the United States, she began playing as "Mary Mannering". Mannering's American debut, in the title role in Henry V. Esmond's The Courtship of Leonie, was at Daniel Frohman's original Lyceum Theatre on December 1, 1896. Other plays with the Lyceum company included Sydney Grundy's The Late Mr. Castello on December 14, 1896, Frances Hodgson Burnett and George Fleming's The First Gentleman of Europe, Louis N. Parker's The Mayflower, Arthur Wing Pinero's The Princess and the Butterfly, The Tree of Knowledge by R. C. Carton, Trelawny of the'Wells' by Pinero, Americans at Home by Grace Livingstone Furniss, John Ingerfield by Jerome K. Jerome. In 1900 Mannering starred at Buffalo, N. Y. and in the Broadway debut of Janice Meredith, in the title role opposite Robert Drouet who played Colonel Jack Brereton in the four-act play based on a novel of the same name by Paul Leicester Ford.
Thereafter, she played leading parts in White Roses. She married James K. Hackett, the Lyceum company's leading actor, on May 2, 1897, though the marriage was not announced until January 1898, they had a daughter, Elise, in 1904. She married Frederick E. Wadsworth, she died, a widow, on January 1953 at Los Angeles. Blum, Daniel C. Great Stars of the American Stage #Profile 9, c.1952 Brown, Thomas Allston, A History of the New York Stage from the First Performance in 1732 to 1901, Volume III, New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1903. Moses, Montrose J. "Famous Families of American Players: No. 3 - The Hacketts", The Theatre Magazine, v. V n.47, January 1905, pp. 13–16. William Winter, The Wallet of Time, Mary Mannering at the Internet Broadway Database Mary Mannering photo section at NYP Library Mary Mannering portraits.
Internet Broadway Database
The Internet Broadway Database is an online database of Broadway theatre productions and their personnel. It was conceived and created by Karen Hauser in 1996 and is operated by the Research Department of The Broadway League, a trade association for the North American commercial theatre community; the website has a corresponding app for both the IOS and Android. This comprehensive history of Broadway provides records of productions from the beginnings of New York theatre in the 18th century up to today. Details include cast and creative lists for opening night and current day, song lists and other interesting facts about every Broadway production. Other features of IBDB include an extensive archive of photos from past and present Broadway productions, links to cast recordings on iTunes or Amazon and attendance information, its mission was to be an interactive, user-friendly, searchable database for League members, journalists and Broadway fans. The League added Broadway Touring shows to the database for ease of tracking shows that play in theatres across the country.
It is managed by Karen Hauser, Michael Abourizk, Mark Smith of the Broadway League. Internet Theatre Database – ITDb Internet Movie Database – IMDb Internet Book Database – IBookDb Lortel Archives – IOBDb The Broadway League Official website Broadway League website