Marina Abramović is a Serbian performance artist and art film director and producer. Her work explores body art, endurance art and feminist art, the relationship between performer and audience, the limits of the body, the possibilities of the mind. Being active for over four decades, Abramović refers to herself as the "grandmother of performance art", she pioneered a new notion of identity by bringing in the participation of observers, focusing on "confronting pain and physical limits of the body". Abramović was born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia on November 30, 1946. In an interview, Abramović described her family as having been "Red bourgeoisie." Her great-uncle was Serbian Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Both of her parents, Danica Rosić and Vojin Abramović were Yugoslav Partisans during the Second World War. After the war, Abramović's parents became "national heroes" and were given positions in the post-war Yugoslavian government. Abramović was raised by her grandparents, her grandmother was religious and Abramović "spent childhood in a church following grandmother's rituals – candles in the morning, the priest coming for different occasions".
At the age of six, when Abramović's brother was born, she began living with her parents and took piano and English lessons. While she did not take art lessons, she took an early interest in art and enjoyed painting as a child. Life in Abramović's parental home under her mother’s strict supervision was difficult; when Abramović was a child, her mother beat her for "supposedly showing off". In an interview published in 1998, Abramović described how her "mother took complete military-style control of me and my brother. I was not allowed to leave the house after 10 o'clock at night until I was 29 years old.... Ll the performances in Yugoslavia I did before 10 o'clock in the evening because I had to be home then. It's insane, but all of my cutting myself, whipping myself, burning myself losing my life in'The Firestar' - everything was done before 10 in the evening."In an interview published in 2013, Abramović said, "My mother and father had a terrible marriage." Describing an incident when her father smashed 12 champagne glasses and left the house, she said, "It was the most horrible moment of my childhood."She was a student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade from 1965 to 1970.
She completed her post-graduate studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb, SR Croatia in 1972. She returned to SR Serbia and, from 1973 to 1975, she taught at the Academy of Fine Arts at Novi Sad, while implementing her first solo performances. After Abramović was married to Neša Paripović between 1971 to 1976, in 1976, she went to Amsterdam to perform a piece decided to move there permanently. From 1990–1995 Abramović was a visiting professor at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris and at the Berlin University of the Arts. From 1992–1996 she was a visiting professor at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg and from 1997–2004 she was a professor for performance-art at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Braunschweig; some of her best known students are Chiharu Shiota. In her first performance in Edinburgh in 1973, Abramović explored elements of gesture. Making use of twenty knives and two tape recorders, the artist played the Russian game, in which rhythmic knife jabs are aimed between the splayed fingers of one's hand.
Each time she cut herself, she would pick up a new knife from the row of twenty she had set up, record the operation. After cutting herself twenty times, she replayed the tape, listened to the sounds, tried to repeat the same movements, attempting to replicate the mistakes, merging past and present, she set out to explore the physical and mental limitations of the body – the pain and the sounds of the stabbing. With this piece, Abramović began to consider the state of consciousness of the performer. "Once you enter into the performance state you can push your body to do things you could never do." In this performance, Abramović sought to re-evoke the energy of extreme bodily pain, using a large petroleum-drenched star, which the artist lit on fire at the start of the performance. Standing outside the star, Abramović cut her nails and hair; when finished with each, she threw the clippings into the flames, creating a burst of light each time. Burning the communist five-pointed star represented a physical and mental purification, while addressing the political traditions of her past.
In the final act of purification, Abramović leapt across the flames, propelling herself into the center of the large star. Due to the light and smoke given off by the fire, the observing audience did not realize that, once inside the star, the artist had lost consciousness from lack of oxygen; some members of the audience realized what had occurred only when the flames came near to her body and she remained inert. A doctor and several members of the audience extricated her from the star. Abramović commented upon this experience: "I was angry because I understood there is a physical limit; when you lose consciousness you can't be present, you can't perform." Prompted by her loss of consciousness during Rhythm 5, Abramović devised the two-part Rhythm 2 to incorporate a state of unconsciousness in a performance. She performed the work at the Gallery of Contemporary Art in Zagreb, in 1974. In Part I, which had a duration of 50 minutes, she ingested a medication she describes as'given to patients who suffer from catatonia, to force them to change the positio
Ceci N'est Pas Un Viol
Ceci N'est Pas Un Viol is a work of performance art by American artist Emma Sulkowicz. Released on 3 June 2015, the work consists of a website hosting an eight-minute video, introductory text and an open comments section; the video shows Sulkowicz having sex with an anonymous actor in a dorm room at Columbia University in New York City. It was directed by artist Ted Lawson in early 2015, while Sulkowicz was in their final year of a visual-arts degree at Columbia; the film illustrates the shift between non-consensual sex. Named after "Ceci n'est pas une pipe" from René Magritte's The Treachery of Images, the scene shows Sulkowicz and the actor engaging in what begins as a consensual sexual encounter and ends with what appears to be non-consensual anal sex; the online response in the comments to the video is a central part of the work, described as an example of participatory art. Sulkowicz wanted to know "what the public does with, which begins with the way they deal with it from the moment it's disseminated."
Shortly after it appeared, the video was taken offline by a denial-of-service attack. By 9 June 2015, there were 2,700 comments on the site, most of them ridiculing. Sulkowicz said they believed in the video's importance, but that making it had been a "traumatizing" experience. Emma Sulkowicz, a non-binary artist who uses they/them pronouns, obtained a degree in visual arts from Columbia University in 2015, their senior thesis and first notable artwork was Mattress Performance, which consisted of Sulkowicz carrying a mattress wherever they went on campus during their final year, in protest against campus sexual assault and the university's handling of a complaint they filed against a student they said anally raped them. The university cleared the student of responsibility. Ceci N'est Pas Un Viol consists of a website that hosts a video, an introductory text and an open comments section, its existence was made public by a Facebook post from Ted Lawson. Sulkowicz says they had the idea for the piece in December 2014, that performance artist Marina Abramović put them in touch with Lawson to direct it.
Lawson courageous. Sulkowicz stressed. Sulkowicz wrote the script and introductory text, chose the position of the cameras, the lighting and the appearance of it having been filmed by security cameras; the scene was filmed in one continuous take three times during the Columbia spring break in March 2015. According to Lawson, Sulkowicz had "insisted on it being real.... That's what makes it a performance art piece." Sulkowicz told the Guardian that making the video had been traumatizing, had left them in a "very scared, emotional state for days." They said elsewhere. The introductory text said. Rather, "Ceci N'est Pas Un Viol... about your decisions, starting now." Sulkowicz gives only provisional consent to view the video: Do not watch this video if your motives would upset me, my desires are unclear to you, or my nuances are indecipherable. You might be wondering. Look—I want to change the world, that begins with you, seeing yourself. If you watch this video without my consent I hope you reflect on your reasons for objectifying me and participating in my rape, for, in that case, you were the one who couldn't resist the urge to make Ceci N'est Pas Un Viol about what you wanted to make it about: rape.
Please, don't participate in my rape. Watch kindly, they ask a series of questions: "Are you searching for ways to either hurt or help me?... Do you think I'm the perfect victim or the world's worst victim?... Do you hate me? If so, how does it feel to hate me?" The scene is shown on a split screen from four angles, with a timestamp in each corner, beginning 02:10 and ending 02:18. Lawson said the security-camera perspective "removes the wall between the viewer and the action." The video begins with Sulkowicz and the actor, whose face is blurred, entering the room, undressing each other kissing and engaging in oral and vaginal sex, the latter with a condom. Three minutes into the video, the actor hits Sulkowicz several times removes the condom, pushes his hands and their legs against their neck or throat, penetrates them anally, they scream, tells him to stop, put their hand over their face. After a short time, the actor leaves the room with his clothes in his hands. Sulkowicz is left curled with their back to the camera.
After wrapping themselves in a towel, they leave the room and make their bed appears to fall asleep. Lawson told the Columbia Spectator that Sulkowicz and the actor had captured the shift from the consensual to non-consensual: "I think the video expresses the possibility that you don't forfeit that ever." Lawson said Ceci N'est Pas Un Viol explores the relationship between art and social media, "this giant, polluted ocean." A key part of the work was the online reaction in the website's comments section. The 2,700 comments within the first five days were critical or ridiculing, they included sexual and racist insults and threats. There were remarks about Sulkowicz's physical appearance, mental health, that the scene did not depict rape. Someone posted the video on a porn site. Comments on other sites were both
Western esotericism called esotericism and sometimes the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they are distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy, pseudoscience, art and music, continuing to affect intellectual ideas and popular culture; the idea of grouping a wide range of Western traditions and philosophies together under the category, now termed esotericism developed in Europe during the late seventeenth century. Various academics have debated how to define Western esotericism, with a number of different options proposed. One scholarly model adopts its definition of "esotericism" from certain esotericist schools of thought themselves, treating "esotericism" as a perennialist hidden, inner tradition.
A second perspective sees esotericism as a category that encompasses movements which embrace an "enchanted" world-view in the face of increasing disenchantment. A third views Western esotericism as a category encompassing all of Western culture's "rejected knowledge", accepted neither by the scientific establishment nor by orthodox religious authorities; the earliest traditions which analysis would label as forms of Western esotericism emerged in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity, where Hermetism and Neoplatonism developed as schools of thought distinct from what became mainstream Christianity. Renaissance Europe saw increasing interest in many of these older ideas, with various intellectuals combining "pagan" philosophies with the Kabbalah and Christian philosophy, resulting in the emergence of esoteric movements like Christian theosophy; the seventeenth century saw the development of initiatory societies professing esoteric knowledge such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, while the Age of Enlightenment of the eighteenth century led to the development of new forms of esoteric thought.
The nineteenth century saw the emergence of new trends of esoteric thought that have come to be known as occultism. Prominent groups in this century included the Theosophical Society and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Modern Paganism developed within occultism, includes religious movements such as Wicca. Esoteric ideas permeated the counterculture of the 1960s and cultural tendencies, from which emerged the New Age phenomenon in the 1970s. Although the idea that these varying movements could be categorised together under the rubric of "Western esotericism" developed in the late eighteenth century, these esoteric currents were ignored as a subject of academic enquiry; the academic study of Western esotericism only emerged in the late twentieth-century, pioneered by scholars like Frances Yates and Antoine Faivre. Esoteric ideas have meanwhile exerted an influence in popular culture, appearing in art, literature and music; the concept of the "esoteric" originated in the second century AD with the coining of the Ancient Greek adjective esôterikós.
The term "esotericism" thus came into use in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment and of its critique of institutionalised religion, during which time alternative religious groups began to disassociate themselves from the dominant Christianity in Western Europe. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the term "esotericism" came to be seen as something, distinct from Christianity, which had formed a subculture, at odds with the Christian mainstream from at least the time of the Renaissance; the French occultist and ceremonial magician Eliphas Lévi popularized the term in the 1850s, Theosophist Alfred Percy Sinnett introduced it into the English language in his book Esoteric Buddhism. Lévi introduced the term l'occultisme, a notion that he developed against the background of contemporary socialist and Catholic discourses. "Esotericism" and "occultism" were employed as synonyms until scholars distinguished the concepts. The concept of "Western esotericism" is a modern scholarly construct rather than a pre-existing, self-defined tradition of thought.
In the late seventeenth century, several European Christian thinkers presented the argument that certain traditions of Western philosophy and thought could be categorised together, thus establishing the category, now called "Western esotericism". The first to do so was de: Ehregott Daniel Colberg, a German Lutheran who wrote Platonisch-Hermetisches Christianity. A hostile critic of various currents of Western thought that had emerged since the Renaissance—among them Paracelsianism and Christian theosophy—in his book he labelled all of these traditions under the category of "Platonic–Hermetic Christianity", arguing that they were heretical to what he saw as true Christianity. Despite his hostile attitude toward these traditions of thought, he was the first to connect these disparate philosophies and study them under one rubric recognising that these ideas linked back to earlier philosophies from late antiquity. In Europe during the eighteenth century, amid the Age of Enlightenment, these esoteric traditions came to be categorised under the labels of "superstition", "magic", "the occult", terms which were used interchangeably.
Minimalism (visual arts)
Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts. As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post–World War II Western Art, most with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with this movement include Ad Reinhardt, Tony Smith, Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Larry Bell, Anne Truitt, Yves Klein and Frank Stella. Artists themselves have sometimes reacted against the label due to the negative implication of the work being simplistic. Minimalism is interpreted as a reaction against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art practices. Minimalism in visual art referred to as "minimal art", literalist art and ABC Art emerged in New York in the early 1960s. Minimal art appeared in New York in the 60s as new and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction.
Judd's sculpture was showcased in 1964 at the Green Gallery in Manhattan as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works, while other leading Manhattan galleries like the Leo Castelli Gallery and the Pace Gallery began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction. In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture' shown from April 27 - June 12, 1966 at the Jewish Museum in New York, organized by the museum's Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Kynaston McShine and Systemic Painting, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, Hard-edge painting. In the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called. Jean Metzinger, following the Succès de scandale created from the Cubist showing at the 1911 Salon des Indépendants, in an interview with Cyril Berger published in Paris-Journal 29 May 1911, stated: We cubists have only done our duty by creating a new rhythm for the benefit of humanity.
Others will come after us. What will they find? That is the tremendous secret of the future. Who knows if someday, a great painter, looking with scorn on the brutal game of supposed colorists and taking the seven colors back to the primordial white unity that encompasses them all, will not exhibit white canvases, with nothing nothing on them. Metzinger's audacious prediction that artists would take abstraction to its logical conclusion by vacating representational subject matter and returning to what Metzinger calls the "primordial white unity", a "completely white canvas" would be realized two years later; the writer of a satirical manifesto Francis Picabia, in a publication entitled Evolution de l'art: Vers l'amorphisme, in Les Hommes du Jour, may have had Metzinger's vision in mind when the author justified amorphism's blank canvases by claiming'light is enough for us'. With perspective, writes art historian Jeffery S. Weiss, "Vers Amorphisme may be gibberish, but it was enough of a foundational language to anticipate the extreme reductivist implications of non-objectivity".
Monochrome painting was initiated at the first Incoherent arts' exhibition in 1882 in Paris, with a black painting by poet Paul Bilhaud entitled "Combat de Nègres dans un tunnel". In the subsequent exhibitions of the Incoherent arts the writer Alphonse Allais proposed seven other monochrome paintings, such as "Première communion de jeunes filles chlorotiques par un temps de neige", or "Récolte de la tomate par des cardinaux apoplectiques au bord de la Mer Rouge". However, this kind of activity bears more similarity to 20th century Dada, or Neo-Dada, the works of the Fluxus group of the 1960s, than to 20th century monochrome painting since Malevich. In a broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, the Russian Constructivist movement, in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, others.
Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism, dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. The wide range of possibilities of interpretation of monochrome paintings is arguably why the monochrome is so engaging to so many artists and writers. Although the monochrome has never become dominant and few artists have committed themselves to it, it has never gone away, it reappears as though a spectre haunting high modernism, or as a symbol of it, appearing during times of aesthetic and sociopolitical upheavals. In France between 1947 and 1948, Yves Klein conceived his Monotone Symphony that consisted of a single 20-minute sustained chord follo
7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration is a work of land art by the German artist Joseph Beuys. It was first publicly presented in 1982 at the documenta 7. With the help of volunteers, Beuys planted 7,000 oak trees over several years in Kassel, each with an accompanying basalt stone. In response to the extensive urbanization of the setting the work was an long and large-scale artistic and ecological intervention with the goal of enduringly altering the living space of the city; the project, though at first controversial, has become an important part of Kassel's cityscape. The project was of enormous scope, met with some controversy. While the biggest difficulty of the project was raising the money, the project had its share of opponents. Much of it was political, from the conservative state government dominated by the Christian Democrats.. Some people thought the black stone markers were ugly piling pink stones on the sites in 1982 as a prank. A motorcyclist had died as a result of one of the stone markers.
However, as more trees were planted people's perception of the project as a parking lot destroyer had met with increasing tolerance.“I think the tree is an element of regeneration which in itself is a concept of time. The oak is so because it is a growing tree with a kind of solid heart wood, it has always been a form of sculpture, a symbol for this planet since the Druids, who are called after the oak. Druid means oak, they used their oaks to define their holy places. I can see such a use for the future.... The tree planting enterprise provides a simple but radical possibility for this when we start with the seven thousand oaks.” "The planting of seven thousand oak trees is only a symbolic beginning. Contrary to its initiative, progressive features such a symbolic beginning requires a marker, in this instance a basalt column. Future goals for the project included: a) an ongoing scheme of tree planting to be extended throughout the world as part of a global mission to effect environmental & social change "the purpose of educational activities".
Beuys' art works and performances are not about amusing the audience. It is an awakening message from the tradition, a recognition of the whole based upon a new concept of beauty that extends beyond the instant gratification. "I not only want to stimulate people, I want to provoke them." It is a movement from the tradition, the expected, the established for an inclusive openness. Completed in 1987 by his son, Wenzel, on the first anniversary of his father's death, the project is still maintained by the city. Beuys' 7000 Oaks work is an example of the thread that links the Situationist International's approach to art and its re-creation by new groups continues to evolve through a new generation of conscious organizations that merge art and environmental issues in their work. In 2000, the Center for Art and Visual Culture developed the Joseph Beuys Sculpture Park and Joseph Beuys Tree Partnership and planted over 350 trees in various parks in Baltimore Parks with the help of over 500 volunteers including children from local schools.
The project was organized around Beuys' philosophy that ‘everyone can be an artist’ by acknowledging the creativity inherent in volunteers planting trees on their own. The goal of the project was to “extend the traditional role of the art gallery so the gallery extends out into the city”. 1982 in art The Letters of Utrecht Living sculpture Social sculpture Beuys, Joseph. Gespräche über Bäume. Wangen FIU-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-928780-11-7. Database. "Joseph Beuys, 7000 Oaks". Dia Art Foundation. Retrieved 25 May 2012
I'm too sad to tell you
I'm too sad to tell you is a mixed media art work by conceptual artist Bas Jan Ader. The work includes a three-minute black-and-white silent film, still photographs and a post card all related to him crying for an unknown reason; the photographs include both a long hair version. The post cards were mailed to his friends with the inscription “I'm too sad to tell you”. There was an original, version of the film called Cry Claremont, it was shown in the Pomona College Gallery in Claremont, California in 1971-72. In conjunction with the title of the work, the reason for his sadness is never stated; the work's original form was a silent black and white movie shot outdoors in 1970 in front of Ader's house. The movie has since been lost. A still from the movie, was extracted and made into a post card, it shows Ader with his head in his hand crying. The back of the post card had the written inscription “I'm too sad to tell you”, it was dated September 13, 1970. The card was mailed to a number of Ader's friends.
The image has been reproduced in a photographic version with the inscription written in the lower right hand corner. The post card and photograph have become iconic of the work and a symbol that many artists have emulated. A second version of the film was made in Amsterdam in 1971; this was more of a performance with Ader appearing to be calm before the shooting and rubbing his eyes during the filming to produce tears and build emotional intensity. Ten minutes of film was shot with the final version edited to about three and a half minutes; the edited version captures Ader at his most anguished. His face is framed closely. There is no introduction or conclusion, no reason given and no relief from the anguish, presented. Critics have said that it is hard not to be affected by the film, with its offering of “raw passion to anyone willing to watch”; the work has inspired analysis. There seems to be an overall tension between the sincerity of the artist's captured emotions and performance aspects of the works.
Artists James Roberts and Collier Schorr, for example, feel the works are at once intensely personal and yet arbitrary. There was a true reason for Ader's sadness, but, not shared with us. Bruce Hainley, contributing editor to Artforum, thinks the reasons for his sadness are beside the point. In his view, Ader walks a fine line between melodrama. Jörg Heiser, coeditor of Frieze, views the work as an ironic statement of the artist taking on all of the embarrassment of the expressed emotion while leaving it open as to whether or not the viewer takes on the embarrassment as well. Women reviewers have been more critical. Jennifer Doyle in her book Hold it Against Me: Difficulty and Emotion in Contemporary Art feels the work may be seen as real due to the tradition of the “melancholy white male artist”, she sees this in contrast in hysterics. Journalist Betty van Garrel goes so far as to say "Ader is a sentimental loser, a romantic softie, a problem case and not original in that." I'm too sad to tell you has influenced a large number of artists, with many composing interpretations and homages to the work.
These include: Alexander Brandt on his goal of imitating Ader's pose in his own self-portrait:“My appropriation of this visual has a strategic aim. I myself do not fit the cliché of a tragic artist.... It is the reactions it will produce with the audience that interest me.” David Horvitz on the influence for his book Sad Depressed People:"If you look at my book, all the images are with people's hands to their faces...this was a direct reference to Ader's image." Vik Muniz created Self Portrait with his head in his hand per Ader. Hugh O'Donnell created a performance piece performed with Ader's movie. Lisa Rovner said Ader's movie "was the most beautiful thing she's seen." Maike Aden-Schraenen, In Search of Bas Jan Ader, Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH, 2013, chapter 1.3 I'm too sad to tell you
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume