Hedley Verity was a professional cricketer who played for Yorkshire and England between 1930 and 1939. A slow left-arm orthodox bowler, he took 1,956 wickets in first-class cricket at an average of 14.90 and 144 wickets in 40 Tests at an average of 24.37. Named as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1932, he is regarded as one of the most effective slow left-arm bowlers to have played cricket. Never someone who spun the ball he achieved success through the accuracy of his bowling. On pitches which made batting difficult ones affected by rain, he could be impossible to bat against. Verity was born in Leeds and, from an early age, wished to play cricket for Yorkshire. After establishing a good reputation in local cricket, he signed a contract as a professional cricketer playing in the Lancashire League, his first season was not a success but, after moving clubs, he began to make a name for himself. A medium-paced bowler, he switched to bowling spin in an attempt to secure a place in the Yorkshire team.
When Wilfred Rhodes, the incumbent Yorkshire left-arm spinner, announced his retirement, Verity had a successful trial in the team in 1930, led the national bowling averages. In 1931, his first full season, he achieved the rare feat of taking all 10 wickets in an innings, against Warwickshire County Cricket Club; the latter bowling figures remain a record in first-class cricket for the fewest runs conceded while taking all 10 wickets. He established himself as part of a strong bowling unit, which assisted Yorkshire to the County Championship seven times in his ten seasons with the club. In that time, Verity was never lower than fifth in the bowling averages and took over 150 wickets in every year except his first. In 1931, he was chosen to play for England for the first time and rose to prominence during a tour to Australia in 1932–33. Afterwards, he played for England and achieved the best performance of his career when he took 15 wickets against Australia in a Test match at Lord's in 1934.
However, critics claimed he was ineffective on good batting pitches, he was left out of the England team over the following years. So, he had one of the best records of any bowler against Donald Bradman regarded as the greatest batsman in the history of cricket. Verity continued to play for Yorkshire and England until 1939, when the outbreak of the Second World War ended his career. Verity joined the Green Howards in 1939, after training was posted overseas to India and Egypt, achieving the rank of captain. During the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, Verity was wounded and captured by the Germans. Taken to the Italian mainland, he was buried there. Verity was born in Headingley, an area of Leeds, on 18 May 1905, he was the eldest child of Hedley Verity, who worked for a local coal company, Edith Elwick, a Sunday school teacher. Verity had two sisters and Edith; the family moved to Armley to the more rural location of Rawdon. From an early age, Verity watched Yorkshire play County Cricket matches at Leeds, Bradford and, during family holidays, Scarborough.
At Yeadon and Guiseley Secondary School, Verity played school cricket, bowling left-arm medium-paced deliveries. Verity left school aged 14 to work for his father, who had established a coal business in Guiseley, played cricket for Rawdon's second team. Success on the field persuaded Verity to seek a career in professional cricket and a place in the Yorkshire team. While working for his father, he devoted increasing amounts of time to cricket practice. In 1921, Verity made his debut for Rawdon in league cricket; the following season, he was spotted by Yorkshire coach George Hirst and former England spinner Bobby Peel, who were talent scouting for Yorkshire, given a trial in the cricket nets at Headingley. Peel realised Verity was an intelligent bowler who had excellent control of where he pitched the ball, but believed he was not fast enough to be effective for Yorkshire. Meanwhile, critics in Rawdon began to see increased potential in his batting, which improved steadily. Verity moved to play for Horsforth Hall Park in 1924, where his batting became more productive than his bowling.
By 1926, when he scored a total of 488 runs and took 62 wickets to win the Yorkshire Council League prize for best junior bowler, his all-round potential secured a second trial at Yorkshire. Receiving coaching from Hirst, Verity played several matches for the Yorkshire Colts, he was given little bowling to do, suggesting that he was chosen more for his batting at this stage, was near the bottom of the team's bowling averages. Yorkshire did not allocate him to a local club, their practice towards promising cricketers at the time. Hirst was impressed by Verity and recommended him to Accrington Cricket Club, a team in the Lancashire League looking for a professional cricketer. After a trial, Verity signed a contract in September 1926. Verity was unsuccessful during the 1927 season, his only one with Accrington, his bowling was less effective. His batting average for the season was 5.25. The team, containing players far more experienced than Verity
Morris Stanley "Stan" Nichols was the leading all-rounder in English cricket for much of the 1930s. In his youth a football goalkeeper who played for some time with Queen's Park Rangers, Nichols' prowess at cricket during the summer brought him to the attention of the Essex committee during the early 1920s, who recommended him as a left-handed batsman, he did not gain a regular place in the first eleven that year. The following year, Nichols gained a regular place as a promising fast bowler and batted low in the order, he did nothing sensational apart from playing the primary role in dismissing Kent for 43 on a bad wicket at Southend in late July. 1926 was Nichols' breakthrough year, for he took 114 wickets in first-class cricket and, though he at this point tried to bowl too fast and was sometimes wayward, his strong build meant he could bowl for long spells without tiring. Against Kent on a somewhat difficult wicket, he took ten wickets, whilst in the return with that county, he scored 57 batting at number eleven.
In 1927 Nichols took 124 wickets for 23 runs each, with several strong performances: including nine for 59 against Hampshire at Chelmsford. He scored 940 runs that year, but though 1928 saw a maiden century against Hampshire, he took fewer than 70 wickets for over 35 runs apiece. 1929, saw Nichols establish himself as a strong all-rounder. His hard-hitting left-handed batting had become strong in front of the wicket, whilst reducing his pace made his bowling less wayward and more effective. So though of was Nichols that the following year he played for England in the Ashes series of 1930 but did little. With Larwood and Gubby Allen the first-choice pace bowlers by this time, Nichols had little opportunity in the following years for playing in home Tests or Ashes tours. On the matting wickets of India, his bowling proved effective in England's first Test tour of that country. 1935, with Larwood and Voce refusing to be considered due to the Bodyline controversy of the previous three years, Farnes injured and Allen having work commitments, gave Nichols his chance to establish himself as an England player, whereupon he took six for 35 against South Africa in the First Test at Trent Bridge, played a further 3 tests in that series.
That summer saw Nichols produce his best cricket to date with 157 wickets and over 1400 runs in all matches, including an all-round feat in a defeat of Yorkshire at Huddersfield. In this match, Nichols took 11 for 54 and made 146, Yorkshire lost by an innings and 204 runs. 1936 saw Nichols make his only double century, against Hampshire, take nine for 32 against Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge, whilst 1937 and 1938 were seasons of consistent achievement culminating in an all-round performance of 159 and fifteen for 163 against Gloucestershire in the latter season. His haul of wickets in 1938 – 171 – surpassed his best and placed him within three of being leading wicket takers in England, whilst continued good form in 1939 saw Nichols obtain a Test recall against the West Indies in the last Test before World War II put a stop to county cricket; when first-class cricket resumed in 1946, Nichols was forty-five and struggling with fitness. He played for several years in the Birmingham and District League until his health declined beyond his ability to play one-day-a-week cricket and he retired to the spa resorts in the English Midlands.
He died early in 1961 in Newark. First-Class batting averages First-Class bowling averages Media related to Stan Nichols at Wikimedia Commons Stan Nichols at CricketArchive
Wilfred Rhodes was an English professional cricketer who played 58 Test matches for England between 1899 and 1930. In Tests, Rhodes took 127 wickets and scored 2,325 runs, becoming the first Englishman to complete the double of 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in Test matches, he holds the world records both for the most appearances made in first-class cricket, for the most wickets taken. He completed the double of 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in an English cricket season a record 16 times. Rhodes played for Yorkshire and England into his fifties, in his final Test in 1930 was, at 52 years and 165 days, the oldest player who has appeared in a Test match. Beginning his career for Yorkshire in 1898 as a slow left arm bowler, a useful batsman, Rhodes established a reputation as one of the best slow bowlers in the world. However, by the First World War he had developed his batting skills to the extent that he was regarded as one of the leading batsmen in England and had established an effective opening partnership with Jack Hobbs.
The improvement in Rhodes's batting was accompanied by a temporary decline in his bowling performances, but the loss of key Yorkshire bowlers after the war led to Rhodes resuming his role as a front-line bowler. He played throughout the 1920s as an all-rounder before retiring after the 1930 cricket season, his first appearance for England was in 1899 and he played in Tests until 1921. Recalled to the team in the final Ashes Test of 1926 aged 48, Rhodes played a significant part in winning the match for England who thus regained the Ashes for the first time since 1912, he ended his Test career in the West Indies in April 1930. As a bowler, Rhodes was noted for his great accuracy, variations in flight and, in his early days, sharp spin. Throughout his career he was effective on wet, rain affected pitches where he could bowl sides out for low scores, his batting was regarded as solid and dependable but unspectacular, critics accused him of excessive caution at times. However, they considered him to be an astute cricket thinker.
Following his retirement from playing cricket, he coached at Harrow School but was not a great success. His eyesight began to fail from around 1939 to the point where he was blind by 1952, he was given honorary membership of the Marylebone Cricket Club in 1949 and remained a respected figure within the game until his death in 1973. On 9 August 2009, Rhodes was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. Rhodes was born in the village of Kirkheaton, just outside Huddersfield, in 1877, his family moved to a farm two miles away while he was young. He went to school in nearby Hopton, to Spring Grove School in Huddersfield, his father, Alfred Rhodes, was captain of the Kirkheaton cricket team's Second XI and encouraged his son to play cricket, buying him equipment and having a pitch laid near their home for Wilfred to practice. By the time Rhodes left school, aged 16, he had joined Kirkheaton Cricket Club and started to take cricket seriously: he watched Yorkshire when they played close to his home and began to consider a career as a professional cricketer.
Around 1893 he took a job working on the railway in the local town of Mirfield. By now playing for Kirkheaton Second XI, Rhodes's keenness to reach one game on time led him to ring the off-duty bell before the end of the shift and as a result he lost his job. Subsequently, he worked on a local farm. By 1895 he achieved a place in the Kirkheaton first team, was recommended to Gala Cricket Club, of Galashiels, Scotland, as a professional. Rhodes played for Gala Cricket Club in 1896 and 1897, as an all-rounder who opened the batting and bowled medium paced seamers, he took 92 wickets in his first season, discovered that bowling an occasional slow ball brought him some success. He decided to change his bowling style to spin, spent the winter of 1896–97 practising on the family farm while working again on the railway, this time as a signalman. Over several months, Rhodes used his practice sessions to develop control of spin and different types of delivery. In his second season at Galashiels, now bowling slow left-arm, he took fewer wickets but at a better average.
At the end of the 1897 season, encouraged by a Scottish member of the MCC, he resigned from Gala to look for work in England. In response to an advertisement, Rhodes applied to join the groundstaff of Warwickshire County Cricket Club, but the club were unable to offer him an engagement for financial reasons. At this time, Yorkshire were looking for a slow left arm spinner to replace Bobby Peel, sacked following a disciplinary lapse on the field in front of his captain Lord Hawke in August 1897. Rhodes applied for a place in a Yorkshire Colts team to play against the County XI. However, by his own admission, Rhodes had a poor match, while his rival for Peel's place in the side, Albert Cordingley, took nine wickets. In early spring 1898, Rhodes was invited to the nets at Headingley, which led to him playing in some friendly matches. Rhodes went on to make his first-class debut for Yorkshire on 12 May 1898 against the MCC, taking six wickets in the match. In his second game, he made his County Championship debut on 16 May 1898 against Somerset, taking 13 wickets for 45 runs.
In the 1898 season, according to Wisden Cricketers' Almanack Rhodes "sprang at once into fame, bowling in match after match for Yorkshire with astounding success." By the end of the season he had taken 154 wickets at an average of 14.60, was named as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year for 1899. The citation stated: "There can be no doubt as to the greatness of his achie
England cricket team
The England cricket team represents England and Wales in international cricket. Since 1997 it has been governed by the England and Wales Cricket Board, having been governed by Marylebone Cricket Club from 1903 until the end of 1996. England, as a founding nation, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status; until the 1990s, Scottish and Irish players played for England as those countries were not yet ICC members in their own right. England and Australia were the first teams to play a Test match, these two countries together with South Africa formed the Imperial Cricket Conference on 15 June 1909. England and Australia played the first ODI on 5 January 1971. England's first T20I was played on 13 June 2005, once more against Australia; as of 12 March 2019, England has played 1010 Test matches, winning 365 and losing 300. The team has won The Ashes on 32 occasions. England has played 726 ODIs, winning 362, its record in major ODI tournaments includes finishing as runners-up in three Cricket World Cups, in two ICC Champions Trophys.
England has played 108 T20Is, winning 53. They won the ICC World Twenty20 in 2010, were runners-up in 2016; as of 12 March 2019, England are ranked fifth in Tests, first in ODIs and third in T20Is by the ICC. Though the team and coaching staff faced heavy criticism after their Group Stage exit in the 2015 Cricket World Cup, it has since adopted a more aggressive and modern playing style in ODI cricket, under the leadership of captain Eoin Morgan and head coach Trevor Bayliss; the first recorded incidence of a team with a claim to represent England comes from 9 July 1739 when an "All-England" team, which consisted of 11 gentlemen from any part of England exclusive of Kent, played against "the Unconquerable County" of Kent and lost by a margin of "very few notches". Such matches were repeated on numerous occasions for the best part of a century. In 1846 William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven; this team competed against a United All-England Eleven with annual matches occurring between 1847 and 1856.
These matches were arguably the most important contest of the English season if judged by the quality of the players. The first overseas tour occurred in September 1859 with England touring North America; this team had six players from the All-England Eleven, six from the United All-England Eleven and was captained by George Parr. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, attention turned elsewhere. English tourists visited Australia in 1861–62 with this first tour organised as a commercial venture by Messrs Spiers and Pond, restaurateurs of Melbourne. Most matches played during tours prior to 1877 were "against odds", with the opposing team fielding more than 11 players to make for a more contest; this first Australian tour were against odds of at least 18/11. The tour was so successful that George Parr led a second tour in 1863–64. James Lillywhite led a subsequent England team which sailed on the P&O steamship Poonah on 21 September 1876, they played a combined Australian XI, for once on terms of 11 a side.
The match, starting on 15 March 1877 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground came to be regarded as the inaugural Test match. The combined Australian XI won this Test match by 45 runs with Charles Bannerman of Australia scoring the first Test century. At the time, the match was promoted as James Lillywhite's XI v Combined Victoria and New South Wales; the teams played a return match on the same ground at Easter, 1877, when Lillywhite's team avenged their loss with a victory by four wickets. The first Test match on English soil occurred in 1880 with England victorious. G. Grace included in the team. England lost their first home series 1–0 in 1882 with The Sporting Times printing an obituary on English cricket: In Affectionate Remembrance of ENGLISH CRICKET, which died at the Oval on 29th AUGUST 1882, Deeply lamented by a large circle of sorrowing friends and acquaintances R. I. P. N. B. – The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. As a result of this loss the tour of 1882–83 was dubbed by England captain Ivo Bligh as "the quest to regain the ashes".
England with a mixture of amateurs and professionals won the series 2–1. Bligh was presented with an urn that contained some ashes, which have variously been said to be of a bail, ball or a woman's veil and so The Ashes was born. A fourth match was played which Australia won by 4 wickets but the match was not considered part of the Ashes series. England dominated many of these early contests with England winning the Ashes series 10 times between 1884 and 1898. During this period England played their first Test match against South Africa in 1889 at Port Elizabeth. England won the 1890 Ashes Series 2–0, with the third match of the series being the first Test match to be abandoned. England lost 2 -- 1 in the 1891 -- 92 series. England again won the 1894 -- 95 series. In 1895 -- 96 England played Test South Africa; the 1899 Ashes series was the first tour where the MCC and the counties appointed a selection committee. There were three active players: Lord Hawke, W. G. Grace and Herbert Bainbridge, the captain of Warwickshire.
Prior to this, England teams for home Tests had been chosen by the club on whose ground the match was to be played. England lost the 1899 Ashes series 1–0, with WG Grace making his final Test appearance in the first match of the series; the start of the
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Newick is a village, civil parish and electoral ward in the Lewes District of East Sussex, England. It is located on the A272 road six miles east of Haywards Heath; the parish church, St. Mary's, dates from the Victorian era, but still has a Norman window. Zion Chapel, a Strict Baptist chapel, was built in 1834 and converted to flats in 2001. Newick Evangelical Free Church a mission hall, opened in 1892; the village is home to three pubs, one restaurant, a butcher, a baker, a pharmacy, as well as a number of other businesses. There is a primary school, a health centre, a village hall known as the'Derek Hall', a post office. Like many other places in Sussex, Newick holds an annual Bonfire Night celebration on the Saturday before Lewes Bonfire Night. Many of the local bonfire societies join the procession. In the south of the parish is the manor of Newick Park, once the home of William Joynson-Hicks, 1st Viscount Brentford; the Grade II * listed building is now a private house. The area in the south of the parish has several chalybeate springs.
Newick has a King George's Field in memorial to King George V. In 1934 Dirk Bogarde appeared in amateur dramatic productions in the village with Newick Amateur Dramatic Society, which still exists with a youth sub-society: Newick Youth Theatre Until 17 March 1958, the village was served by Newick and Chailey railway station on the East Grinstead to Lewes line, part of which remains as the Bluebell Railway; the line was closed by the Branch Line Committee long before British Rail's Beeching Report. The next station north was Sheffield Park and the next station south was Barcombe. Sheffield Park is still used by the Bluebell Railway. Media related to Newick at Wikimedia Commons
In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri