Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari. The term "mite" refers to the members of several groups in Acari but it is not a clade as it spans two different groups of arachnids. Mites and ticks are characterised by the body being divided into two regions, the cephalothorax or prosoma, an opisthosoma; the scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology. Most mites are tiny, less than 1 mm in length, have a simple, unsegmented body plan, their small size makes them overlooked. This last group includes the commercially important Varroa parasite of honey bees, as well as the scabies mite of humans. Most species are harmless to humans but a few are associated with allergies or may transmit diseases; the mites are not an exact taxon, but the name is used for members of several groups in the subclass Acari. The phylogeny of the Acari has been little studied, but molecular information from ribosomal DNA is being extensively used to understand relationships between groups.
The 18 S rRNA gene provides information on relationships among phyla and superphyla, while the ITS2, the 18S ribosomal RNA and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, provide clues at deeper levels. The third edition of the standard textbook A Manual of Acarology uses a system of six orders, grouped into three superorders: Superorder Opilioacariformes – a small order of large mites that superficially resemble harvestmen, hence their name Superorder Parasitiformes – ticks and a variety of mites Holothyrida - predatory mites from the southern hemisphere Ixodida – hard ticks and soft ticks Mesostigmata – bird mites, phytoseiid mites Trigynaspida - large, diverse order Monogynaspida - diverse order of parasitic and predatory mites Superorder Acariformes – the most diverse group of mites Trombidiformes – plant parasitic mites, snout mites, hair follicle mites, velvet mites, water mites, etc. Sphaerolichida - small order of mites containing two families Prostigmata - large order of sucking mites Sarcoptiformes Oribatida – oribatid mites, beetle mites, armored mites Astigmatina – stored product, feather and human itch mites, etc.
Most fossil acarids are no older than the Tertiary. Earlier fossils are too few to enable mite phylogeny to be reconstructed from palaeontological evidence, but in 2002 an oribatid mite from the Early Ordovician was found in Oland, Sweden; the first find of Parasitiformes from the Mesozoic was of an argasid tick larva in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey. Other fossils including the first opilioacariform mite are preserved in Baltic amber of Eocene age. Members of the superorders Opilioacariformes and Acariformes are mites, as well as some of the Parasitiformes. Recent genetic research has caused a change in the naming scheme and recent publications have changed the superorder Parasitiformes to an order. Other recent research has suggested that Acari is polyphyletic, with ticks and spiders more related than ticks and mites; the cladogram is based on al 2010, which used molecular data. It shows the Acariformes sister to the Solifugae, while the Parasitiformes are sister to the Pseudoscorpionida.
Mites are tiny members of the class Arachnida. The body plan is similar to that of ticks in having two regions, a cephalothorax or prosoma, an opisthosoma or abdomen. Segmentation has entirely been lost and the prosoma and opisthosoma are fused, only the positioning of the limbs indicating the location of the segments. At the front of the body is the capitulum; this is not a head and does not contain the eyes or the brain, but is a retractable feeding apparatus consisting of the chelicerae, the pedipalps and the oral cavity. It is covered above by an extension of the body carapace and is connected to the body by a flexible section of cuticle; the mouthparts differ between taxa depending on diet. The oral cavity connects posteriorly to the pharynx. Most mites have four pairs of legs, each with six segments, which may be modified for swimming or other purposes; the dorsal surface of the body is clad in hardened tergites and the ventral surface by hardened sclerites. The gonopore is located on the ventral surface between the fourth pair of legs.
Some species have one to five median or lateral eyes but many species are blind, slit and pit sense organs are common. Both body and limbs bear setae which may be simple, club-shaped or sensory. Mites are some shade of brown, but some species are red, black or green, or some combination of these colours. Mites have a typical arachnid digestive system, although some species lack an anus: they do not defecate during their short lives; the circulatory system consists of a network of sinuses and lacks a heart, movement of fluid being driven by the contraction of body muscles. Gas exchange is carried out across the body surface, but many species additionally have between one and four pairs of tracheae, the spi
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
National Museum of Ireland
The National Museum of Ireland is Ireland's leading museum institution, with a strong emphasis on national and some international archaeology, Irish history, Irish art and natural history. It has one in County Mayo; the National Museum of Ireland descends from the amalgamation of parts of the collections of a number of Dublin cultural institutions from the 18th and 19th centuries, including the Royal Dublin Society and the Royal Irish Academy. The earliest parts of the collections are geological and mineralogical specimens, which the RDS collected as a means to improve the knowledge and use of such resources in Ireland; the establishment of the museum collections is deemed to have been with the purchase of the collection of Nathaniel Gottfried Leske in 1792. One of the earliest iterations of the RDS museum was in Hawkins Street House, where the Leskean Cabinet was displayed along with a collection of casts and busts; this exhibition was open to the public between noon and 3pm, on Monday and Friday.
Aside from the exhibition there was a lecture hall and library. From here, the museum moved to Leinster House in 1815 when the RDS purchased it from His Grace The 3rd Duke of Leinster. Here the Leskean Cabinet continued to be displayed, along with newly accessioned collections from the professor of mineralogy and geology, Charles Lewis Giescke and the Hibernicum, a display of minerals and geological specimens from the island of Ireland, it was Giescke who first referred to the museum as the "National Museum of Ireland" - in 1832 in his catalogue of the entomology and ornithology specimens. After Giescke's death in 1833, John Scouler was appointed curator in 1834. During this time the collections were open to public two days a week from noon to 3pm, to students at all times. By this time the need for a new museum was deemed to be critical; this led to the construction of the building which now houses the Natural History Museum on Merrion Street. With the planned expansion and development of the museum, Scouler requested that a curator or Director been employed by the RDS.
This led to the appointment of Alexander Carte in 1851. Carte overhauled and reorganised the collections, overseeing acquisitions from Sir Francis McClintock, Sir William Wilde, Sir Richard Griffith; the museum took part in the International Exhibition of Art-Industry of 1853 exhibiting objects in the Hall of Antiquities along with the RIA. Following this the museum opened five days a week to the public; the Science and Art Museum was established in 1877, becoming the National Museum of Science and Art in 1900, the National Museum of Ireland after independence. It included the collection of the Museum of Irish Industry, founded in 1847; the collections of both the RIA and RDS formed the basis for the Archaeology and History section of the Museum at Kildare Street. This is the original site opened in 1890 as the Dublin Museum of Science and Art in the building designed by Sir Thomas Newenham Deane and his son, Thomas Manly Deane; until 1922, the museum complex included Leinster House, now the home of the Oireachtas.
See Category:Collection of the National Museum of Ireland The National Museum of Ireland – Archaeology on Kildare Street has displays on prehistoric Ireland, including early work in gold, church treasures and objects from the Viking and medieval periods. The Kingship and Sacrifice exhibition includes well preserved Ralaghan Man. There are special displays of items from Egypt and the Roman world, special exhibitions are mounted; this section includes famous examples of early medieval Celtic metalwork in Ireland such as the Ardagh Chalice, the Tara Brooch, the Derrynaflan Hoard. Prehistoric pieces include the Iron Age Broighter Gold and over 50 gold lunulas, other Bronze Age jewellery. Many of these pieces were found in the 19th century by poor people or agricultural labourers, when population expansion led to cultivation of land which had not been touched since the Middle Ages. Indeed, without the intervention of George Petrie of the Royal Irish Academy and like-minded individuals from the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, most of the metalwork would have been melted down for the intrinsic value of its materials, as did happen despite their efforts.
Contemporary Irish are more tuned to their heritage, as can be seen in the example of the Irish Bog Psalter, discovered and reported by an alert machine operator in July 2006. National Museum of Ireland – Decorative Arts and History, including the Great Seal of the Irish Free State, is the part of the collection kept at the large Collins Barracks site, a former military barracks named after Michael Collins in 1922; this site, opened in 1997 holds the Museum's administrative centre, a shop and a coffee shop. This section has displays of furniture, silver and glassware, as well as examples of folk life and costume, money and weapons. A Chinese porcelain vase from about 1300 AD, the Fonthill vase, is one of the features; the Soldiers & Chiefs exhibition features military artifacts and memorabilia tracing Ireland's military history from 1550 to the present. Special exhibitions are mounted regularly. Country Life is the most recent part of the museum to be opened, it is located just outside Turlough village, on the N5 eight kilometres east of Castlebar, in County Mayo, was opened in 2001.
The museum is focused on ordinary life from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, with much of the material coming from rural Ireland in the 1930s. There are displays on the home, the nat
The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies and their relatives. The order consists of some 6,000 species. Neuroptera can be grouped together with the Megaloptera and Raphidioptera in the superfamily Neuropterida the latter including: alderflies, fishflies and snakeflies. Adult Neuropterans have all about the same size, with many veins, they have chewing mouthparts, undergo complete metamorphosis. Neuropterans first appeared during the Permian Period, continued to diversify through the Mesozoic Era. During this time, several unusually large forms evolved in the extinct family Kalligrammatidae referred to as "the butterflies of the Jurassic" due to their large, patterned wings. Neuropterans are soft-bodied insects with few specialised features, they have large lateral compound eyes, may or may not have ocelli. Their mouthparts have strong mandibles suitable for chewing, lack the various adaptations found in most other endopterygote insect groups, they have four wings, which are similar in size and shape, a generalised pattern of veins.
Some neuropterans have specialised sense organs in their wings, or have bristles or other structures to link their wings together during flight. The larvae are specialised predators, with elongated mandibles adapted for sucking; the larval body form varies depending on the nature of their prey. In general, they have three pairs of thoracic legs, each ending in two claws; the abdomen has adhesive discs on the last two segments. The larvae of most families are predators. Many chrysopids and coniopterygids eat aphids and other pest insects, some have been used for biological control. Larvae in various families cover themselves in debris as camouflage, taken to an extreme in the ant lions, which bury themselves out of sight and ambush prey from "pits" in the soil. Larvae of some Ithonidae are root feeders, larvae of Sisyridae are aquatic, feed on freshwater sponges. A few mantispids are parasites of spider egg sacs; as in other holometabolic orders, the pupal stage is enclosed in some form of cocoon composed of silk and soil or other debris.
The pupa cuts its way out of the cocoon with its mandibles, may move about for a short while before undergoing the moult to the adult form. Adults of many groups are predatory, but some do not feed, or consume only nectar. Parasitism is present in all stages of this group, is caused by beetles and some lake flies; the use of Neuroptera in biological control of insect pests has been investigated, showing that it is difficult to establish and maintain populations in fields of crops. Neuroptera have artistic demonstrations since beginning of civilizations, which can be found in numerous art galleries such as Lacewing Design Gallery and Studio of Northampton, Lacewing fine art of Salisbury. A song on the 1999 album Suburban Light by The Clientele, "Lacewings", describes watching the insects under the influence of drugs; the New Guinea Highland people claim to be able to maintain a muscular build and great stamina despite their low protein intake as a result of eating Neuroptera among other insects.
The understanding of neuropteran phylogeny has vastly improved since the mid-1990s, not the least courtesy of the ever-growing fossil record. In 1995, for example, it was known that the Megaloptera and Raphidioptera were not part of the Neuroptera in the strict sense, the Mantispoidea and part of the Myrmeleontoidea were the only groups that could be confirmed by cladistic analysis. Though the relationships of some families remain to be understood, most major lineages of the Neuropterida can nowadays be robustly placed in an evolutionary context; the phylogeny of the Neuroptera has been explored using mitochondrial DNA sequences, while issues remain for the group as a whole, the Myrmeleontiformia is agreed to be monophyletic, giving the following cladogram: Basal and unresolved forms Genus Mantispidiptera Grimaldi, 2000 Genus Mesohemerobius Ping, 1928 Family Permithonidae Family Prohemerobiidae Family Nevrorthidae Family Grammosmylidae Family Osmylitidae Superfamily Osmyloidea Family Osmylidae: osmylidsSuborder Hemerobiiformia Superfamily Ithonioidea Family Ithonidae: moth lacewings Family Polystoechotidae: giant lacewings Superfamily Chrysopoidea Family Ascalochrysidae Family Mesochrysopidae Family Chrysopidae: green lacewings, stinkflies Superfamily Hemerobioidea Family Hemerobiidae: brown lacewings Superfamily Coniopterygoidea Family Coniopterygidae: dustywings Family Sisyridae: spongillaflies Superfamily Mantispoidea Family Dilaridae: pleasing lacewings Family Mantispidae: mantidflies Family Mesithonidae Family Rhachiberothidae: thorny lacewings Family Berothidae: beaded lacewingsSuborder Myrmeleontiformia Superfamily NemopteroideaFamily Kalligrammatidae Family Psychopsidae: silky lacewings Family Nemopteridae: spoonwings, spoon-winged laceflies, thread-winged
Dalkey is a suburb of Dublin, a seaside resort southeast of the city, the town of Dún Laoghaire, in Ireland. It became an active port during the Middle Ages. According to chronicler John Clyn, it was one of the ports through which the plague entered Ireland in the mid-14th century. In modern times, Dalkey has become a seaside suburb. One of Dublin's more affluent suburbs, it has been home to writers and celebrities including Jane Emily Herbert, Maeve Binchy, Hugh Leonard, Van Morrison and Enya; the village and broader area lie within the jurisdiction of Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council. The town is named after Dalkey Island, just off shore; the name is derived from the Old Norse ey. Dalkey lies between Dún Laoghaire and Killiney. Off the coast are Dalkey Island, Malden Rock, Clare Rock, Lamb Island, further offshore, The Muglins, which have their own lighthouse; the town is on level land, but the district rises to Dalkey Hill, the northern peak of a ridge which continues to Killiney Hill to the southwest.
Along the coast are the natural harbour at Bullock, a couple of small inlets, Sorrento Point just east of the town proper, the northern park of Killiney Bay. Dalkey Quarry is a disused granite quarry, stone from, used during the 19th century to build Dún Laoghaire Harbour, is now a rock climbing location within Killiney Hill Park. During the building of the harbour, the quarry was connected to Dún Laoghaire via a metal tramway known as'The Metals', some parts of which are still visible in some parts of Dalkey. There are several small harbours on the coast of Dalkey. Bulloch Harbour is the biggest. Coliemore Harbour is smaller and in the southern part of Dalkey at Coliemore Road. In the Middle Ages, Coliemore was the main harbour for Dublin City. Bulloch Harbour is still a working harbour with boats that fish for lobster and crab, mackerel in season, it is used by locals and tourists who hire boats for nearby fishing and for getting to Dalkey Island. Dalkey Island is home to a colony of seals, a herd of wild goats lives on the island.
Birdwatch Ireland have established a colony of Roseate Terns on Maiden Rock just north of Dalkey Island. A pod of three bottlenose dolphins frequents the waters around Dalkey Island. There are 5 schools in Dalkey: - Loreto Primary School caters for boys from junior infants through first class, for girls from junior infants through sixth class. - Loreto Abbey Secondary School caters for girls from first year through sixth year. - Harold Boys' National School caters for boys from second class through sixth class. - Saint Patrick's National School caters for boys and girls from junior infants through sixth class. - Castle Park School is an independent school for boys and girls from Montessori to the end of Primary School. Cuala CLG, a Gaelic Athletic Association sports club, Dalkey United, an association football club, are both based at Hyde Park. Early in his soccer career, Paul McGrath played for Dalkey United. In the 1940s, the town produced Peter Farrell, it has set up the Dalkey Dashers. Dalkey Rowing Club is based at Coliemore Harbour and Kayaking is taught at Bulloch.
Dalkey Sea Scouts keep two old sailing boats at Bulloch Harbour. The Vico Bathing Place and Whiterock Beach, accessed off Vico Road, offer. Both have changing shelters. Sandycove Beach and the adjacent'Forty Foot' bathing place are a short distance away, beside the Joyce Tower. Dalkey Sound and the islands beyond are used as scuba diving locations; the Dalkey Atmospheric station at Atmospheric Road was the terminus for the first commercial application of the atmospheric system of train propulsion. The current Dalkey railway station was opened on 10 July 1854; the station is served by the DART electric rail system which affords quick access to and from Dublin City Centre. Clifftop views of Dalkey Island and Killiney Bay are afforded as the train emerges from a short tunnel just south of Dalkey Station. An Aircoach service with a stop at Hyde Road links the area with Dublin Airport. Go-Ahead Ireland and Dublin Bus services 7D, 59 and 111 link the area with the nearby seaside town of Dún Laoghaire and the city centre.
Dalkey is the original hometown of two Irish writers: novelists Maeve Binchy and playwright Hugh Leonard. It is the setting for Flann O'Brien's novel The Dalkey Archive. Several well-known Irish and international music figures — including U2 members Bono and The Edge, Chris de Burgh and Van Morrison — have bought residences in the area. Film director Neil Jordan lives in the town. Pat Kenny, former host of RTÉ's flagship chat show The Late Late Show, is a resident, as is the current host, Ryan Tubridy. Singer Lisa Stansfield is a former resident. George Bernard Shaw has a close association with the area, he lived in Torca Cottage on Dalkey Hill from 1866 to 1874. Victoria Cross recipient Major William Leet was born in Dalkey. Dalkey's main street, Castle Street, has a 10th Century church and two 14th Century Norman castles, one of which, Goat's Castle, houses the local Heritage Centre. There are several historical walks and tours. Dalkey Hill offers views over Dublin city, Dublin Bay, towards the Dublin and Wicklow Mountains.
Deilg Inis Living Histo
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings are hardened into wing-cases, distinguishing them from most other insects; the Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae with some 70,000 member species, belongs to this order. Found in every habitat except the sea and the polar regions, they interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, eat other invertebrates; some species are serious agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle, while others such as Coccinellidae eat aphids, scale insects and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops. Beetles have a hard exoskeleton including the elytra, though some such as the rove beetles have short elytra while blister beetles have softer elytra; the general anatomy of a beetle is quite uniform and typical of insects, although there are several examples of novelty, such as adaptations in water beetles which trap air bubbles under the elytra for use while diving.
Beetles are endopterygotes, which means that they undergo complete metamorphosis, with a series of conspicuous and abrupt changes in body structure between hatching and becoming adult after a immobile pupal stage. Some, such as stag beetles, have a marked sexual dimorphism, the males possessing enormously enlarged mandibles which they use to fight other males. Many beetles are aposematic, with bright colours and patterns warning of their toxicity, while others are harmless Batesian mimics of such insects. Many beetles, including those that live in sandy places, have effective camouflage. Beetles are prominent in human culture, from the sacred scarabs of ancient Egypt to beetlewing art and use as pets or fighting insects for entertainment and gambling. Many beetle groups are brightly and attractively coloured making them objects of collection and decorative displays. Over 300 species are used as food as larvae. However, the major impact of beetles on human life is as agricultural and horticultural pests.
Serious pests include the boll weevil of cotton, the Colorado potato beetle, the coconut hispine beetle, the mountain pine beetle. Most beetles, however, do not cause economic damage and many, such as the lady beetles and dung beetles are beneficial by helping to control insect pests; the name of the taxonomic order, comes from the Greek koleopteros, given to the group by Aristotle for their elytra, hardened shield-like forewings, from koleos and pteron, wing. The English name beetle comes from the Old English word bitela, little biter, related to bītan, leading to Middle English betylle. Another Old English name for beetle is ċeafor, used in names such as cockchafer, from the Proto-Germanic *kebrô. Beetles are by far the largest order of insects: the 400,000 species make up about 40% of all insect species so far described, about 25% of all animals. A 2015 study provided four independent estimates of the total number of beetle species, giving a mean estimate of some 1.5 million with a "surprisingly narrow range" spanning all four estimates from a minimum of 0.9 to a maximum of 2.1 million beetle species.
The four estimates made use of host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, extrapolations based on body size by year of description. Beetles are found in nearly all habitats, including freshwater and coastal habitats, wherever vegetative foliage is found, from trees and their bark to flowers and underground near roots - inside plants in galls, in every plant tissue, including dead or decaying ones; the heaviest beetle, indeed the heaviest insect stage, is the larva of the goliath beetle, Goliathus goliatus, which can attain a mass of at least 115 g and a length of 11.5 cm. Adult male goliath beetles are the heaviest beetle in its adult stage, weighing 70–100 g and measuring up to 11 cm. Adult elephant beetles, Megasoma elephas and Megasoma actaeon reach 50 g and 10 cm; the longest beetle is the Hercules beetle Dynastes hercules, with a maximum overall length of at least 16.7 cm including the long pronotal horn. The smallest recorded beetle and the smallest free-living insect, is the featherwing beetle Scydosella musawasensis which may measure as little as 325 µm in length.
The oldest known fossil insect that unequivocally resembles a Coleopteran is from the Lower Permian Period about 270 million years ago, though these members of the family Tshekardocoleidae have 13-segmented antennae, elytra with more developed venation and more irregular longitudinal ribbing, abdomen and ovipositor extending beyond the apex of the elytra. In the Permian–Triassic extinction event at the end of the Permian, some 30% of all insect species became extinct, so the fossil record of insects only includes beetles from the Lower Triassic 220 mya. Around this time, during the Late Triassic, fungus-feeding species such as Cupedidae appear in the fossil record. In the stages of the Upper Triassic, alga-feeding insects such as Triaplidae and Hydrophilidae begin to appear, alongside predatory water beetles; the first weevils, including the Obrienidae, appear alongside the first rove beetles, which resemb