Anne-César, Chevalier de la Luzerne
Anne-César de La Luzerne was an 18th-century French soldier and diplomat. Descended from an illustrious Normandy family, as a Knight of Malta and the Order of Saint Louis he was styled Chevalier before King Louis XVI created him a Marquis in 1785. Born on 15 July 1741 in Paris, his father was César Antoine de la Luzerne, comte de Beuzeville, a Maréchal de camp in the king's army, his mother was Marie-Elisabeth de Lamoignon de Blancmesnil, the daughter of Lord Chancellor Lamoignon and the sister of the Secretary of State Malesherbes. Anne-César's brothers were comte de La Luzerne, Naval Minister and Cardinal La Luzerne. Anne-César de La Luzerne joined the French Royal Army in 1754 and served with distinction during the Seven Years' War, he commanded the Grenadiers royaux de France, reaching the rank of Major-General in 1762. He entered diplomatic service as French Minister Plenipotentiary, first to Bavaria, in the United States. In 1779 La Luzerne succeeded Conrad Alexandre Gérard de Rayneval as the French Minister to the United States and served as the official Ambassador of France until 1784.
During his time in Philadelphia he never failed to show his sympathy for the young Republic. He guaranteed a personal loan, much needed to furnish food for the troops in 1780, he arranged for a requiem Mass after the death of Juan de Miralles, at St. Mary's Church in Philadelphia on 8 May 1780. Maryland persisted in being the only state to block ratification of the Articles of Confederation. La Luzerne felt; when Maryland requested France provide naval forces in the Chesapeake Bay for protection from the British, he indicated that French Admiral Destouches would do what he could but La Luzerne "sharply pressed" Maryland to ratify the Articles, thus suggesting the two issues were related. Maryland ratified the Articles in February 1781, he returned to Europe in his reputation as an envoy much enhanced. In 1789, Thomas Jefferson, the first U. S. Secretary of State, sent La Luzerne a letter of thanks on behalf of President George Washington. In 1788 he was posted as Ambassador to the Court of St. James's in London, died on 14 September 1791 at Southampton.
In 1781 he had been elected an Honorary Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1783 he was a founding Fellow of the Society of the Cincinnati. Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, is named after him. List of ambassadors of France to the United States List of Ambassadors of France to the United Kingdom Modified from New American Supplement to the New Werner Twentieth Century Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. La Luzerne, Anne Cesar, Encyclopedia.com www.bodley.ox.ac.uk
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
George Wythe was the first American law professor, a noted classics scholar, a Virginia judge. The first of the seven Virginia signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence, Wythe served as one of Virginia's representatives to the Continental Congress and the Philadelphia Convention. Wythe taught and was a mentor to Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Henry Clay and other men who became American leaders. Born into a wealthy Virginia planter family, Wythe established a legal career in Williamsburg, Virginia after studying under his uncle, he became a member of the House of Burgesses in 1754 and helped oversee defense expenditures during the French and Indian War. He opposed other British taxes imposed on the Thirteen Colonies, he became alienated from British rule, represented Virginia in the Second Continental Congress, where he signed the Declaration of Independence. He was a delegate to Virginia's 1776 constitutional convention and helped design the Seal of Virginia. Wythe was a delegate to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention and served on a committee that established the convention's rules and procedures.
He left the convention before signing the United States Constitution to tend to his dying wife. He was elected to the Virginia Ratifying Convention and helped ensure that his home state ratified the Constitution. Wythe served as a judge for much of his life, first as a justice of the peace and on the Virginia Court of Chancery, he was a prominent law professor at the College of William & Mary and took on several notable apprentices. He remained close to Jefferson, left Jefferson his substantial book collection in his will. Wythe became troubled by slavery in his years and emancipated 4 of his slaves before his death. After Wythe's death in 1806, his grand-nephew was acquitted for Wythe's murder. Wythe was born in 1726 at Chesterville, the plantation operated by three generations of the Wythe family in what was Elizabeth City County but is now Hampton, Virginia, his maternal great-grandfather was George Keith, a Quaker minister and early opponent of African slavery, who returned to the Church of England but was sent back as a missionary to the East Coast before returning to England.
His mother, Margaret Walker of Kecoughtan, a learned woman raised as a Quaker, instilled a love of learning in her son. In his years, Wythe became known for his outdated Quaker dress, as well as his gentle manner, which could cause a surly dog to "unbend and wag his tail." After the early death of his father, Wythe attended grammar school in Williamsburg before beginning legal training in the office of his uncle, Stephen Dewey, in Prince George County. Wythe was admitted to the bar in Elizabeth City County in 1746, the same year in which his mother died, he moved to Spotsylvania County to begin legal practice in several Piedmont counties. He soon married the daughter of Zachary Lewis. However, Ann Wythe died on August 10, 1748, about eight months after their Christmas season marriage; the childless and bereaved widower soon returned to Williamsburg. There, Wythe made law and scholarship his life, as he began what would become a distinguished career in public service, his motto was "Secundis dubiisque rectus", translated as "Upright in prosperity and perils."
In October 1748, family connections helped Wythe secure his first government job, as clerk to two powerful committees of the House of Burgesses and Elections and Propositions and Grievances. Wythe continued to practice law before those committees and the General Court in Williamsburg, as was permitted at the time. In 1750, Wythe was first elected as one of Williamsburg's aldermen. Wythe briefly served as the king's attorney general in 1754–1755, appointed by lieutenant governor Robert Dinwiddie while Peyton Randolph traveled to London on the burgesses' behalf to appeal Dinwiddie's charging a one pistole fee to affix an official seal to land patents. Wythe resigned. Lieutenant governor Robert Dinwiddie returned to England less than three years after Peyton Randolph's return. Meanwhile, Wythe began his legislative career. In the session of August 22, 1754, Wythe replaced the deceased Armistead Burwell as the burgess representing Williamsburg. In 1755, Wythe's elder brother, died, childless. Wythe inherited the family's Chesterville plantation, was soon appointed to his brother's place on the Elizabeth City County court.
However, Wythe continued to live in Williamsburg, for his legislative work continued, he married Elizabeth Taliaferro. Her father, planter Richard Taliaferro, built a house for them in Williamsburg, still called the George Wythe House though Wythe only had a life estate in the property after Taliaferro's death. Wythe served as Williamsburg's delegate through the sessions of 1754 and 1755. During that gap, Wythe was reappointed clerk to the committees on Privileges and Elections and Propositions and Grievances, as well as to the Committee for Courts of Justice, in 1759 to the Committee of Correspondence. In 1759, The College of William and Mary elected Wythe as its burgess to replace Peyton Randolph, reelected Wythe in 1760 and 1761. Wythe helped oversee defense expenditures related to the French and Indian War, with Richard Henry Lee retirement of the paper money issued to fund the war, which became a scandal in 1766, as discussed below. For the Assemblies of 1761, 1765 and 1767, Wythe was
Mayor of Richmond, Virginia
The Mayor of the City of Richmond, Virginia is head of the executive branch of Richmond, Virginia's city government. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, enforces all city and federal laws within Richmond, Virginia; the mayor looks over a city budget at $765 million a year. The current mayor is Democrat Levar Stoney, elected on November 8, 2016. Stoney took office on December 31, 2016; the mayor of Richmond contains a multi-member cabinet of advisers that assist the mayor on city policy decisions. The following individuals are part of Stoney's cabinet. In May 1782, Virginia General Assembly expressed desire to move inland, to a place less exposed to British incursions than Williamsburg. Richmond had been made the temporary capital after urging from Thomas Jefferson years earlier, it was soon decided to make the move permanent. Two months on July 2, a charter was written up, the city was incorporated. Twelve men were to be elected from the City at-large and were to select one of their own to act as Mayor, another to serve as Recorder and four to serve as Aldermen.
The remaining six were to serve as members of the Common Council. All positions had term limits of three years, with the exception of the mayor who could only serve one year consecutively. A vote was held at a meeting the following day, Dr. William Foushee, Sr. was chosen as the first mayor. In March 1851, the decision was made to replace the original Richmond City Charter, it was decided. After the 12-year tenure of William Lambert and his short-term replacement by recorder Samuel C. Pulliam, elections were held, with Joseph C. Mayo coming out on top. Mayo was deposed in April 1865, weeks before the end of the American Civil War, when Union forces captured the city; the system set forth by the Second City Charter worked as long as the City was small and most voters knew the qualifications of the men for whom they were voting and the requirements for the jobs to which they were elected. Beginning in 1948, Richmond eliminated the popularly elected mayor's office, instituted a council-manager form of government.
This lasted until 2004, when the City Charter was changed once again, bringing back the popularly elected mayor. Former Virginia Gov. L. Douglas Wilder was elected mayor that year. Of Virginia's 38 cities, only Richmond does not have a council-manager form of government; the mayor has the power to appoint the directors and administrative leaders of the following city offices and departments: Chief Administrative Officer Department of Economic and Community Development Department of Finance Department of Public Works Department of Human Resources Department of Human Services Department of Information Technology Department of Justice Services Departments of Parks and Community Facilities Department of Planning and Zoning Review Department of Procurement Services Department of Public Utilities Department of Public Works Department of Social Services Office of Budget and Strategic Planning Office of Minority Business Development Office of the Chief Administrative Officer Office of the Mayor Office of the Press Secretary Richmond Fire Department Richmond Police Department Richmond Public Library Richmond Public Schools Government of Richmond, Virginia Official Website
James McHenry was a Scotch-Irish American military surgeon and statesman. McHenry was a signer of the eponym of Fort McHenry, he was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Maryland, the third United States Secretary of War, under the first and second presidents, George Washington and John Adams. He married his wife, Peggy Caldwell, on January 8, 1784. McHenry was born into a Scots-Irish family in Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland in 1753. Alarmed that he was becoming sick from excessive studying, his family in 1771 sent him at 17 to North America to recuperate. Recent scholarship suggests that the family may have sent him to the colonies as an "advanced scout" to see if the entire family would wish to relocate, which they did a year later. Upon arrival, McHenry lived with a family friend in Philadelphia before deciding to finish his preparatory education at Newark Academy. Returning to Philadelphia, McHenry apprenticed under Benjamin Rush and became a physician. McHenry became a surgeon. McHenry served as a dedicated surgeon during the American Revolutionary War.
On August 10, 1776 he was appointed surgeon at the age of 23 of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion stationed at Fort Washington. He was taken prisoner the following November. While there, he observed that prisoners were given poor medical attention and initiated reports to that effect, to no avail, he was paroled in January 1777, released from parole in March 1778. Having sufficiently impressed George Washington, he was appointed aide as secretary to the commander-in-chief in May 1779. McHenry was present at the Battle of Monmouth. In August 1780 he was transferred to major-general Lafayette's staff, where he remained until he retired from the army in the autumn of 1781. Following the war, McHenry was one of three physicians who participated in the Constitutional Convention to create the new Constitution of the United States, he was elected by the legislature to the Maryland Senate on September 17, 1781 and as delegate to congress by the Maryland legislature on December 2, 1784. After a controversial campaign, he was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates on October 10, 1788.
Two years he retired from public life and spent a year engaged in mercantile business. On November 15, 1791 he served five years. Washington had considerable difficulties with his second administration, as his cabinet officers Hamilton and General Knox resigned. In addition, he had a vacancy after appointing Timothy Pickering to the State Department. After a few of Washington's preferred choices declined the position, the name of his friend, McHenry, surfaced. Washington appointed McHenry Secretary of War in 1796 and assigned him the task of facilitating the transition of Western military posts from Great Britain's control to that of the United States, under the terms of the Jay Treaty. McHenry advised the Senate committee against reducing military forces, he was instrumental in reorganizing the United States Army into one of four regiments of infantry, a troop of dragoons, a battery of artillery. He is credited with establishing the United States Department of the Navy, based on his recommendation that the "War Department should be assisted by a commissioner of marine."
On March 8, 1798. During President John Adams's administration, he appointed McHenry as his Secretary of War, as he had decided to keep the newly established institution of the presidential cabinet intact. There was no precedent to follow in the new constitutional government. Adams found that three members of the cabinet opposed him, they appeared to listen more to Alexander Hamilton than to the president and publicly disagreed with Adams about his foreign policy with regard to France. Instead of resigning, they stayed in office to work against his official policy, it is unknown. Although many liked McHenry Washington and Wolcott were said to have complained of his incompetence as an administrator. McHenry attributed Adams's troubles as chief executive to the president's long and frequent absences from the capital, leaving business in the hands of secretaries, who bore responsibility without the power to properly conduct it. After a stormy meeting with his cabinet in May 1800, Adams requested McHenry's resignation, which he submitted on May 13.
To replace McHenry, Adams first considered John Marshall, but when Pickering's departure left a vacancy in the office of Secretary of State, Adams named Marshall to that post. To succeed McHenry, Adams named Samuel Dexter; when Pickering refused to resign, Adams dismissed him. During the election of 1800, McHenry goaded Hamilton into releasing his indictment against the President, which questioned Adams's loyalty and patriotism, sparking public quarrels over the major candidates and paving the way for Thomas Jefferson to be elected as the next President; the pamphlet leaked past its intended audience, giving the people reason to oppose the Federalists since that group seemed to be dividing into bitter factions. Thus, Adams lost re-election to Thomas Jefferson. In 1792, McHenry had purchased a 95-acre tract from Ridgely's Delight and named it Fayetteville in honor of his friend, the Marquis de Lafayette. During that time, McHenry continued frequent correspondence with his friends and ass
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the fall line of the James River, 44 miles west of Williamsburg, 66 miles east of Charlottesville, 100 miles east of Lynchburg and 90 miles south of Washington, D. C. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, encircled by Interstate 295, Virginia State Route 150 and Virginia State Route 288. Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Chesterfield to the south, Varina to the southeast, Sandston to the east, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast; the site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, was settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609, in 1610–1611.
The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became Dominion of Virginia in 1780, replacing Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War period, several notable events occurred in the city, including Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in 1775 at St. John's Church, the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson. During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the second and permanent capital of the Confederate States of America; the city entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a national hub of African-American culture. Richmond's economy is driven by law and government, with federal and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms, located in the downtown area; the city is home to both the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States courts of appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks.
Dominion Energy and WestRock, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area. After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at Jamestown, Captain Christopher Newport led explorers northwest up the James River, to an area, inhabited by Powhatan Native Americans; the earliest European settlement in the Central Virginia area was in 1611 at Henricus, where the Falling Creek empties into the James River. In 1619, early Virginia Company settlers struggling to establish viable moneymaking industries established the Falling Creek Ironworks. After decades of territorial conflicts with native tribes, the Falls of the James became more to white settlement in the late 1600s and early 1700s. In 1737, planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city "Richmond" after the English town of Richmond near London, because the view of the James River was strikingly similar to the view of the River Thames from Richmond Hill in England, where he had spent time during his youth.
The settlement was laid out in April 1737, was incorporated as a town in 1742. In 1775, Patrick Henry delivered his famous "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech in St. John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress and setting the course for revolution and independence. On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack; the latter motive proved to be in vain, in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson to flee as the Virginia militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city. Richmond recovered from the war, by 1782 was once again a thriving city. In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the freedom of religion in the United States.
A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, was completed in 1788. After the American Revolutionary War, Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed James River bateaux above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, an enterprising George Washington helped design the James River and Kanawha Canal from Westham east to Richmond, in the 18th century to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River with the intent of providing a water route across the Appalachian Mountains to the Kanawha River flowing westward into the Ohio eventually to the Mississippi River; the legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to hydropower due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the largest manufacturing facilities in the country, including iron works and flour mills, the largest facilities of their kind in The South.
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University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh