The Fargo Theatre is an art deco movie theater in downtown Fargo, North Dakota, United States. It was built in 1926, it was restored in 1999 to its historic appearance and now is a center for the arts in the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Since 2001, The Fargo Theatre has served as the main venue of the Fargo Film Festival; the festival has accepted submissions from many independent filmmakers from more than 32 American states and 15 countries. Bell Bank has been the festival's major sponsor from the beginning. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cass County, North Dakota Media related to Fargo Theatre at Wikimedia Commons Fargo Theatre website Fargo Theatre at CinemaTreasures.org Fargo Theatre at the Moviemaking Wiki <--Dead link, December 2015
Valley City, North Dakota
Valley City is a city in Barnes County, North Dakota, United States. It is the county seat of Barnes County; the population was 6,585 during the 2010 census, making it the thirteenth largest city in North Dakota. Valley City was founded in 1874; the city is known for its many bridges over the Sheyenne River including the Hi-Line Railroad Bridge. These bridges have earned it the distinction of being called the "City of Bridges"; the city is the home of Valley City State University and the home for the North Dakota High School Activities Association. Valley City was called Worthington, under the latter name was laid out in 1874 when the railroad was extended to that point; the present name is for the city's location in the valley of the Sheyenne River. A post office was established under the name Worthington in 1874, has continued to operate under the name Valley City since 1878. A Carnegie Library opened in 1903, through the efforts of the "Tuesday Club," a local women's organization; the inception of the nation's first barber association occurred in Valley City during a state barber convention in February, 1909.
Valley City is located at 46°55′29″N 98°0′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.46 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,585 people, 2,986 households, 1,563 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,903.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,307 housing units at an average density of 955.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.2% White, 1.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 2,986 households of which 22.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.7% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.74.
The median age in the city was 42.1 years. 18.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,826 people, 2,996 households, 1,668 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,062.5 per square mile. There were 3,250 housing units at an average density of 982.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.39% White, 0.73% African American, 0.75% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. The top 6 ancestry groups in the city are German, Irish, French, English. There were 2,996 households out of which 23.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.3% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.77. In the city, the population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 15.3% from 18 to 24, 21.4% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 23.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,050, the median income for a family was $41,604. Males had a median income of $30,035 versus $17,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,257. About 5.5% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over. CSiCableThe local newspaper is the Valley City Times-Record. Valley City is served by the Valley City Public School District which consists of Jefferson Elementary School, Washington Elementary School, Valley City Junior/Senior High School and St. Catherines Catholic School for grade K–6 Valley City State University Hi-Line Railroad Bridge North Dakota Winter Show North Country Trail The Vault Jeff Boschee, professional basketball player Paul Fjelde, sculptor.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Valley City has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Valley City, North Dakota official tourism website Valley City, North Dakota official city government website Community d
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity of America is an American collegiate social fraternity for men with a special interest in music. The fraternity is open to men "who, through a love for music, can assist in the fulfillment of Object and ideals either by adopting music as a profession, or by working to advance the cause of music in America." Phi Mu Alpha has initiated more than 260,000 members, known as Sinfonians, the fraternity has over 7,000 active collegiate members in 249 collegiate chapters throughout the United States. Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia was founded as the Sinfonia Club at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts on October 6, 1898, by Ossian Everett Mills, bursar of the conservatory. Two years on October 6, 1900, a delegation of members from the Sinfonia Club visited the Broad Street Conservatory of Music in Philadelphia, a group of students there petitioned to form a chapter of the club, thus establishing the organization as a national fraternity. By 1901, two additional chapters had been formed and the 1st National Convention was held in Boston to establish a national constitution.
Phi Mu Alpha operates independently from any of the major governing councils for collegiate fraternities in the United States such as the North-American Interfraternity Conference, though it is a member of other interfraternal organizations such as the Association of Fraternity Advisors, the Fraternity Communications Association, the National Interfraternity Music Council. Since 1970, Phi Mu Alpha headquarters are located at Lyrecrest, an estate on the northern outskirts of Evansville, Indiana. Membership in Phi Mu Alpha is divided into four classes: probationary, collegiate and honorary. Probationary members are those who are participating in an educational program of between four and 12 weeks in length in preparation for initiation as full, active collegiate members. Collegiate members transfer to alumni membership. Honorary membership can be bestowed under guidelines established by the National Constitution; the fraternity has local and national levels of governance. The most fundamental local unit is the collegiate chapter chartered at a university.
Phi Mu Alpha charters local alumni associations, which are issued to groups of alumni members in a particular geographic area. Chapters and alumni associations are grouped into provinces. A National Executive Committee, elected by a National Assembly at each triennial National Convention, governs the national organization. Phi Mu Alpha has several identifying symbols, including a membership badge. Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia was founded as the Sinfonia Club by Ossian Everett Mills at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. Ossian Everett Mills, bursar of the conservatory, had been holding devotional meetings with a small group of male students since 1886. Mills was profoundly interested in the physical, mental and spiritual development of the conservatory's students. Mills sought to encourage the personal development of the young men at the conservatory through wholesome social interaction among them; this led Mills to suggested that the "Old Boys" of the conservatory invite the "New Boys" to a "get acquainted" reception on September 22, 1898.
Several of the men who attended the reception began to discuss the possibility of organizing a more permanent social club, a meeting was planned for October 6, 1898, for that purpose. The origin of the name "Sinfonia" is attributed to George W. Chadwick, the director of the New England Conservatory at the time the Sinfonia Club was founded. Chadwick was elected as the second honorary member of the club after Ossian Mills, he suggested the name "Sinfonia" after the name of a student organization he was a member of in Leipzig, Germany. Prior to 1947, the legal corporate name of the fraternity was Sinfonia Fraternity of America, though the Greek letters Phi, Mu, Alpha had been associated with the fraternity since at least 1904; the delegates to the 29th National Convention in 1946 approved changing the corporate name to Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity of America, which it remains today. The Sinfonia Club became a national fraternity in 1900 with the admission of a group of men at the Broad Street Conservatory of Music in Philadelphia, under the direction of Gilbert Raynolds Combs.
The traditional date given in fraternity resources for the founding of Beta Chapter at Broad Street Conservatory is October 6, 1900. However, while the petitioning letter submitted by the men from Philadelphia is dated October 6, a notation made by Ralph Howard Pendleton, secretary of Alpha Chapter at the New England Conservatory, at the bottom of the letter indicates that the petition was not approved until October 8. Phi Mu Alpha continued to grow and to maintain an emphasis on the development of high character among male musicians through the next two decades. Percy Jewett Burrell, sixth Supreme President, was influential during the fraternity's early years, both because of his long tenure in office and because of his extensive writing. Burrell wrote many articles calling for members to develop within themselves the noble virtues espoused by the fraternity's exoteric and esoteric teachings; as the fraternity continued to grow in both the number of members and chapters, so did its emphasis on the advancement of music.
In 1927, the original Object statement was altered so that "to advance the cause of music in America" was put in a place of prominence. After the American victory in World War II, the young men who returned from battle to re-enter the nation's
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is a city in and the county seat of Cass County, North Dakota, United States. The most populous city in the state, it accounts for nearly 17% of the state population. According to the 2017 United States Census estimates, its population was 122,359, making it the 225th-most populous city in the United States. Fargo, along with its twin city of Moorhead, Minnesota, as well as the adjacent cities of West Fargo, North Dakota and Dilworth, form the core of the Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in 2017 contained a population of 241,356. Founded in 1871 on the Red River of the North floodplain, Fargo is a cultural, health care and industrial center for eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota; the city is home to North Dakota State University. Part of Sioux territory, the area, present-day Fargo was an early stopping point for steamboats traversing the Red River during the 1870s and 1880s; the city was named "Centralia," but was renamed "Fargo" after Northern Pacific Railway director and Wells Fargo Express Company founder William Fargo.
The area started to flourish after the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the city became known as the "Gateway to the West." During the 1880s, Fargo became the "divorce capital" of the Midwest because of lenient divorce laws. A major fire struck the city on June 7, 1893, destroying 31 blocks of downtown Fargo, but the city was rebuilt with new buildings made of brick, new streets, a water system. More than 246 new buildings were built within one year. There were several rumors concerning the cause of the fire; the North Dakota Agricultural College was founded in 1890 as North Dakota's land-grant university, becoming first accredited by the North Central Association in 1915. In 1960, NDAC became known as North Dakota State University. Early in the century, the automobile industry flourished, in 1905, Fargo was home to the Pence Automobile Company. On Labor Day in 1910, Theodore Roosevelt visited Fargo to lay the cornerstone of the college's new library. To a crowd of 30,000, Roosevelt spoke about his first visit to Fargo 27 years earlier, credited his experience homesteading in North Dakota for his eventual rise to the presidency.
Fargo-Moorhead boomed after World War II, the city grew despite a violent tornado in 1957 that destroyed a large part of the city's north end. Ted Fujita, famous for his Fujita tornado scale, analyzed pictures of the Fargo tornado, which helped him develop his ideas for "wall cloud" and "tail cloud." These were the first major scientific descriptive terms associated with tornadoes. The coming of two interstates revolutionized travel in the region and pushed growth of Fargo to the south and west of the city limits. In 1972, the West Acres Shopping Center, the largest shopping mall in North Dakota, was constructed near the intersection of the two Interstates; this mall would become the catalyst for retail growth in the area. Fargo has continued to expand but steadily. Since the mid-1980s, the bulk of new residential growth has occurred in the south and southwest areas of the city due to geographic constraints on the north side; the city's major retail districts on the southwest side have seen rapid development.
Downtown Fargo has been gentrified due in part to investments by the city and private developers in the Renaissance Zone. Most older neighborhoods, such as Horace Mann, have either avoided decline or been revitalized through housing rehabilitation promoted by planning agencies to strengthen the city's core. NDSU has grown into a major research university, forms a major component of the city's identity and economy. Most students live off-campus in the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood; the university has established a presence downtown through both academic buildings and apartment housing. In addition, NDSU Bison Football has become a major sport following among many area residents. Since the late 1990s, the Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan Statistical Area has had one of the lowest unemployment rates among MSAs in the United States. Coupled with Fargo's low crime rate and the decent supply of affordable housing in the community, this has prompted Money magazine to rank the city near the top of its annual list of America's most livable cities throughout the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Fargo is a core city of the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area, which includes Moorhead, West Fargo, Dilworth as well as outlying communities. Fargo sits on the western bank of the Red River of the North in a flat geographic region known as the Red River Valley; the Red River Valley resulted from the withdrawal of glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained away about 9,300 years ago. The lake sediments deposited from Lake Agassiz made the land around Fargo some of the richest in the world for agricultural uses. Fargo's largest challenge is the seasonal floods due to the rising water of the Red River, which flows from the United States into Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada; the Red flows northward, which means melting snow and river ice, as well as runoff from its tributaries create ice dams causing the river to overflow. Fargo's surrounding Red River Valley terrain is flat, leading to overland flooding. Since the devastating flood of 2009, both Fargo and Moorhead have taken great strides in flood protection, only a near record flood would cause concern today.
Its location makes the city vulnerable to flooding during seasons with above average precipitation. The Red River's "minor" flood stage in Fargo begins at a level of 18 feet, with "major" flooding categorized at 30 feet and above. Many major downtown roadways and access to Moorhead are closed off at this level. Record snowfalls late in 19
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. It touches on all learning domains, including the psychomotor domain, the cognitive domain, and, in particular and significant ways, the affective domain, including music appreciation and sensitivity. Music training from preschool through post-secondary education is common in most nations because involvement with music is considered a fundamental component of human culture and behavior. Cultures from around the world have different approaches to music education due to the varying histories and politics. Studies show that teaching music from other cultures can help students perceive unfamiliar sounds more comfortably, they show that musical preference is related to the language spoken by the listener and the other sounds they are exposed to within their own culture. During the 20th century, many distinctive approaches were developed or further refined for the teaching of music, some of which have had widespread impact.
The Dalcroze method was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician and educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. The Kodály Method emphasizes the benefits of physical response to music; the Orff Schulwerk approach to music education leads students to develop their music abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music. The Suzuki method creates the same environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language. Gordon Music Learning Theory provides the music teacher with a method for teaching musicianship through audiation, Gordon's term for hearing music in the mind with understanding. Conversational Solfège immerses students in the musical literature of their own culture, in this case American; the Carabo-Cone Method involves using props and toys for children to learn basic musical concepts of staff, note duration, the piano keyboard. The concrete environment of the specially planned classroom allows the child to learn the fundamentals of music by exploring through touch.
Popular music pedagogy is the systematic teaching and learning of rock music and other forms of popular music both inside and outside formal classroom settings. Some have suggested that certain musical activities can help to improve breath and voice control of a child; the MMCP aims to shape attitudes, helping students see music not as static content to be mastered, but as personal and evolving. In primary schools in European countries, children learn to play instruments such as keyboards or recorders, sing in small choirs, learn about the elements of music and history of music. In countries such as India, the harmonium is used in schools, but instruments like keyboards and violin are common. Students are taught basics of Indian Raga music. In primary and secondary schools, students may have the opportunity to perform in some type of musical ensemble, such as a choir, orchestra, or school band: concert band, marching band, or jazz band. In some secondary schools, additional music classes may be available.
In junior high school or its equivalent, music continues to be a required part of the curriculum. At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs receive academic credit for music courses such as music history of Western art music, or music appreciation, which focuses on listening and learning about different musical styles. In addition, most North American and European universities offer music ensembles – such as choir, concert band, marching band, or orchestra – that are open to students from various fields of study. Most universities offer degree programs in music education, certifying students as primary and secondary music educators. Advanced degrees such as the D. M. A. or the Ph. D can lead to university employment; these degrees are awarded upon completion of music theory, music history, technique classes, private instruction with a specific instrument, ensemble participation, in depth observations of experienced educators. Music education departments in North American and European universities support interdisciplinary research in such areas as music psychology, music education historiography, educational ethnomusicology and philosophy of education.
The study of western art music is common in music education outside of North America and Europe, including Asian nations such as South Korea and China. At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of outside the Western art music canon, including music of West Africa, of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, as well as popular music. Music education takes place in individualized, lifelong learning, in community contexts. Both amateur and professional musicians take music lessons, short private sessions with an individual teacher. While instructional strategies are determined by the music teacher and the music curriculum in his or her area, many teachers rely on one of many instructional methodologies that emerged in recent generations and developed during the latter half of the 20th Century; the Dalcroze method was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician and educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. The method is divided into three fundamental concepts − the use of solfège, eurhythmics.
Sometimes referred to as "rhythmic gymnastics," eurhythmics teaches concepts of rhythm and musical expression using movement, is the concept for which Dalcroze is best known. It