George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont
George O'Brien Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont FRS of Petworth House in Sussex and Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, was a British peer, a major landowner and a great art collector. He was interested in the latest scientific advances, he was an agriculturist and a friend of the agricultural writer Arthur Young, was an enthusiastic canal builder who invested in many commercial ventures for the improvement of his estates. He played a limited role in politics, he was a great patron of art and the painter J. M. W. Turner lived for a while at his Sussex seat of Petworth House. Several other painters including John Constable, C. R. Leslie, George Romney, the sculptor John Flaxman, other talented artists received commissions from Wyndham, who filled his house with valuable works of art; the earl was a sponsor of the Petworth Emigration Scheme intended to relieve rural poverty caused by overpopulation. Generous and hospitable and eccentric, the earl was in his day a prominent figure in English society. Charles Greville assessed him as "immensely rich and his munificence was equal to his wealth" and wrote that "in his time Petworth was like a great inn."
Though Wyndham had more than 40 children. Lord Egremont was succeeded in the earldom by his nephew George Wyndham, 4th Earl of Egremont, but bequeathed his unentailed estates, namely the former Percy estates including Petworth House in Sussex, Leconfield Castle in Yorkshire and Egremont Castle in Cumbria, to his eldest illegitimate son Col. George Wyndham, 1st Baron Leconfield. Wyndham was born on 18 December 1751 the eldest son and heir of Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont of Orchard Wyndham and Petworth House, by his wife Hon. Alicia Maria Carpenter, daughter of George Carpenter, 2nd Baron Carpenter of Killaghy, by his wife Elizabeth Petty. In 1763 at the age of 12, he succeeded to his father's titles and estates at Petworth in Sussex, Egremont in Cumbria, Leconfield with further land in Wiltshire and the large estates at Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, the family's oldest possession, he inherited the lands of the Earl of Thomond in Ireland. He was educated at Westminster Schools. In 1774, he added O'Brien to his name on inheriting extensive estates in Ireland from his uncle Percy Wyndham-O'Brien, 1st Earl of Thomond.
He went on two grand tours to Italy in the 1770s. At the family's newly built London residence, Egremont House, he associated with fashionable Macaronis. Wyndham was a patron of painters such as Turner and Constable, of the sculptor John Flaxman who contributed an heroic group of Michael overthrowing Satan for the North Gallery. Turner had a studio on an upper floor, he painted landscapes of Petworth and one of the earl's canal projects, the Chichester Ship Canal. Like his father, the earl collected French furniture, as when on a visit to Paris in July 1802 during the Peace of Amiens, he bought a pair of five-light candelabra supported by bronze female caryatids, supplied by Martin-Eloy Lignereux; the earl was an enthusiast for canal building, which would allow for agricultural improvement on his Petworth estates by bringing in chalk from Houghton for liming, coal to replace scarce supplies of firewood, releasing more land for food production. The first venture was the Rother Navigation. Failing, during the time of Canal Mania, to find any reliable contractor able to undertake the construction most of the work was done by the earl's own estate workers.
Starting from Stopham the Navigation reached Petworth in 1795 and Midhurst in 1796. A branch to Haslingbourne, south of Petworth, was built, known as the Petworth Canal; this was intended to be extended north to link to the River Wey, but following unfavourable surveys the plan was abandoned when the cost of locks needed to reach the north side of Petworth proved prohibitive. In 1796, the earl purchased 36 percent of the shares in the Arun Navigation Company, saving it from bankruptcy when it was burdened with the £16,000 cost of building the Coldwaltham cut and Hardham tunnel. Having abandoned plans for a canal from Petworth to Shalford and keen for the nation to have an inland waterway linking London and Portsmouth, safe from natural hazards to coastal shipping and naval attack by the French, the earl turned his attention to linking the River Arun to the River Wey in Surrey; the Arun Canal had extended the navigable length of the River Arun to Newbridge on the road from Wisborough Green to Billingshurst and the Wey and Arun Junction Canal was completed in 1816 to connect to the Godalming Navigation.
In 1823, the completion of the Portsmouth and Arundel Canal, including the Chichester Ship Canal, completed the London to Portsmouth route for barges and marked the end of the earl's investment in canal building. A number of vessels were named Egremont, including a barge on the Arun Navigation, a brigantine built at Littlehampton for coastal trading and wrecked on the Goodwin Sands after only two years, a steam tug used to tow barges across Chichester and Langstone harbours for the Portsmouth and Arundel Canal. War with France and population growth made famine an ever-present danger in the early nineteenth century and there was an urgent need to maximise food production using any land that could be cultivated. In the 1820s, emigration to Canada, was promoted as a means of relieving rural unemployment and poverty. Thomas Sockett, Rector of Petworth and Wyndham's protégé, promoted the Petworth Emigration Scheme, which sent 1,800 people from Sussex and neighbouring counties to Upper Canada between 1832 and 1837.
The earl encouraged those living on his land to join the scheme b
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors. There are three primary types of optical telescope: refractors, which use lenses reflectors, which use mirrors catadioptric telescopes, which combine lenses and mirrorsA telescope's light gathering power and ability to resolve small detail is directly related to the diameter of its objective; the larger the objective, the more light the telescope collects and the finer detail it resolves. People use telescopes and binoculars for activities such as observational astronomy, ornithology and reconnaissance, watching sports or performance arts; the telescope is more a discovery of optical craftsmen than an invention of a scientist. The lens and the properties of refracting and reflecting light had been known since antiquity and theory on how they worked were developed by ancient Greek philosophers and expanded on in the medieval Islamic world, had reached a advanced state by the time of the telescope's invention in early modern Europe.
But the most significant step cited in the invention of the telescope was the development of lens manufacture for spectacles, first in Venice and Florence in the thirteenth century, in the spectacle making centers in both the Netherlands and Germany. It is in the Netherlands in 1608; the invention is credited to the spectacle makers Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen in Middelburg, the instrument-maker and optician Jacob Metius of Alkmaar. Galileo improved on these designs the following year, is credited as the first to use a telescope for astronomy. Galileo's telescope used Hans Lippershey's design of a convex objective lens and a concave eye lens, this design is now called a Galilean telescope. Johannes Kepler proposed an improvement on the design that used a convex eyepiece called the Keplerian Telescope; the next big step in the development of refractors was the advent of the Achromatic lens in the early 18th century, which corrected the chromatic aberration in Keplerian telescopes up to that time—allowing for much shorter instruments with much larger objectives.
For reflecting telescopes, which use a curved mirror in place of the objective lens, theory preceded practice. The theoretical basis for curved mirrors behaving similar to lenses was established by Alhazen, whose theories had been disseminated in Latin translations of his work. Soon after the invention of the refracting telescope Galileo, Giovanni Francesco Sagredo, others, spurred on by their knowledge that curved mirrors had similar properties as lenses, discussed the idea of building a telescope using a mirror as the image forming objective; the potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors led to several proposed designs for reflecting telescopes, the most notable of, published in 1663 by James Gregory and came to be called the Gregorian telescope, but no working models were built. Isaac Newton has been credited with constructing the first practical reflecting telescopes, the Newtonian telescope, in 1668 although due to their difficulty of construction and the poor performance of the speculum metal mirrors used it took over 100 years for reflectors to become popular.
Many of the advances in reflecting telescopes included the perfection of parabolic mirror fabrication in the 18th century, silver coated glass mirrors in the 19th century, long-lasting aluminum coatings in the 20th century, segmented mirrors to allow larger diameters, active optics to compensate for gravitational deformation. A mid-20th century innovation was catadioptric telescopes such as the Schmidt camera, which uses both a lens and mirror as primary optical elements used for wide field imaging without spherical aberration; the late 20th century has seen the development of adaptive optics and space telescopes to overcome the problems of astronomical seeing The basic scheme is that the primary light-gathering element the objective, focuses that light from the distant object to a focal plane where it forms a real image. This image may be viewed through an eyepiece, which acts like a magnifying glass; the eye sees an inverted magnified virtual image of the object. Most telescope designs produce an inverted image at the focal plane.
In fact, the image is both turned upside down and reversed left to right, so that altogether it is rotated by 180 degrees from the object orientation. In astronomical telescopes the rotated view is not corrected, since it does not affect how the telescope is used. However, a mirror diagonal is used to place the eyepiece in a more convenient viewing location, in that case the image is erect, but still reversed left to right. In terrestrial telescopes such as spotting scopes and binoculars, prisms or a relay lens between objective and eyepiece are used to correct the image orientation. There are telescope designs that do not present an inverted image such as the Galilean refractor and the Gregorian reflector; these are referred to as erecting telescopes. Many types of telescope divert the optical path with secondary or tertiary mirrors; these may be integral part of the optical design (Newtonian telescope, Cassegrain r
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Limerick is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the city; the city lies on the River Shannon, with the historic core of the city located on King's Island, bounded by the Shannon and the Abbey River. Limerick is located at the head of the Shannon Estuary where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 94,192, Limerick is the third most populous urban area in the state, the fourth most populous city on the island of Ireland; the Limerick City Metropolitan District had a population of 104,952. On 1 June 2014 following the merger of Limerick City and County Council a new Metropolitan District of Limerick was formed within the united council which extended the city area; the Metropolitan District includes the city urban area and extends outwards towards Patrickswell in the west and Castleconnell in the east. The City Metropolitan Area however excludes city suburbs located within County Clare.
Limerick is one of the constituent cities of the Cork–Limerick–Galway corridor which has a population of 1 million people. It is located at a strategic position on the River Shannon with four main crossing points near the city centre. To the south of the city is the Golden Vale, an area of rich pastureland. Much of the city's industry was based on this rich agricultural hinterland and it is noted for Limerick Ham. Luimneach referred to the general area along the banks of the Shannon Estuary known as Loch Luimnigh; the earliest settlement in the city, Inis Sibhtonn, was the original name for King's Island during the pre-Viking and Viking eras. This island was called Inis an Ghaill Duibh, "The Dark- Foreigner's Island"; the name is recorded in Viking sources as Hlymrekr. The city dates from 812, the earliest probable settlement. Antiquity's map-maker, produced in 150 the earliest map of Ireland, showing a place called "Regia" at the same site as King's Island. History records an important battle involving Cormac mac Airt in 221 and a visit by St. Patrick in 434 to baptise an Eóganachta king, Carthann the Fair.
Saint Munchin, the first bishop of Limerick died in 652, indicating the city was a place of some note. In 812 the Vikings sailed up the Shannon and pillaged the city, burned the monastery of Mungret but were forced to flee when the Irish attacked and killed many of their number; the Normans redesigned the city in the 12th century and added much of the most notable architecture, such as King John's Castle and St Mary's Cathedral. In early medieval times Limerick was at the centre of the Kingdom of Thomond which corresponds to the present day County Clare, the Kingdom included North Kerry and parts of South Offaly. One of the kingdom's most notable kings was ancestor of the O'Brien Clan of Dalcassians; the word Thomond is synonymous with the region and is retained in place names such as Thomondgate, Thomond Bridge & Thomond Park. Limerick in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was called the most beautiful city in Ireland; the English-born judge Luke Gernon, a resident of Limerick, wrote in 1620 that at his first sight of the city he had been amazed at its magnificence: "lofty buildings of marble, like the Colleges in Oxford".
During the civil wars of the 17th century the city played a pivotal role, besieged by Oliver Cromwell in 1651 and twice by the Williamites in the 1690s. The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland, fought between supporters of the Catholic King James II and the Protestant King William of Orange; the treaty offered toleration to Catholicism and full legal rights to Catholics that swore an oath of loyalty to William III and Mary II. The Treaty was of national significance as it ensured closer British and Protestant dominance over Ireland; the articles of the Treaty protecting Catholic rights were not passed by the Protestant Irish Parliament which rather updated the Penal Laws against Catholics which had major implications for Irish history. Reputedly the Treaty was signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular block of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses; this stone is now displayed on a pedestal at Clancy Strand. Because of the treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City.
This turbulent period earned the city its motto: Urbs antiqua fuit studisque asperrima belli. The peace times that followed the turmoil of the late 17th Century allowed the city to prosper through trade in the late 18th century. During this time Limerick Port established itself as one of Ireland's major commercial ports exporting agricultural produce from one of Ireland's most fertile areas, the Golden Vale, to Britain and America; this increase in trade and wealth amongst the city's merchant classes saw a rapid expansion of the city as Georgian Limerick began to take shape. This gave the city its present-day look including the extensive terraced streets of fine Georgian townhouses which remain in the city centre today; the Waterford and Limerick Railway linked the city to the Dublin–Cork railway line in 1848 and to Waterford in 1853. The opening of a number of secondary railways in the subsequent decades developed Limerick as a regional centre of communications. However, the economic downturn in the European conflicts of the French Revolution and Napoleonic eras, following the Act of Union 1800, the impact of the Great Irish Famine of 1848 caused much of the 19th Century to be a more
Mungo Park (explorer)
Mungo Park was a Scottish explorer of West Africa. He was the first Westerner known to have travelled to the central portion of the Niger River, he wrote a popular and influential travel book about it titled Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa. Mungo Park was born in Selkirkshire, Scotland, at Foulshiels on the Yarrow Water, near Selkirk, on a tenant farm which his father rented from the Duke of Buccleuch, he was the seventh in a family of thirteen. Although tenant farmers, the Parks were well-off, they were able to pay for Park to receive a good education, Park's father died leaving property valued at £3,000. His parents had intended him for the Church of Scotland, he was educated at home before attending Selkirk grammar school. At the age of fourteen, he was apprenticed to a surgeon in Selkirk. During his apprenticeship, Park became friends with Anderson's son Alexander and was introduced to Anderson's daughter Allison, who would become his wife. In October 1788, Park enrolled at the University of Edinburgh, attending for four sessions studying medicine and botany.
Notably, during his time at university, he spent a year in the natural history course taught by Professor John Walker. After completing his studies, he spent a summer in the Scottish Highlands, engaged in botanical fieldwork with his brother-in-law, James Dickson, a gardener and seed merchant in Covent Garden. In 1788 Dickson along with Sir James Edward Smith and six other fellows founded the Linnean Society of London. In 1792 Park completed his medical studies at University of Edinburgh. Through a recommendation by Banks, he obtained the post of assistant surgeon on board the East India Company's ship Worcester. In February 1793 the Worcester sailed to Benkulen in Sumatra. Before departing, Park wrote to his friend Alexander Anderson in terms that reflect his Calvinist upbringing: My hope is now approaching to a certainty. If I be deceived, may God alone put me right, for I would rather die in the delusion than wake to all the joys of earth. May the Holy Spirit dwell in your heart, my dear friend, if I see my native land again, may I rather see the green sod on your grave than see you anything but a Christian.
On his return in 1794, Park gave a lecture to the Linnaean Society, describing eight new Sumatran fish. The paper was not published until three years later, he presented Banks with various rare Sumatran plants. On 26 September 1794 Mungo Park offered his services to the African Association looking for a successor to Major Daniel Houghton, sent in 1790 to discover the course of the Niger River and had died in the Sahara. Supported by Sir Joseph Banks, Park was selected. On 22 May 1795, Park left Portsmouth, England, on the brig Endeavour, a vessel travelling to Gambia to trade for beeswax and ivory. On 21 June 1795, he reached the Gambia River and ascended it 200 miles to a British trading station named Pisania. On 2 December, accompanied by two local guides, he started for the unknown interior, he chose the route crossing the upper Senegal basin and through the semi-desert region of Kaarta. The journey was full of difficulties, at Ludamar he was imprisoned by a Moorish chief for four months. On 1 July 1796, he escaped and with nothing but his horse and a pocket compass, on the 21st reached the long-sought Niger River at Ségou, being the first European to do so.
He followed the river downstream 80 miles to Silla, where he was obliged to turn back, lacking the resources to go further. On his return journey, begun on 29 July, he took a route more to the south than that followed, keeping close to the Niger River as far as Bamako, thus tracing its course for some 300 miles. At Kamalia he fell ill, owed his life to the kindness of a man in whose house he lived for seven months, he reached Pisania again on 10 June 1797, returning to Scotland by way of Antigua on 22 December. He had been thought dead, his return home with news of his exploration of the Niger River evoked great public enthusiasm. An account of his journey was drawn up for the African Association by Bryan Edwards, his own detailed narrative appeared in 1799. Park was convinced that: whatever difference there is between the negro and European, in the conformation of the nose, the colour of the skin, there is none in the genuine sympathies and characteristic feelings of our common nature. Park encountered a group of slaves when traveling through Mandinka country Mali: They were all inquisitive, but they viewed me at first with looks of horror, asked if my countrymen were cannibals.
They were desirous to know what became of the slaves after they had crossed the salt water. I told them. A deeply-rooted idea that the whites purchase Negroes for the purpose of devouring them, or of selling them to others that they may be devoured hereafter makes the slaves contemplate a journey towards the Coast with great terror, insomuch that the Slatees are forced to keep them in irons, watch them closely, to prevent their escape, his book Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa became a best-seller because it detailed what he observed, what he survived, the people he encountered. His dispassionate — if not scientific or objective — descriptions set a standard for future travel writers to follow and gave Europeans a glimpse of Africa's humanity and complexity. Park introduced them to a vast continent unexplored by Europeans, proposed by e
Template:Sydney Cove Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour Australia, Sydney New south wales. The Aboriginal name for Sydney Cove, as recorded in a number of First Fleet journals and vocabularies, was Warrane War-ran and Wee-rong; this place is significant to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as a site of first contact between the Eora and the Berewalgal. Warrane was integral to the everyday lives of the Eora people; the men speared fish from the shoreline. Sydney Cove was named after the 1st Baron Sydney, it was the site chosen by Captain Arthur Phillip, RN between 21 and 23 January 1788 for the British penal settlement, now the city of Sydney, where possession of New South Wales was formally declared on 26 January. Today, the exact site is unmarked, beneath buildings of Circular Quay. Phillip's instructions were to establish the settlement at Botany Bay, a large bay further south of Sydney Cove, discovered by Lieutenant James Cook during his voyage of discovery in 1770, was recommended by the eminent botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who had accompanied Cook, as a suitable site for a settlement.
But Phillip discovered that Botany Bay offered neither a secure anchorage nor a reliable source of fresh water. Sydney Cove offered both of these, being serviced by a freshwater creek, soon to be known as the Tank Stream, it must have been like entering paradise on that summer afternoon when the sea-won convoy passed through the dun and barren headlands into the untouched harbour – the water brilliantly blue, the shores high and wooded without being precipitous, a scattering of islands, sandy beaches, the trees shimmering under the sun. The site of the settlement was Sydney Cove, it was one of the smaller inlets, chosen because it had fresh water and good anchorage for ships close into the land. The Governor's working party had cleared a camping ground beside the creek, which stole silently along through a thick wood, the stillness of which had for the first time since the Creation, been interrupted by the rude sound of the labourer's axe. Today the Tank Stream is encased in a concrete drain beneath the streets of the central business district and all native bushland has been cleared.
The head of the cove is occupied by the Circular Quay ferry terminal. On Bennelong Point at the northern end of the eastern shore of the cove stands the Sydney Opera House. On the western shore is the historic district known as The Rocks. A sample of the dark grey clay of Sydney Cove was collected by Governor Phillip and given to Sir Joseph Banks, who gave it to pottery maker Josiah Wedgwood to test for suitability for making pottery. Wedgwood found it excellent and made a commemorative medal that became known as the Sydney Cove Medallion. Sydney Cove is a focal point for community celebrations, due to its central Sydney location between the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge, it is one of the main congregation points for Sydney New Year's Eve. Sydney punchbowls D. Manning Richards. Destiny in Sydney: An epic novel of convicts and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia. First book in Sydney series. Washington DC: Aries Books, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9845410-0-3 Geographic coordinates: 33°51′31″S 151°12′42″E
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership, grasp of strategy, unconventional tactics, which together resulted in a number of decisive British naval victories during the Napoleonic Wars, he was wounded several times in combat, losing the sight in one eye in Corsica at the age of 36, as well as most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife when 40 years of age. He was shot and killed at the age of 47 during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar near the Spanish port city of Cádiz in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a high-ranking naval officer himself, he rose through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command at the age of 20 in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence.
The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. Shortly after the battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where his attack was defeated and he was badly wounded, losing his right arm, was forced to return to England to recuperate; the following year, he won a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile and remained in the Mediterranean to support the Kingdom of Naples against a French invasion. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen, he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle.
After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805. On 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar; the battle was Britain's greatest naval victory, but during the action, aboard HMS Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England. Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures; the significance of the victory and his death during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", being quoted and referenced up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, England, the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and his wife Catherine Suckling, he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton.
His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, in 1749. Nelson's aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich, his naval career began on 1 January 1771, when he reported to the third-rate HMS Raisonnable as an ordinary seaman and coxswain under his maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling, who commanded the vessel. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson began officer training. Early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life.
HMS Raisonnable had been commissioned during a period of tension with Spain, but when this passed, Suckling was transferred to the Nore guardship HMS Triumph and Nelson was dispatched to serve aboard the West Indiamen Mary Ann of the merchant shipping firm of Hibbert and Horton, in order to gain experience at sea. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Suckling's longboat, which carried men and dispatches to and from the shore. Nelson learned of a planned expedition under the command of Constantine Phipps, intended to survey a passage in the Arctic by which it was hoped that India could be reached: the fabled North-East Passage. At his nephew's request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass; the expedition reached within ten degrees of the North Pole, unable to find a way through the dense ice floes, was forced to turn back. By 1800 Lutwidge began to circulate a story that while the ship had been trapped in the ice, Nelson had seen and pursued a polar bear, before being ordered to return to the ship.
Lutwidge's version, in 1809, reported that Nelson and a companion had given chase to the bear, but on bei