The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 was an organic act passed by the 33rd U. S. Congress that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce; the initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to open up thousands of new farms and make feasible a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad. In addition to creating the U. S. territories of Kansas and Nebraska, the Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed each territory to decide, "under the concept of popular sovereignty, whether they wanted slavery or not." The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise, which had prohibited slavery in all U. S. territories west of the Mississippi River and north of 36°30' latitude. The popular sovereignty clause of the law led pro- and anti-slavery elements to flood into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down, resulting in a series of armed conflicts known as "Bleeding Kansas". Controversy surrounding the Kansas-Nebraska Act was a cause of the Civil War.
The availability of tens of millions of acres of fertile farmland in the area made it necessary to create a territorial infrastructure to allow settlement. Railroad interests were eager to start operations since they needed farmers as customers. Four previous attempts to pass legislation had failed; the solution was a bill proposed in January 1854 by Douglas — the Democratic Party leader in the US Senate, the chairman of the Committee on Territories, an avid promoter of railroads, an aspirant to the presidency, a fervent believer in popular sovereignty — the policy of letting the voters exclusively white males, of a territory decide whether or not slavery should exist in it. Since the 1840s, the topic of a transcontinental railroad had been discussed. While there were debates over the specifics the route to be taken, there was a public consensus that such a railroad should be built by private interests, financed by public land grants. In 1845, serving in his first term in the US House of Representatives, had submitted an unsuccessful plan to organize the Nebraska Territory formally, as the first step in building a railroad with its eastern terminus in Chicago.
Railroad proposals were debated in all subsequent sessions of Congress with cities such as Chicago, St. Louis, Quincy and New Orleans competing to be the jumping-off point for the construction. Several proposals in late 1852 and early 1853 had strong support, but they failed because of disputes over whether the railroad would follow a northern or a southern route. In early 1853, the House of Representatives passed a bill 107 to 49 to organize the Nebraska Territory in the land west of Iowa and Missouri. In March, the bill moved to the Senate Committee on Territories, headed by Douglas. Missouri Senator David Atchison announced that he would support the Nebraska proposal only if slavery was allowed. While the bill was silent on this issue, slavery would have been prohibited under the Missouri Compromise in territory north of 36°30' latitude and west of the Mississippi River. Other Southern senators were as inflexible as Atchison. By a vote of 23 to 17, the Senate voted to table the motion, with every senator from the states south of Missouri voting to table.
During the Senate adjournment, the issues of the railroad and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise became entangled in Missouri politics, as Atchison campaigned for re-election against the forces of Thomas Hart Benton. Atchison was maneuvered into choosing between antagonizing the state's railroad interests or its slaveholders. Atchison took the position that he would rather see Nebraska "sink in hell" before he would allow it to be overrun by free soilers. Representatives generally found lodging in boarding houses when they were in the nation's capital to perform their legislative duties. Atchison shared lodgings in an F Street house, shared by the leading Southerners in Congress. Atchison himself was the Senate's president pro tempore, his housemates included James Mason and Andrew P. Butler; when Congress reconvened on December 5, 1853, the group, termed the F Street Mess, along with Virginian William O. Goode, formed the nucleus that would insist on slaveholder equality in Nebraska. Douglas knew that he needed to address its concerns.
Iowa Senator Augustus C. Dodge reintroduced the same legislation to organize Nebraska that had stalled in the previous session. Douglas, hoping to achieve the support of the Southerners, publicly announced that the same principle, established in the Compromise of 1850 should apply in Nebraska. In the Compromise of 1850, Utah and New Mexico Territories had been organized without any restrictions on slavery, many supporters of Douglas argued that the compromise had superseded the Missouri Compromise; the two territories, unlike Nebraska, had not been part of the Louisiana Purchase and had never been subject to the Missouri Compromise. The bill was reported to the main body of the Senate on January 4, 1854, it had been modified by Douglas, who had authored the New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory Acts, to mirror the language from the Compromise of 1850. In the bill, a vast new Nebraska Territory was created to extend from Kansas north all the way to the 49th parallel, the US–Canada border. A large portion of Nebraska Territory would soon be split off into Dakota Territory, smaller portions transferred to Colorado Territory and Idaho Territory before the ba
Lafayette College is a private liberal arts college based in Easton, with a campus in New York City, New York. Founded in 1826 by James Madison Porter and the citizens of Easton, the school first held classes in 1832; the founders voted to name the school after General Lafayette, who famously toured the country in 1824–25, as "a testimony of respect for talents and signal services... in the great cause of freedom". Lafayette is considered a Hidden Ivy as well as one of the northeastern Little Ivies. Located on College Hill in Easton, the campus is in the Lehigh Valley, about 70 mi west of New York City and 60 mi north of Philadelphia. Lafayette College guarantees campus housing to all enrolled students; the school requires students to live in campus housing unless approved for residing in private off-campus housing or home as a commuter. The student body, consisting of undergraduates, comes from 46 U. S. states and territories and nearly 60 countries. Students at Lafayette are involved in over 250 clubs and organizations including athletics and sororities, special interest groups, community service clubs and honor societies.
Lafayette College's athletic program is notable for The Rivalry with nearby Lehigh University. Since 1884, the two football teams have met 154 times, making it the most played rivalry in the history of college football. A group of Easton citizens led by James Madison Porter met on December 27, 1824 at White's Tavern to explore the possibility of opening a college; the recent visit of General Lafayette to New York during his grand tour of the US in 1824 and 1825 prompted the founders to name the school after the French military officer. The group established the 35-member Board of Trustees, a system of governance that has remained at the college to this day. In need of an education plan, the meeting gave the responsibility to Porter, lawyer Jacob Wagener, Yale-educated lawyer Joel Jones; the charter gained approval and on March 9, 1826, Pennsylvania Governor John Andrew Shulze's signature made the college official. Along with establishing Lafayette as a Liberal Arts College, the charter called for religious equality amongst professors and staff.
The Board of Trustees met on May 15, 1826 for the election of officers, resulting with Thomas McKeen as Treasurer, Joel Jones as Secretary, James Madison Porter as the first President of the College. Over the next few years, the Board met several times to discuss property and funding for the college's start-up. Six years after the first meeting, Lafayette began to enroll students; the College opened on May 1829, with four students under the guidance of Rev. John Monteith. At the start of the next year, the Rev. George Junkin, a Presbyterian minister, was elected President of the college and moved the all-male Manual Labor Academy of Pennsylvania from Germantown to Easton. Classes began on May 9, 1832, with the instruction of 43 students on the south bank of the Lehigh River in a rented farmhouse. In order to earn money to support the program students had to labor in the workshops; this manual labor infused College took the place of the original Military/Civil Engineering focus on which the school was founded, would remain part of the curriculum until 1839.
That year, Lafayette purchased property on what is now known as "College Hill" – nine acres of elevated land across Bushkill Creek. The College's first building was constructed two years on the current site of South College. A dispute between Porter and Rev. Junkin led to his resignation of the presidency in 1841. Though still young, Lafayette was beginning to take shape, grappling with the possibility of religious affiliation for financial stability. In 1854, Lafayette College became affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. By relinquishing their control, the College was able to collect $1000 a year from the Presbyterian Church Board of Education as as the latter could pay it. In the time from 1855 to 1856, Lafayette experienced a new peak enrollment of 112 students, leading to the "famous class" of 1857; this close-knit class of 27 men worked in secrecy to establish charters in national fraternities, thus instating the first Greek Fraternities at Lafayette College. These Fraternities remained secret and discouraged by the authorities until 1915.
In preparation for World War I, Lafayette announced that their current students would be awarded their degrees in absentia if they enlisted or went to work for farms to support the war effort. Professor Beverly Kunkel organized The Lafayette Ambulance United, Section 61, United States Army Ambulance Corps. During the summer of 1917, Dr. MacCracken arranged to turn the campus into a war camp for the War Department. Men trained to serve in mechanical trades. Lafayette remained a war camp until January 2, 1919 when the regular course of study was re-established at Lafayette. A drastic change in numbers of undergraduate and graduate students occurred between 1930 and 1934 during the Great Depression; the college made efforts to bolster enrollment including creation of new scholarship opportunities as well as scholarship loans. Lafayette College founded an Engineering Guidance Conference for boys; the Conference was two weeks long and introduced twenty-one high school students to the concepts of engineering.
This program continued until the outbreak of World War II. Though the College faced its own deficits, it aided the larger community by offering a series of classes to unemployed men free of charge beginning in 1932, they made athletic facilities available to unemployed members of the community. Enrollment began to rise again for the 1935–1936 school year; as the college moved out of the great depression, the college's
John Wanamaker was an American merchant and religious and political figure, considered by some to be a proponent of advertising and a "pioneer in marketing". He was born in Philadelphia and served as U. S. Postmaster General. Wanamaker was born on July 11, 1838, in a then-rural, unincorporated area that would in time come to be known as the Grays Ferry neighborhood of South Philadelphia, his parents were John Nelson Wanamaker, a brickmaker and a native of Kingwood, New Jersey and Elizabeth Deshong Kochersperger, daughter of a farmer and innkeeper at Gray's Ferry whose ancestors had hailed from Rittershoffen in Alsace and from Canton of Bern in Switzerland. In 1860 John Wanamaker married Mary Erringer Brown, they had six children: Thomas Brown Wanamaker, who married Mary Lowber Welch Lewis Rodman Wanamaker, who married Fernanda de Henry Horace Wanamaker Harriett E. "Nettie" Wanamaker Mary Brown "Minnie" Wanamaker, who married Barclay Harding Warburton I and was the mother of Barclay Harding Warburton II.
Elizabeth "Lillie" Wanamaker, who married Norman McLeodJohn Wanamaker's son, Thomas B. who specialized in store financial matters, purchased a Philadelphia newspaper called The North American in 1899 and irritated his father by giving regular columns to radical intellectuals such as single-taxer Henry George, Jr. socialist Henry John Nelson, socialist Caroline H. Pemberton; the younger Wanamaker began publishing a Sunday edition, which offended his father's Biblically informed religious views. His younger son Rodman, a Princeton graduate, lived in France early in his career and is credited with creating a demand for French luxury goods that persists to this day. Rodman was credited with the artistic emphasis that gave the Wanamaker stores their cachet and was a patron of fine music, organizing spectacular organ and orchestra concerts in the Wanamaker Philadelphia and New York stores under music director Alexander Russell. Wanamaker opened his first store in 1861, in partnership with his brother in-law Nathan Brown, called "Oak Hall", at Sixth and Market Streets in Philadelphia, adjacent to the site of George Washington's Presidential home.
Oak Hall grew based on Wanamaker's then-revolutionary principle: "One price and goods returnable". In 1869, he opened his second store at 818 Chestnut Street and capitalizing on his own name and growing reputation, renamed the company John Wanamaker & Co. In 1875, he purchased an abandoned railroad depot and converted it into a large store, called John Wanamaker & Co. "The Grand Depot". Wanamaker's is considered the first department store in Philadelphia. A large 12-story granite store in Philadelphia, known as the "Wanamaker Building", designed by famous Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham, was completed in 1910 and dedicated by US President William Howard Taft; the store stands on the site of "The Grand Depot", encompassing an entire block at the corner of Thirteenth and Market Streets across from Philadelphia's City Hall. The new store, The Wanamaker Building, which still stands today, became a Philadelphia institution and has remained an integral part of the Philadelphia culture; the upper office tower began marketing itself as the Wanamaker Office Building in 2018.
The Wanamaker Building's most notable feature is its 12-story, marble-clad central atrium known as the Grand Court. The Grand Court became a Philadelphia favorite, highlighted by the Wanamaker Eagle and the Wanamaker Grand Court Organ. Among other things of note, the Grand Court has been featured in major motion pictures, such as: "Nasty Habits", "Mannequin", "Blow Out", "12 Monkeys"; the Wanamaker Grand Court Organ was designed by George Ashdown Audsley and built by the Los Angeles Art Organ Company for the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair; this heroic instrument had more than 10,000 pipes, cost $105,000 to construct. Wanamaker had it transported from St. Louis aboard 13 freight cars; the organ's installation took two years and it was played for the first time on June 22, 1911 to coincide with England's King George V's coronation. More than 8,000 pipes were added to the organ between 1911 and 1917. By 1930, an additional 10,000 pipes were installed, bringing the total number of pipes today to 28,500.
The instrument is of the American Symphonic school of design, intended to combine traditional organ resources with the tone colors and beauty of the symphony orchestra. Once a year in June, "Wanamaker Organ Day" is held, a free recital which lasts most of the day. John Wanamaker purchased a bronze bird sculpture by August Gaul, during the sculpture's visit to America in 1904 at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition; the 2,500-pound sculpture is a focal point of the store's grand court, whose floor had to be reinforced to hold the sculpture. Known as the "Wanamaker Eagle", it became a famous meeting place for Philadelphians. "Meet me at the Eagle" became a popular Philadelphia catchphrase. In November, 1955, the store tapped Frederick Yost, to create seasonal displays. Yost designed the Holiday Light Show for the Grand Court, creating a more contemporary display than previous years. Since the Holiday Light Show has become a beloved annual holiday tradition for generations of Philadelphians. Today, the light show has retained the look and feel of the original show.
Since 2006 the Macy's Dickens Village has been located on the store's third floor, continuing a cherished Philadelphia Christmas tradition that had
William Bigler was an American politician. A Democrat, he served as the 12th Governor of Pennsylvania from 1852 to 1855, a U. S. Senator for Pennsylvania from 1856 until 1861. Bigler received little formal education. Bigler founded his own political newspaper, the Clearfield Democrat, in 1833, became wealthy in the lumber business. In the 1840s, Bigler served in the Pennsylvania senate, he defeated incumbent governor William F. Johnston for the governor's seat in 1851. Although Bigler opposed slavery in principle, he supported the federal government's Fugitive Slave Act and the pro-slavery Kansas–Nebraska Act, he was defeated for a second term by James Pollock, the candidate of the newly formed Republican Party. Following his term as governor, he served in the United States Senate from 1856 to 1861. William and Brother John Bigler were listed in Ripleys Believe It or Not as brothers being governors of two different states simultaneously. One of his daughters Ida Annettee Bigler married Holmes Eugene Ruhe of Allentown PA.
Biglerville, Pennsylvania in Adams County, Pennsylvania is named after him. Bigler Hall on the University Park campus of Penn State is named after William Bigler, as are Bigler Street in Philadelphia, Bigler Township in Clearfield County, Bigler Avenues in both Clearfield and Northern Cambria, Pennsylvania. United States Congress. "William Bigler". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Bigler at Find a Grave
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Lock Haven, Pennsylvania
Lock Haven is the county seat of Clinton County, in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Located near the confluence of the West Branch Susquehanna River and Bald Eagle Creek, it is the principal city of the Lock Haven Micropolitan Statistical Area, itself part of the Williamsport–Lock Haven combined statistical area. At the 2010 census, Lock Haven's population was 9,772. Built on a site long favored by pre-Columbian peoples, Lock Haven began in 1833 as a timber town and a haven for loggers and other travelers on the river or the West Branch Canal. Resource extraction and efficient transportation financed much of the city's growth through the end of the 19th century. In the 20th century, a light-aircraft factory, a college, a paper mill, along with many smaller enterprises, drove the economy. Frequent floods in 1972, damaged local industry and led to a high rate of unemployment in the 1980s; the city has three sites on the National Register of Historic Places—Memorial Park Site, a significant pre-Columbian archaeological find.
A levee, completed in 1995, protects the city from further flooding. While industry remains important to the city, about a third of Lock Haven's workforce is employed in education, health care, or social services; the earliest settlers in Pennsylvania arrived from Asia between 12000 BCE and 8000 BCE, when the glaciers of the Pleistocene Ice Age were receding. Fluted point spearheads from this era, known as the Paleo-Indian Period, have been found in most parts of the state. Archeological discoveries at the Memorial Park Site 36Cn164 near the confluence of the West Branch Susquehanna River and Bald Eagle Creek collectively span about 8,000 years and represent every major prehistoric period from the Middle Archaic to the Late Woodland period. Prehistoric cultural periods over that span included the Middle Archaic starting at 6500 BCE. First contact with Europeans occurred in Pennsylvania between 1500 and 1600 CE. In the early 18th century, a tribal confederacy known as the Six Nations of the Iroquois, headquartered in New York, ruled the Indian tribes of Pennsylvania, including those who lived near what would become Lock Haven.
Indian settlements in the area included three Munsee villages on the 325-acre Great Island in the West Branch Susquehanna River at the mouth of Bald Eagle Creek. Four Indian trails, the Great Island Path, the Great Shamokin Path, the Bald Eagle Creek Path, the Sinnemahoning Path, crossed the island, a fifth, Logan's Path, met Bald Eagle Creek Path a few miles upstream near the mouth of Fishing Creek. During the French and Indian War, colonial militiamen on the Kittanning Expedition destroyed Munsee property on the Great Island and along the West Branch. By 1763, the Munsee had abandoned other villages in the area. With the signing of the first Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, the British gained control from the Iroquois of lands south of the West Branch. However, white settlers continued to appropriate land, including tracts in and near the future site of Lock Haven, not covered by the treaty. In 1769, Cleary Campbell, the first white settler in the area, built a log cabin near the present site of Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania, by 1773 William Reed, another settler, had built a cabin surrounded by a stockade and called it Reed's Fort.
It was the westernmost of 11 primitive forts along the West Branch. In response to settler incursions, encouraged by the British during the American Revolution, Indians attacked colonists and their settlements along the West Branch. Fort Reed and the other white settlements in the area were temporarily abandoned in 1778 during a general evacuation known as the Big Runaway. Hundreds of people fled along the river about 50 miles from Fort Reed. In 1784, the second Treaty of Fort Stanwix, between the Iroquois and the United States, transferred most of the remaining Indian territory in Pennsylvania, including what would become Lock Haven, to the state; the U. S. acquired the last remaining tract, the Erie Triangle, through a separate treaty and sold it to Pennsylvania in 1792. Lock Haven was laid out as a town in 1833, it became the county seat in 1839, when Clinton County was created out of parts of Lycoming and Centre counties. Incorporated as a borough in 1840 and as a city in 1870, Lock Haven prospered in the 19th century because of timber and transportation.
The forests of Clinton County and counties upriver held a huge supply of white pine and hemlock as well as oak, maple, cherry and magnolia. The wood was used locally for such things as frame houses, canal boats, wooden bridges, whole logs were floated to Chesapeake Bay and on to Baltimore, to make spars for ships. Log driving and log rafting, competing forms of transporting logs to sawmills, began along the West Branch around 1800. By 1830 before the founding of the town, the lumber industry was well established; the West Branch Canal, which opened in 1834, ran 73 miles from Northumberland to Farrandsville, about 5 miles upstream from Lock Haven. A state-funded extension called the Bald Eagle Cut ran from the West Branch through Lock Haven and Flemington to Bald Eagle Creek. A funded extension, the Bald Eagle and Spring Creek Navigation, eventually