Premier of Victoria
The Premier of Victoria is the Head of government in the Australian state of Victoria. The Premier is appointed by the Governor of Victoria, is the leader of the political party able to secure a majority in the Legislative Assembly. Responsible government came to the colony of Victoria in 1855. Between 1856 and 1892, the head of the government was called the Premier or the Prime Minister, but neither title had any legal basis; the head of government always held another portfolio Chief Secretary or Treasurer, for which they were paid a salary. The first head of government to hold the title of Premier without holding another portfolio was William Shiels in 1892; the incumbent Premier of Victoria since the 2014 election is Daniel Andrews of the Australian Labor Party. As of 7 April 2019, six former premiers are alive, the oldest being John Cain Jr.. The most recent Premier to die was Joan Kirner, on 1 June 2015. Department of Premier and Cabinet, Victoria Deputy Premier of Victoria List of Premiers of Victoria by time in office ABC News – Premiers of Victoria
Percival Serle was an Australian biographer and bibliographer. Serle was born to English parents in Elsternwick and for many years worked in a life assurance office before in November 1910 becoming chief clerk and accountant at the University of Melbourne, he married artist Dora Beatrice Hake on 29 March 1910. They were to have three children. One son, Alan Geoffrey Serle, was selected as 1947 Victorian Rhodes scholar. Serle ran a second-hand bookshop during the depression, he was president of the Australian Literature Society. Serle's publications included an edition, with notes, of A Song to David and Other Poems by the 18th-century English poet, Christopher Smart; the Dictionary took more than twenty years to complete and contains more than one thousand biographies of prominent Australians or persons connected with Australia. Serle comments in the Preface, it would have been better could I have spent another five years on it, but at seventy-five years of age one realizes there is a time to make an end."
He was awarded the Australian Literature Society Gold Medal for 1949 for this work. Serle died in Hawthorn, aged 80 on 16 December 1951; the Oxford Companion to Australian Literature. Geoffrey Serle,'Serle, Percival', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, MUP, 1988, pp 567–569. Dictionary of Australian Biography courtesy of Project Gutenberg Australia
James Service,Australian colonial politician, was the 12th Premier of Victoria, Australia. Service was born in Kilwinning, Scotland, the son of Robert Service; as a young man James worked in a Glasgow tea importing Thomas Corbett and Company. In 1853 he arrived in Melbourne as a company representative, the following year went into business on his own forming James Service and Company and wholesale merchants, which became a large and prosperous organization still in business many years after his death, he was a founding member of the Emerald Hill municipal council in 1855, of the Commercial Bank of Australia in 1866, going on to become a prominent banker and representative of Melbourne business interests. Service was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Melbourne in a by-election in March 1857, retaining this seat until August 1859, he represented Ripon and Hampden from October 1859 to around August 1862, Maldon from May 1874 to March 1881 and Castlemaine from June 1883 to February 1886.
He was a moderate liberal in the context of Victorian politics, but as a free trader he sided with the conservatives, since all the more radical liberals were protectionists. He was President of the Board of Land and Works in the Nicholson government from 1859 to 1860 and Treasurer in the Kerferd government from 1874 to 1875, his attempt to cut tariffs in his 1875 budget led to the fall of Kerferd's government. When Graham Berry's radical ministry fell in March 1880, Service formed a minority government. In May Service admitted that he could not go on and asked the Governor, Lord Normanby, for a dissolution, granted, but the elections did not improve Service's position and in August he resigned, allowing Berry to return to power. In March 1883 the liberals under Berry's successor, Sir Bryan O'Loghlen were defeated at elections, Service formed a new and much stronger government, taking the Treasury as well as the Premiership; when Service agreed not to attempt to reduce tariffs, Berry joined him as a minister: such was the fluidity of party politics at this time.
The young Alfred Deakin held office for the first time in this government. The Service government lasted three years and passed some important legislation, including a Public Service Act which removed political patronage from the public service, a new Factories Act and a new Lands Act. In June 1883, at a banquet at Albury celebrating the opening of the railway line between Sydney and Melbourne, Service raised the question of Australian federation, he supported Sir Thomas McIlwraith in his action with regard to the annexation of New Guinea, suggested the inter-colonial conference, held at Sydney in November 1883. There a bill constituting a federal council was framed, carried by Service through the Victorian parliament in 1884. Service himself desired the establishment of a federal government, but the other premiers were comparatively lukewarm and the proposed council was to have limited powers. By the time of the 1886 election Service was in declining health and decided to retire from active politics and return to England for a while.
In 1888 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Council for Melbourne Province, served there until April 1899. Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900-84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Martin, Arthur Patchett. "A typical Australian statesman". Australia and the Empire. Edinburgh: David Douglas. Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856-1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856-1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Serle, Percival. "Service, James". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson
Matthew Henry Davies
Sir Matthew Henry Davies was an Australian politician, who served as Speaker of the Victorian Legislative Assembly. He was a leading figure in the Victorian land boom, resulting in his bankruptcy in 1894 and subsequent trial on conspiracy charges. Davies was the son of Ebeneser Davies and his wife Ruth, daughter of Mark Bartlett, of Bracknell, Berks and grandson of the Rev John Davies, of Trevecca College, South Wales, he was born at Geelong in 1850, educated at the Geelong College, matriculated at the University of Melbourne in 1869. He was admitted a solicitor of the Supreme Court of Victoria in 1876, married Elizabeth Locke Mercer, eldest daughter of the Rev. Peter Mercer, D. D. of Melbourne, Presbyterian minister. They produced a family of six children—Arnold Mercer Davies 1876, Marion Agnes Davies 1877, Henry Gascoigne Davies 1879, Beatrice Elizabeth Davies 1880, Muriel Kate Davies 1882, Olive Blanche Davies 1884. For five years davies was honorary secretary to the Council of the Law Institute of Victoria, was a Justice of the Peace for the central bailiwick.
He was mayor of the City of Prahran from 1881 to 1882. Davies represented St Kilda in the Legislative Assembly from 1883 to 1889, he visited England in connection with the Colonial and Indian Exhibition while a member of the Victorian Government. He was Chairman of the Royal Commission on Banking in 1887, was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly in October 1887, he was returned unopposed for Toorak in 1889, unanimously re-elected Speaker in the same year. He was knighted in 1890, he gave 10,000 pounds to the Imperial Institute and other public objects in the Jubilee year of Queen Victoria's reign. Beginning in 1877 Davies had become a major land speculator, taking advantage of the spectacular increase in land values in Victoria in the boom decades that followed the Victorian Gold Rush of the 1850s. By 1887 he controlled a network of 40 companies, in which Victorian and overseas investors invested millions of pounds. Like many other public figures, he was caught in the crash of early 1892.
His companies suspended payments in March. Davies resigned from Parliament and sailed to London to try to arrange finance to rescue his business empire, but was unsuccessful, he returned to Melbourne to face insolvency. In January 1893 Davies was committed for trial on charges of conspiracy to defraud by means of a false balance sheet; the trial was delayed until May, at which point the attorney-general, Sir Bryan O'Loghlen, withdrew the charges. Davies again took ship to London, but on the orders of the new attorney-general, Isaac Isaacs, he was arrested in Colombo and brought back to Melbourne. After several trials, he was acquitted of the charges, but was declared bankrupt in 1894, he had personal debts of 280,000 pounds, his companies' total losses came to over 4 million pounds—one of the largest corporate defaults in Australian history. Davies returned to his legal practice, restored his reputation through community service, he died in November 1912. Mennell, Philip. "Davies, Hon. Sir Matthew Henry".
The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co – via Wikisource
Port Melbourne, Victoria
Port Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km south-west from Melbourne's central business district. It is split between the local government areas of Port Phillip; the area to the north of the West Gate Freeway is in the City of Melbourne. The area to the south is in the City of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, Port Melbourne had a population of 16,175; the suburb is bordered by the lower reaches of the Yarra River. Port Melbourne covers a large area, which includes the distinct localities of Fishermans Bend, Garden City and Beacon Cove, it was known as Sandridge and developed as the City's second port, linked to the nearby Melbourne CBD. The industrial Port Melbourne has been subject to intense urban renewal over the past two decades; as a result, Port Melbourne is a diverse and historic area, featuring industrial and port areas along the Yarra, to open parklands, bayside beaches, exclusive apartments and Bay Street's restaurants and cafes. The suburb forms a major transport link from east to west, home to one end of the West Gate Bridge.
The most prominent early resident of the area, now known as Port Melbourne, was Captain Wilbraham Frederick Evelyn Liardet, who arrived in 1839, established a hotel and mail service. Liardet stated that before his arrival the surveyor William Wedge Darke and his family had camped on the beach in their two roomed, carpeted wooden caravan known as'Darke's Ark'. Liardet credited Wedge with cutting the first track to the beach through the tea tree scrub and hoisting a barrel on a pole, on a high section of ground, to point the way back to the Melbourne settlement. From this signpost its first official name,'Sandridge', was said to have originated; the area became known as'Liardet's Beach' but Liardet himself was said to have preferred'Brighton'. It became Port Melbourne in 1884; the area came into prominence during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s. With an increasing number of ships looking to berth, Sandridge became a thriving transport hub. To alleviate the high costs of shipping goods via small vessels up the Yarra River to Melbourne the Port Melbourne railway line was built in 1854 to connect Sandridge to Melbourne.
The disused Sandridge Bridge takes its name from this historic railway line. In 1860, Port Melbourne was an early area of Victoria to gain Municipal status, with the Sandridge Borough, which became the City of Port Melbourne. In the early years of Port Melbourne, the suburb was separated from neighboring Albert Park by a large shallow lagoon; this was filled in over the years, with the last of it completed in 1929. Today, the area is covered by the eponymous Lagoon Reserve, a public park to the east of the Esplanade, between Liardet Street and Graham Street, although the original extent of the lagoon was much greater; as a transport hub, Port Melbourne had numerous hotels. Early industries included a sugar refining, soap production, candle works, chemical works and flour mills, gasworks, a distillery and a boot factory. Station and Princes Piers were major places of arrival to Australia for immigrants prior to the availability of affordable air travel. For many years Port Melbourne was a focus of Melbourne's criminal underworld, which operated smuggling syndicates on the docks.
The old Ships Painters and Dockers Union was notorious for being controlled by gangsters. The Waterside Workers Federation, on the other hand, was a stronghold of the Communist Party of Australia. With the amalgamation of the local Council into the City of Port Phillip in 1994, many of Port Melbourne's civic institutions were adaptively reused; as a result, the Port Melbourne Town Hall is now a public library. As the importance of the Port has declined, as manufacturing industries have moved out of the inner city area, Port Melbourne has become a residential suburb; the area where Port Melbourne developed, around Station Pier and Princes Pier, has been redeveloped with a mixture of apartment complexes and medium-density housing, the best known of, the Beacon Cove development. In Port Melbourne 64.7% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 5.4%, New Zealand 2.8%, Greece 2.6%, United States of America 1.0% and China 0.9%. 73.4% of people only spoke English at home.
Other languages spoken at home included Greek 6.1%, Italian 1.6%, Mandarin 1.0%, Cantonese 0.8% and Russian 0.8%. Two major freeways run through Port Melbourne. Other main roads include Bay Street, Williamstown Road, Lorimer Street, Graham Street, Salmon Street, Inglis Street and Beach Street. Port Melbourne's roads are a mix of planning styles. Port Melbourne is serviced by an extensive bus network operated by CDC Melbourne which connects it to Melbourne CBD and surrounding suburbs. Port Melbourne is serviced by Melbourne tram route 109, run as a high patronage high frequency light rail service since the heavy rail line was converted to light rail in 1987. While there are several disused freight rail links, the light rail is the only used rail connection to Port Melbourne. There have been a number of proposals for tram and light rail extension in Port Melbourne: St Kilda-Port Melbourne link A 5 kilometre tram link between St Kilda and Port Melbourne along Beaconsfield Parade was first raised by the City of Port Phillip in 2005.
The City of Port Phillip's 2007 feasibility study into the route found that the high density population could sustain around 200,000 annual commuter tri
John Alexander MacPherson
John Alexander MacPherson, Australian colonial politician, was the 7th Premier of Victoria. MacPherson was born at his father's property of Springbank on the Limestone Plains, in New South Wales: he was the first Premier of Victoria born in Australia, his father was a Scottish Presbyterian pastoralist. He came to the Port Phillip District as a child with his family and was educated at Scotch College and the University of Edinburgh, where he graduated in law, he was admitted to the Victorian bar in 1866 and practised law before becoming a pastoralist near Hamilton in the Western District. MacPherson was elected as a conservative to the Legislative Assembly for Portland in November 1864, for Dundas in February 1866. In September 1869, when the liberal Premier James McCulloch resigned, MacPherson was commissioned as Premier, his government had little prospect of survival. However it did succeed in passing an effective land selection act, allowing small farmers to select land on the squatters' pastoral runs, before being defeated in the Assembly and resigning in April 1870.
MacPherson served as Chief Secretary in the third McCulloch government in 1875 to 1877, before retiring from politics in July 1878, still aged only 44. In 1880 he returned to Britain and settled in Surrey, where he died in 1894, he married Louisa Featherstonhaugh in 1858: they had seven children. In a blog post on 30 October 2018, folk singer/songwriter and ballad collector Daniel Kelly asserted that John MacPherson is the identity behind many poems that were published in various Victorian newspapers from 1857 until 1874 under the pen name Ossian MacPherson. Ossian MacPherson was suggested to be a pseudonym used by James MacPherson. In particular, A Modest Minister, directly refers to the 1874 election that MacPherson was running in and the poem targets his opposition. More directly, an article in the Geelong Advertiser on 20 January 1871 directly refers to'Ossian' Macpherson as running in the 1971 election for Dundas. Since posting this article, a relative of an Ossian Macpherson has suggested that this was a real person and not a pseudonym.
It remains unclear if others, including John Alexander, may have used the existing reputation of the poet to publish under his name. Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856–1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Daniel Kelly, Who was Ossian Macpherson, Folk Lounge, 2018
Alfred Deakin was an Australian politician who served as the second Prime Minister of Australia, in office for three separate terms – 1903 to 1904, 1905 to 1908, 1909 to 1910. Before entering office, he was a leader of the movement for Australian federation. Deakin was born in Melbourne, attended the University of Melbourne before training as a barrister, he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1879, aged 22, became a government minister in 1883. Deakin was a major contributor to the establishment of liberal reforms in the colony, including pro-worker industrial reforms, he played a major part in developing irrigation in Australia. Throughout the 1890s Deakin was a participant in conferences of representatives of the Australian colonies that were established to draft a constitution for the proposed federation, he played an important role in ensuring that the draft was liberal and democratic and in achieving compromises to enable its eventual success. Between conferences, he worked to popularise the concept of federation and campaigned for its acceptance in colonial referenda.
He fought hard to ensure acceptance of the proposed constitution by the Government of the United Kingdom. After Federation, Deakin was Attorney-General in the Barton Government from 1901 to 1903, he was one of the chief architects of the White Australia policy, overseeing the drafting of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901. As Prime Minister, Deakin completed a significant legislative program that makes him, with Labor's Andrew Fisher, the founder of an effective Commonwealth government, he expanded the High Court, provided major funding for the purchase of ships, leading to the establishment of the Royal Australian Navy as a significant force under the Fisher government, established Australian control of Papua. Confronted by the rising Australian Labor Party in 1909, he merged his Protectionist Party with Joseph Cook's Anti-Socialist Party to create the Commonwealth Liberal Party, the main ancestor of the modern Liberal Party of Australia; the Deakin-led Liberal Party government lost to Fisher Labor at the 1910 election, which saw the first time a federal political party had been elected with a majority in either house in Federal Parliament.
Deakin resigned from Parliament prior to the 1913 election, with Joseph Cook winning the Liberal Party leadership ballot. Deakin was born on 3 August 1856 in his parents' cottage at 90 George Street, Melbourne, Victoria, he was of the younger of two children born to Sarah and William Deakin. His paternal grandfather John Deakin was born in Staffordshire, worked in the leather industry as a currier before becoming an excise officer, he married the daughter of Buckinghamshire farmer, their son – Deakin's father – was born in Towcester, Northamptonshire. Deakin's mother was born in Llanarth, the daughter and granddaughter of farmers. William Deakin became a travelling salesman, he met his future wife while travelling through Abergavenny, they married at Grosmont in 1849. Britain was experiencing an economic depression associated with the Panic of 1847, they decided to immigrate to Australia; the Deakins arrived in Adelaide, South Australia, in March 1850. Their first child Catherine was born in July 1850, at which point her father was working as a storekeeper and clerk.
The family moved to Melbourne as a result of the Victorian gold rush, which began the following year. William Deakin struggled to find steady employment, but became involved with the carrying and coaching trade, transporting people and goods. By the early 1870s, he was working with Cobb & Co. as a manager and accountant, earning a salary that allowed he and his family to maintain a comfortable middle-class lifestyle. Deakin spent his early years in Fitzroy lived in Emerald Hill before his family settled in South Yarra in about 1863. Rather than build an new house, his father transported a wooden cottage from Fitzroy to South Yarra and had it brick-nogged, his parents and sister would live there for the rest of their lives. At the age of four, Deakin was sent to join his ten-year-old sister in Kyneton, a small country town where she was attending a girls' boarding school run by the Thompson sisters, he was the only male pupil at the school. It was unusual for children to be sent away at such a young age, his biographer Judith Brett has speculated that their mother may have been suffering from a bout of depression or recovering from a stillbirth.
The Thompson sisters moved their school to Melbourne, which Deakin continued to attend until the age of seven. In early 1864, he was enrolled at Melbourne Grammar School as a day-boy, he attended Melbourne Grammar for eight years, where he was a good student without excelling academically. He recalled that he had been "an incessantly restless, random and at times studiously mischievous pupil", regretted that he had not been made to work harder. In 1871, aged 15, Deakin passed the matriculation exam for the University of Melbourne, he formed an ambition to become a barrister, began attending evening classes the following year. He could not afford to study full-time, working during the day as private tutor. At the time, the Victorian Bar did not require a complete university degree for admission, only passing grades in relevant legal subjects. Deakin was admitted to the bar in September 1877, aged 21, without graduating from university. Accord