House of Commons of England
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom; the Parliament of England developed from the Magnum Concilium that advised the English monarch in medieval times. This royal council, meeting for short periods, included ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties; the chief duty of the council was to approve taxes proposed by the Crown. In many cases, the council demanded the redress of the people's grievances before proceeding to vote on taxation. Thus, it developed legislative powers; the first parliament to invite representatives of the major towns was Montfort's Parliament in 1265. At the "Model Parliament" of 1295, representatives of the boroughs were admitted. Thus, it became settled practice that each county send two knights of the shire, that each borough send two burgesses.
At first, the burgesses were entirely powerless. Any show of independence by burgesses would thus be to lead to the exclusion of their towns from Parliament; the knights of the shire were in a better position, although less powerful than their noble and clerical counterparts in what was still a unicameral Parliament. The division of the Parliament of England into two houses occurred during the reign of Edward III: in 1341 the Commons met separately from the nobility and clergy for the first time, creating in effect an Upper Chamber and a Lower Chamber, with the knights and burgesses sitting in the latter, they formed what became known as the House of Commons, while the clergy and nobility became the House of Lords. Although they remained subordinate to both the Crown and the Lords, the Commons did act with increasing boldness. During the Good Parliament of 1376, the Commons appointed Sir Peter de la Mare to convey to the Lords their complaints of heavy taxes, demands for an accounting of the royal expenditures, criticism of the King's management of the military.
The Commons proceeded to impeach some of the King's ministers. Although Mare was imprisoned for his actions, the benefits of having a single voice to represent the Commons were recognized, the office which became known as Speaker of the House of Commons was thus created. Mare was soon released after the death of King Edward III and in 1377 became the second Speaker of the Commons. During the reign of the next monarch, Richard II, the Commons once again began to impeach errant ministers of the Crown, they began to insist that they could control public expenditures. Despite such gains in authority, the Commons still remained much less powerful than the Lords and the Crown; the influence of the Crown was increased by the civil wars of the late fifteenth century, which destroyed the power of the great noblemen. Both houses of Parliament held little power during the ensuing years, the absolute supremacy of the Sovereign was restored; the domination of the monarch grew further under the House of Tudor in the sixteenth century.
This trend, was somewhat reversed when the House of Stuart came to the English throne in 1603. The first two Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, provoked conflicts with the Commons over issues such as taxation and royal powers; the differences between Charles I and Parliament were great, resulted in the English Civil War, in which the armed forces of Parliament were victorious. In December 1648 the House of Commons was purged by the New Model Army, supposed to be subservient to Parliament. Pride's Purge was the only military coup in English history. Subsequently, King Charles I was beheaded and the Upper House was abolished; the unicameral Parliament that remained was referred to by critics as the Rump Parliament, as it consisted only of a small selection of Members of Parliament approved by the army - some of whom were soldiers themselves. In 1653, when leading figures in this Parliament began to disagree with the army, it was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell. However, the monarchy and the House of Lords were both restored with the Commons in 1660.
The influence of the Crown had been decreased, was further diminished after James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the Bill of Rights 1689 was enacted. Duration of English Parliaments before 1660 History of borough status in England and Wales Lex Parliamentaria List of Acts of the Parliament of England List of Parliaments of England List of Speakers of the House of Commons of England Modus Tenendi Parliamentum John Cannon, Parliamentary Reform 1640-1832 J. E. Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons
Brasenose College, Oxford
Brasenose College The King's Hall and College of Brasenose, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1509, with the library and chapel added in the mid-17th century and the new quadrangle in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; as of 2018, it has a financial endowment of £149.0 million. For the four degree years 2011/2014, Brasenose averaged 10th in the Norrington Table. In a recent Oxford Barometer Survey, Brasenose’s undergraduates registered 98% overall satisfaction. Brasenose is home to one of the oldest rowing clubs in Brasenose College Boat Club; the history of Brasenose College, Oxford stretches back to 1509, when the college was founded on the site of Brasenose Hall. Its name is believed to derive from the name of a brass or bronze knocker that adorned the hall's door; the college was associated with Lancashire and Cheshire, the county origins of its two founders – Sir Richard Sutton and the Bishop of Lincoln, William Smyth – a link, maintained until the latter half of the twentieth century.
The first principals navigated Brasenose, with its Catholic sympathisers, through the reformation and continuing religious reforms. Most of Brasenose favoured the Royalist side during the English Civil War, although it produced notable generals and clergy on both sides; the library and chapel were completed in the mid-17th century, despite Brasenose suffering continuing money problems. The post-1785 period would see an era of prosperity of the college under Principal William Cleaver; the college began to be populated by gentlemen, its income doubling between 1790 and 1810, academic success considerable. Efforts to reconstruct Brasenose were not completed, until the second half of the century with the addition of New Quad between 1886 and 1911. Brasenose's financial position remained secure, although under the tenure of Principal Edward Hartopp Cradock Brasenose's academic record waned with much of its success focussed on sports – where it excelled most notably in cricket and rowing; the mid-Century Royal Commissions were navigated – although they were opposed in form, their recommendations welcomed including choosing fellows on merit rather than by their place of birth.
The election of Charles Heberden as principal in 1889 led to a gradual reversal in Brasenose's academic failures, although its sporting performance suffered. Heberden was the first lay Principal, presiding over an secular college, opening up the library to undergraduates, instituting an entrance exam for the first time and accepting Rhodes scholarships. Brasenose lost 115 men in the First World War, with its undergraduate numbers reduced. Lord Curzon's post-War reforms were instituted; the inter-war period was defined by William Stallybrass, who as fellow and eventual principal dominated college life. Brasenose once again produced top sportsmen – cricketers and others; this came at the cost of falling academic standards and poorly performing finances, which would see Stallybrass' authority challenged. He died in a railway accident. After the war, sporting achievements waned but academic success did not improve in what was now one of Oxford's largest colleges; the 1970s saw considerable social change in Brasenose, with more post-graduate attendees and fewer domestic staff.
In 1974 Brasenose became one of the first men's colleges to admit women as full members, bringing an end to 470 years of the college as an men-only institution. The other all-male colleges to begin admitting women in 1974 were Jesus College, Hertford, St Catherine's, Wadham. There was considerable construction work to ensure that undergraduates could be housed for the entirety of their degree on the main site and on the Frewin site. Law continued to be a strong subject for Brasenose, as was the emerging subject of Politics and Economics, starting with the fellowship of Vernon Bogdanor. Brasenose's finances were secured, it thus entered the twenty-first century in a good position as regards financial and academic success. Brasenose faces the west side of Radcliffe Square opposite the Radcliffe Camera in the centre of Oxford; the north side is defined by Brasenose Lane. To the west is Lincoln College. At its south-east end, the college is separated from the University Church by St Mary's Passage.
The main entrance of the college can be found on Radcliffe Square. Although not located on Turl Street the college has informal links with the three Turl Street colleges; the college is physically linked to Lincoln College through a connecting door, through which Brasenose College members are permitted to enter Lincoln College on Ascension Day each year. The door is opened for five minutes and it is the only time during the year that this door is unlocked. Brasenose members are served an ale by Lincoln College, traditionally flavoured with ground ivy; the main college site comprises three quads, the original Old Quad, a small quad known as the Deer Park, the large New Quad, as well as collection of smaller houses facing Radcliffe Square and the High Street. The original college buildings comprised a single two storey quad, incorporating the original kitchen of Brasenose Hall on the south side. In the 17th century a third floor was added to the qu
Browne Willis was an antiquary, author and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1705 to 1708. Willis was born at Blandford St Mary, the eldest Son of Thomas Willis of Bletchley and his wife Alice Browne, daughter of Robert Browne of Frampton, Dorset, he was grandson of the physician. He was educated at Westminster School, he attended Christ Church and entered the Inner Temple in 1700. In 1707 he married the daughter of Daniel Eliot, he joined the reformed Society of Antiquaries in 1717–18. In 1705, Willis was elected Member of Parliament for Buckingham, he held the seat until 1708. His published works are: Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. 1 Survey of St David’s Cathedral Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. 2 The Whole Duty of Man, Abridged for the Benefit of the Poorer Sort Mitred Abbies, vol. 1 An Survey of the Cathedral-Church of Landaff Mitred Abbies, vol. 2 Survey of St Asaph Reflecting Sermons Consider'd. He erected the church as a memorial to his grandfather Dr. Thomas Willis, a famous physician who lived in St. Martin's Lane in the parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London and died on St. Martin's Day, 11 November 1675.
To perpetuate his own memory Browne Willis arranged for a sermon to be preached at St. Martin's Church on each St. Martin's Day, for which a fee was payable. During his lifetime, he celebrated the occasion with a dinner attended by local clergy and gentry; the firing of the "Fenny Poppers", six small cannon, dates from this time, but there is no record of their first use. In 1740 Browne Willis bought a house in Aylesbury Street, Fenny Stratford and the rent from this was used to pay for the sermon and gunpowder for the Fenny Poppers. Following his death in 1760, the traditions were carried on and documented. All six poppers were re-cast by the Eagle Northampton in 1859 after one of them burst, they are still in use today, were examined and x-rayed to ensure there are no cracks. During their long history, many sites have been used for this battery; these include. The poppers each weigh about 19 pounds; the bore, 6" by 1.75" will take up to 1oz. of gunpowder, plugged with well-rammed newspaper. They are fired three times on St. Martin's Day: 2 pm and 4 pm.
There is of course no connection with Remembrance Day. In 1901 they were fired to mark the death of Queen Victoria; the 81 salvoes were heard as far away as Olney. On 1 January 2000 at 11 am the poppers were fired to mark the beginning of the second millennium. On 4 August 2000 at 2 pm a salute of six poppers was fired to celebrate the 100th birthday of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. On 5 June 2012 at 2 pm a salute was fired to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. "Willis, Browne". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Browne Willis's Library Survey of Bangor Cathedral 1721
The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple known as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers, the others being the Inner Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. It is located in the wider Temple area of London, near the Royal Courts of Justice, within the City of London. During the 12th and early 13th centuries the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy, but a papal bull in 1218 prohibited the clergy from practising in the secular courts. As a result, law began to be taught by laymen instead of by clerics. To protect their schools from competition, first Henry II and Henry III issued proclamations prohibiting the teaching of the civil law within the City of London; as a result, the common law lawyers moved to premises outside the City, which in time became the inns of court. The Middle Temple is the western part of "The Temple", the headquarters of the Knights Templar until they were dissolved in 1312. There have been lawyers in the Temple since 1320, when they were the tenants of the Earl of Lancaster, who had held the Temple since 1315.
The Temple belonged to the Knights Hospitallers. In 1346 the knights again leased the premises to the lawyers – the eastern part to lawyers from Thavie's Inn, an Inn of Chancery in Holborn, the western part to lawyers from St George's Inn; the Cross of St George is still part of the arms of Middle Temple today. After Henry VIII seized the Temple from the Knights Hospitallers in 1540, each Inn continued to hold its share of the Temple as tenants of the Crown for £10 a year, until it was granted to them jointly in 1608 by James I, to be held in perpetuity so long as they continue to provide education and accommodation to lawyers and students and maintain the Temple Church and its Master; the Temple Church, consecrated in 1185, still stands as a "Royal Peculiar" church of the Inner and Middle Temples. Much of the Middle Temple was destroyed in a fire in 1678, which caused more damage to the Inn than the Great Fire of 1666; the Thames being frozen over, beer from the Temple cellars was used to fight the fire, only contained by blowing up some buildings with gunpowder.
The Lord Mayor of London tried to exploit the occasion to assert his own jurisdiction over the Temple –, independent of the City – and on being thwarted in this endeavour, he turned back a fire engine, on its way to the fire from the City. The Inns served as colleges for the education of lawyers until they stopped being responsible for legal education in 1852, although they continue to provide training in areas such as advocacy and ethics for students, pupil barristers and newly qualified barristers. Most of the Inn is occupied by barristers' offices, known as chambers. One of the Middle Temple's main functions now is to provide education and support to new members of the profession; this is done through advocacy training, the provision of scholarships, subsidised accommodation both in the Temple and in Clapham, by providing events where junior members may meet senior colleagues for help and advice. In 2008 the 400th anniversary of the charter of James I was celebrated by Elizabeth II issuing new letters patent confirming the original grant.
The Middle Temple owns 43 buildings. The ones in the Temple itself are still held under the 1608 letters patent of James I, but some others just outside the Temple were bought subsequently; some buildings are modern, replacing ones which were destroyed in The Blitz, but others date back to the 16th century. The Inn is jointly responsible, with Inner Temple, for Temple Church and the Master's House next to the church, a Georgian townhouse built in 1764. Construction of Middle Temple Hall began in 1562 and was completed in 1572, although it was opened in 1576, by Queen Elizabeth I, its hammerbeam roof has been said to be the best in London. One of the tables at the end of the hall is made from the timbers of the Golden Hinde, the ship used by Sir Francis Drake to circumnavigate the world. Above the table is a massive painting of King Charles I by Anthony van Dyck, portraits of Charles II, James II, William III, Elizabeth I, Queen Anne and George I. On the walls are panels bearing the coats of arms of Readers dating back to 1597.
The first recorded performance of Shakespeare's play Twelfth Night occurred in the hall on 2 February 1602. Shakespeare himself was present; the hall survived the Great Fire of London in 1666, but was damaged by bombing in the Second World War. Middle Temple Hall is at the heart of the Inn, the Inn's student members are required to attend a minimum of 12 qualifying sessions there. Qualifying sessions known as "dinners", combine collegiate and educational elements and will combine a dinner or reception with lectures, mooting, or musical performances. Middle Temple Hall is a popular venue for banqueting, weddings and parties. In recent years, it has become a much-used film location—the cobbled streets, historic buildings and gas lighting give it a unique atmosphere. Nothing is known about the original library, just a room in a barristers' chambers. All the books were stolen prior to the reign of Henry VIII. In 1625 a new library was established at the site of what is now Garden Court, in 1641 it was enlarged when a member of the Inn, Robert Ashley and left his collection of books and £300 to the Inn.
This library w
Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it merged with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1066, William of Normandy introduced what, in centuries, became referred to as a feudal system, by which he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws. In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes, save with the consent of his royal council, which developed into a parliament. Over the centuries, the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649. After the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, the subsequent Glorious Revolution of 1688, the supremacy of Parliament was a settled principle and all future English and British sovereigns were restricted to the role of constitutional monarchs with limited executive authority.
The Act of Union 1707 merged the English Parliament with the Parliament of Scotland to form the Parliament of Great Britain. When the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Under a monarchical system of government, monarchs must consult and seek a measure of acceptance for their policies if they are to enjoy the broad cooperation of their subjects. Early kings of England had no standing army or police, so depended on the support of powerful subjects; the monarchy had agents in every part of the country. However, under the feudal system that evolved in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, the laws of the Crown could not have been upheld without the support of the nobility and the clergy; the former had economic and military power bases of their own through major ownership of land and the feudal obligations of their tenants. The Church was a law unto itself in this period as it had its own system of religious law courts.
In order to seek consultation and consent from the nobility and the senior clergy on major decisions, post-Norman Conquest English monarchs called Great Councils. A typical Great Council would consist of archbishops, abbots and earls, the pillars of the feudal system; when this system of consultation and consent broke down, it became impossible for government to function effectively. The most prominent instances of this before the reign of Henry III are the disagreements between Thomas Becket and Henry II and between King John and the barons. Becket, who served as Archbishop of Canterbury between 1162 and 1170, was murdered after a long running dispute with Henry II over the jurisdiction of the Church. John, king from 1199 to 1216, aroused such hostility from many leading noblemen that they forced him to agree to Magna Carta in 1215. John's refusal to adhere to this charter led to civil war; the Great Council evolved into the Parliament of England. The term came into use during the early 13th century, when it shifted from the more general meaning of "an occasion for speaking."
It first appears in official documents in the 1230s. As a result of the work by historians G. O. Sayles and H. G. Richardson, it is believed that the early parliaments had a judicial as well as a legislative function. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the kings called Knights of the Shire to meet when the monarch saw it as necessary. A notable example of this was in 1254 when sheriffs of counties were instructed to send Knights of the Shire to parliament to advise the king on finance. Parliaments were summoned when the king needed to raise money through taxes. After Magna Carta, this became a convention; this was due in no small part to the fact that King John died in 1216 and was succeeded by his young son Henry III. Leading peers and clergy governed on Henry's behalf until he came of age, giving them a taste for power that they would prove unwilling to relinquish. Among other things, they made sure. Once the reign of John ended and Henry III took full control of the government, leading peers became concerned with his style of government his unwillingness to consult them on decisions he took, his seeming patronisation of his foreign relatives over his native subjects.
Henry's support of a disastrous papal invasion of Sicily was the last straw. In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to swear to uphold the Provisions of Oxford, the following year, by the Provisions of Westminster; this abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons, providing for a thrice-yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. Parliament assembled six times between June 1258 and April 1262, most notably at Oxford in 1258; the French-born nobleman Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, emerged as the leader of this characteristically English rebellion. In the years that followed, those supporting Montfort and those supporting the king grew more hostile to each other. Henry obtained a papal bull in 1263 exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. At the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was taken prisoner by Montfort's army. However, many of the peers who had supported Montfort began to suspect that he ha