The Cyprus mutiny took place in 1829 off the British penal settlement of Van Diemen's Land. Convicts seized the brig Cyprus and sailed her to Canton, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so; the mutineers were captured. Two of them, George James Davis and William Watts, were hanged at Execution Dock, London on 16 December 1830, the last men hanged for piracy in Britain, their leader, William Swallow, was never convicted of piracy because he convinced the British authorities that, as the only experienced sailor, he had been forced to remain onboard and coerced to navigate the ship. Swallow was instead sentenced to life on Van Diemen's Land for escaping, where he died four years later. Swallow wrote an account of the voyage including the visit to Japan, but this part of the journey was dismissed as fantasy until 2017, when he was vindicated by an amateur historian's discovery that the account matched Japanese records of a "barbarian" ship flying a British flag whose origins had remained a mystery for 187 years.
On 6 August 1829, the brig Cyprus, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods and convicts, set sail from Hobart Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts under a guard commanded by Army Lt Carew. There were 62 people on board, including wives and children of some personnel, 31 convicts. On reaching Recherche Bay, isolated from the main settlement, the vessel was becalmed. Convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig; the convicts marooned officers and convicts who did not join the mutiny in Recherche Bay, without supplies. They were saved by a convict called Popjoy who constructed a makeshift boat or coracle using only the three pocket-knives they had, sailed to Partridge Island with Morgan, a free man, where they got help. Nineteen convicts sailed away in Cyprus, having appointed one of their number, William Swallow, the only one with sailing experience, as sailing master; the mutineers first sailed to New Zealand, on to the Chatham Islands.
There they plundered the schooner Samuel of the seal skins her crew had gathered. From the Islands, Cyprus sailed for Tahiti, but changed destination to Tonga; the mutineers landed at Keppel's Island, where Ferguson, the leader, six others decided to remain. Swallow sailed to Japan. Swallow wrote an account of the voyage; however in 2017 this account was compared with Japanese records of an unwelcome visit by a British vessel off the town of Mugi, Tokushima on Shikoku in 1830, matched in many points. Makita Hamaguchi, a local samurai sent disguised as a fisherman to check the ship for weapons, wrote an account of the episode which included watercolour sketches of the ship and its crew. Another samurai chronicler called Hirota noted the crew offered gifts, including an object he drew which has since been identified as a boomerang; the mutineers were low on water and supplies, but were attacked and sent away by the Japanese, in line with the isolationist policy of the time. Warwick Hirst, former curator of manuscripts at the State Library of New South Wales, said that there were "too many coincidences for it not to be true".
From Japan Cyprus sailed to the Ladrones. There four more of the mutineers left the ship. Swallow sailed on to Canton; the mutineers scuttled Cyprus near Canton and claimed that they were castaways from another vessel. Swallow and three others worked their passage back to Britain aboard the East Indiaman Charles Grant. However, a man the mutineers had left in Canton confessed and by chance his account reached Britain a week before Swallow and his last three companions arrived there; the mutineers were tried in London and two of them, George James Davis and William Watts, were hanged in that city at Execution Dock on 16 December 1830, the last men hanged for piracy in Britain. Swallow, two others, were returned to Hobart, where another one named James Camm was hanged. Swallow died at the British maximum security facility of Port Arthur; the mutiny is the subject of the Australian folk song Cyprus Brig. Simon Barnard’s book Gaolbird: The True Story of William Swallow and Pirate, is a fictionalised account of the mutiny in which the mutineers are depicted as birds.
Warwick Hirst. The Man who Stole the Cyprus: A True Story of Escape. ISBN 1877058610. Simon Barnard Gaolbird: The True Story of William Swallow and Pirate. ISBN 9781925498172. Australian Convict Pirates in Japan Evidence of 1830 Voyage Unearthed "Seizure of the Cyprus" by Marcus Clarke
The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history. During the 19th century, it was referred to in Australia as the Great Rebellion. On 26 January 1808, 20 years after Arthur Phillip's First Fleet of convicts founded Sydney as the first European settlement in Australia, the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, working with John Macarthur, deposed the Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh. Afterwards, the military ruled the colony, with the senior military officer stationed in Sydney acting as the lieutenant-governor of New South Wales until the arrival from Britain of Major-General Lachlan Macquarie as the new governor at the beginning of 1810. William Bligh, well known for his overthrow in the mutiny on the Bounty, was a naval officer and the fourth Governor of New South Wales, he succeeded Governor Philip Gidley King in 1805, having been offered the position by Sir Joseph Banks. It is that he was selected by the British Government as governor because of his reputation as a hard man.
He stood a good chance of reining in the maverick New South Wales Corps, something that his predecessors had not been able to do. Bligh left for Sydney with his daughter, Mary Putland, her husband while Bligh's wife remained in England. Before his arrival, Bligh's style of governance led to problems with his subordinates; the Admiralty gave command of the storeship Porpoise and the convoy to the lower ranked Captain Joseph Short and Bligh took command of a transport ship. This led to quarrels which resulted in Captain Short firing across Bligh's bow in order to force Bligh to obey his signals; when this failed, Short tried to give an order to Lieutenant Putland, Bligh's son-in-law, to stand by to fire on Bligh's ship. Bligh seized control of the convoy; when they arrived in Sydney, backed up by statements from two of Short's officers, had Short stripped of the captaincy of the Porpoise – which he gave to his son-in-law – cancelled the 240-hectare land grant Short had been promised as payment for the voyage and shipped him back to England for court-martial, at which Short was acquitted.
The president of the court, Sir Isaac Coffin, wrote to the Admiralty and made several serious accusations against Bligh, including that he had influenced the officers to testify against Short. Bligh's wife obtained a statement from one of the officers denying this and Banks and other supporters of Bligh lobbied against his recall as governor. Soon after his arrival at Sydney, in August 1806, Bligh was given an address of welcome signed by Major Johnston for the military, by Richard Atkins for the civilian officers, by John Macarthur for the free settlers. However, not long after, he received addresses from the free and freed settlers of Sydney and the Hawkesbury River region, with a total of 369 signatures, many made only with a cross, complaining that Macarthur did not represent them, as they blamed him for withholding sheep so as to raise the price of mutton. One of Bligh's first actions was to use the colony's stores and herds to provide relief to farmers, affected by flooding on the Hawkesbury River, a situation that had disrupted the barter economy in the colony.
Supplies were divided up according to those most in need and provisions were made for loans to be drawn from the store based on capacity to repay. This earned Bligh the gratitude of the farmers but the enmity of traders in the Corps, profiting from the situation. Bligh, under instructions from the Colonial Office, attempted to normalise trading conditions in the colony by prohibiting the use of spirits as payment for commodities. Bligh communicated his policy to the Colonial Office in 1807, with the advice that his policy would be met with resistance. Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies wrote back to Bligh, his instructions being received on 31 December 1807; the instructions were to stop the barter of spirits and H. V. Evatt concludes in his history of the Rebellion that... "Bligh was authorised to prevent free importation, to preserve the trade under his entire control, to enforce all penalties against illegal import, to establish regulations at his discretion for the sale of spirits".
Evatt argues that the enmity of the monopolists within the colony stemmed from this and other policies which counteracted the power of the rich and promoted the welfare of the poor settlers. Bligh ceased the practice of handing out large land grants to the powerful in the colony. Bligh upset some people by allowing a group of Irish convicts to be tried for revolt, by a court that included their accusers, when six out of the eight were acquitted, he kept them under arrest anyway, he dismissed D'Arcy Wentworth from his position of Assistant Surgeon to the Colony without explanation, sentenced three merchants to a month's imprisonment and a fine for writing a letter that he considered offensive. Bligh dismissed Thomas Jamison from the magistracy, describing him in 1807 as being "inimical" to good government. Jamison was the capable Surgeon-General of New South Wales, he had accumulated significant personal wealth as a maritime trader and was a friend and business partner of Macarthur's. Jamison never forgave Bligh for sacking him as a magistrate and interfering with his private business activities, he supported Bligh's deposition.
In October 1807 Major George Johnston wrote a formal letter of complaint to the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, stating that Bligh was abusive and interfering with the troops of the New South Wales Corps
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
The Catalpa rescue was the escape, on 17–19 April 1876, of six Irish Fenian prisoners from what was the British penal colony of Western Australia. From 1865 to 1867, British authorities rounded up supporters of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish independence movement, transported sixty-two of them to the penal colony of Western Australia, they were convicted of crimes ranging from treason-felony to outright rebellion. Sixteen were soldiers who were court martialed for failing to report or stop the treason and mutinous acts of the others. Among them was John Boyle O'Reilly to become the editor of the Boston newspaper The Pilot, they were sent on the convict ship Hougoumont, arriving at Fremantle on 9 January 1868, at the Convict Establishment. In 1869, O'Reilly escaped on the whaling ship Gazelle in Bunbury with assistance of the local Catholic priest, Father Patrick McCabe, settled in Boston. Soon after his arrival, O'Reilly found work with The Pilot newspaper and became editor. In 1871, another Fenian, John Devoy, was granted amnesty in England, among others, on condition that he settle outside Ireland, he sailed to New York City.
He became a newspaperman, for the New York Herald. He joined an organization that supported armed insurrection in Ireland. In 1869, pardons had been issued to many of the imprisoned Fenians. Another round of pardons were issued in 1871, after which only a small group of "military" Fenians remained in Western Australia's penal system. In 1874, Devoy received a smuggled letter from imprisoned Fenian James Wilson, among those the British had not released. Dear Friend, remember. For is not this a living tomb? In the tomb it is only a man’s body, good for worms, but in the living tomb the canker worm of care enters the soul. Think that we have been nearly nine years in this living tomb since our first arrest and that it is impossible for mind or body to withstand the continual strain, upon them. One or the other must give way, it is in this sad strait that I now, in the name of my comrades and myself, ask you to aid us in the manner pointed out… We ask you to aid us with your tongue and pen, with your brain and intellect, with your ability and influence, God will bless your efforts, we will repay you with all the gratitude of our natures… our faith in you is unbound.
We think if you forsake us we are friendless indeed. James WilsonDevoy discussed the matter with O'Reilly and Thomas McCarthy Fennell, Fennell suggested that a ship be purchased, laden with a legitimate cargo, sailed to Western Australia, where it would not be expected to arouse suspicion; the Fenian prisoners would be rescued by stealth rather than force of arms. Devoy approached the 1874 convention of the Clan na Gael and got the Clan to agree to fund a rescue of the men, he approached whaling agent John T. Richardson, who told them to contact his son-in-law, whaling captain George Smith Anthony, who agreed to help. James Reynolds, a member of the Clan and on the committee to rescue the prisoners, bought under his name for the Clan a three-masted whaling bark Catalpa for $5,500, George Anthony recruited twenty-two sailors. Devoy signed up Fenian agents John Breslin and Thomas Desmond to go to Western Australia, Breslin masqueraded as an American businessman "James Collins", with suitable letter of introduction, with Desmond masquerading as a man named Johnson.
They departed the US in September 1875 and arrived in Albany in November 1875. That day and Desmond travelled to Fremantle on the SS Georgette. On 29 April 1875, Catalpa sailed from Massachusetts. At first, most of the crew was unaware of their real mission. Anthony noticed too late that the ship's marine chronometer was broken, so he had to rely on his own skills for navigation. First they sailed to Fayal Island in the Azores, where they off-loaded 210 barrels of sperm whale oil. Much of the crew deserted the ship, they had to leave three sick men behind. Anthony set sail for Western Australia. John Breslin while under the guise of James Collins lodged in the Emerald Isle Hotel in Fremantle, while Thomas Desmond took a job as a wheelwright and recruited five local Irishmen who were to cut the telegraph lines connecting Perth to Albany on the day of escape. Breslin became acquainted with the Governor of Western Australia. Robinson took Breslin on a tour of the Convict Establishment where he secretly informed the prisoners that an escape is due.
While staying at the hotel, Breslin engaged in a love affair with 22-year old chamber maid Mary Tondut, she became pregnant and Anthony paid for her to go to Sydney, he never saw her again. In December 1876 Tondut gave birth to Breslin's only child John Joseph Tondut. Catalpa fell behind the intended schedule due to a serious storm. After 11 months out at sea she dropped anchor off Bunbury on 28 March 1876. Anthony and Breslin met; the pair began to prepare for the rescue. While in Bunbury and Anthony stayed in Spencer's Hotel Anthony and Breslin travelled back together to Fremantle on the SS Georgette on 1 April, it arrived the next day. Breslin and Anthony travelled to the intended spot of the escape in Rockingham, a couple of days Anthony and Breslin were invited to a party and the governor's residence. Anthony returned to Bunbury via mail coach on 6 April. While in Bunbury. Anthony discovered that the crew had stowed away another ticket of leave convict, Anthony informed the authorities and they took the man as
Second Fleet (Australia)
The Second Fleet was a convoy of six ships carrying settlers and supplies to Sydney Cove, Australia in 1789. It followed the First Fleet; the Second Fleet has achieved a historical notoriety for the poor conditions aboard the vessels, for cruelty and mistreatment of its convicts. Of the 1006 convicts transported aboard the Fleet, one quarter died during the voyage and around 40 per cent were dead within six months of arrival in Australia; the captain and some crew members of one vessel were charged with offences against the convicts, but acquitted after a short trial. The ships were intended to sail to Australia together, arriving at Sydney Cove in 1789; however one was disabled en route and failed to make the destination, another was delayed arrived two months after the other ships. The colony had expected that the Fleet would contain fewer unskilled convicts and more supplies: the arrival of so many sick and dying and so few additional provisions brought the settlement close to starvation before the Third Fleet reached Sydney Cove in 1791.
Lady Juliana sailed before the other convict ships and is not always counted as a member of the Second Fleet. It carried female convicts; the storeship Justinian arrived before them. HMS Guardian set out before the convict ships but struck ice after leaving the Cape of Good Hope, returned to southern Africa, was wrecked on the coast. Surprize and Scarborough were contracted from the firm Camden, Calvert & King, which undertook to transport and feed the convicts for a flat fee of £17 7s. 6d per head, whether they landed alive or not. This firm had been involved in transporting slaves to North America; the only agents of the Crown in the crew were the naval agent, Lieutenant John Shapcote, the Captain of the Guard. The three vessels left England on 19 January 1790, with 1,006 convicts on board, they made only one stop at the Cape of Good Hope. Here 20 male convicts, survivors from HMS Guardian, were taken on board; the three vessels made a faster trip than the First Fleet, arriving at Port Jackson in the last week of June 1790, three weeks after Lady Juliana, one week after the storeship Justinian.
The passage was fast, but the mortality rate was the highest in the history of transportation to Australia. Of the 1,038 convicts embarked, 273 died during the voyage and 486 landed sick; this sits in stark contrast to the mortality rates reported on the First Fleet where "with nearly an equal number of persons, only 24 had died and not thirty landed sick. The difference can be accounted for only by the comparing the manner in which each fleet was fitted out and conducted."On Neptune the convicts were deliberately starved, kept chained, refused access to the deck. Scurvy could not be checked. On Scarborough, rations were not deliberately withheld, but a reported mutiny attempt led to the convicts being confined below decks. Captain William Hill, commander of the guard, afterwards wrote a strong criticism of the ships' masters stating that "the more they can withhold from the unhappy wretches the more provisions they have to dispose of at a foreign market, the earlier in the voyage they die, the longer they can draw the deceased's allowance to themselves".
On arrival at Port Jackson, half-naked convicts were lying without bedding, too ill to move. Those unable to walk were slung over the side. All were covered with lice. At least 486 sick were landed. Of these, 124 died shortly. Of the rest the Rev. Johnson, who went among them as soon as the ships reached port, wrote that "the misery I saw amongst them is indescribable... their heads, clothes, were all full of lice. They were wretched, filthy, dirty and many of them utterly unable to stand, to creep, or to stir hand or foot."For his part Governor Phillip noted, "I will not, dwell on the scene of misery which the hospitals and sick tents exhibited when these people were landed, but it would be want of duty not to say that it was occasioned by the contractors having crowded too many on board these ships, from their being too much confined during the passage." Among the arrivals on the Second Fleet were D'Arcy Wentworth and his convict mistress Catherine Crowley, on Neptune, John Macarthur a young lieutenant in the New South Wales Corps, his wife Elizabeth, on Scarborough.
Macarthur's eldest son, Edward Macarthur, who accompanied his parents on the Neptune and Scarborough, is believed to be the only person who sailed in the Second Fleet of whom we have a photograph as well as being the last survivor of the voyage. When news of the horrors of the Second Fleet reached England and official response was shock. An enquiry was held but no attempt was made to arrest Donald Traill, master of Neptune and described as a demented sadist, or bring a public prosecution against him, the other masters, or the firm of contractors, they had been contracted by the government to prepare the Third Fleet for sailing to Port Jackson in 1791. Traill and his Chief Mate William Ellerington were prosecuted for the murder of an unnamed convict, seaman Andrew Anderson and John Joseph, cook. But, after a trial lasting three hours before Sir James Marriott in the Admiralty Court, the jury acquitted both men on all charges "without troubling the Judge to sum up the evidence". History of Australia Collins, David.
Fletcher, Brian H. ed. An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales. A. H. & A. W. Reed. ISBN 0589071688. Flynn, Michael; the Second Fleet: Britain's Grim Convi