The Nolichucky River is a 115-mile river that flows through Western North Carolina and East Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. Traversing the Pisgah National Forest and the Cherokee National Forest in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the river's watershed is home to some of the highest mountains in the Appalachians, including Mount Mitchell, the highest point in the eastern United States; the river is a tributary of the French Broad River, is impounded by Nolichucky Dam near Greeneville, Tennessee. The Nolichucky River rises as the confluence of the North Toe River and the Cane River near the community of Huntdale, North Carolina; the stream succeeds the North Toe as the boundary between Yancey County and Mitchell County, North Carolina. Trending westward, it flows along the northern base of Flattop Mountain; the gorge is steep on its north side. Geologically, the area is predominantly underlain by metamorphic rock of Precambrian age; the river enters Unicoi County, Tennessee, as it drops through a whitewater gorge, flowing between the ranges of the Bald Mountains and the Unaka Mountains.
Turning northwest, the stream is bridged by the Appalachian Trail, just beyond this, by U. S. Highway 19W southwest of Erwin, Tennessee. Near Erwin, two tributary streams, South Indian Creek and North Indian Creek, join the Nolichucky River. Turning more to the north, the stream is paralleled for several miles by State Route 81, crossing into Washington County; the river cuts between several mountains at this point, including Rich Mountain to the south and Buffalo Mountain to the north. Shortly after entering Washington County, the river makes a horseshoe bend near Embreeville, where it is bridged by Tennessee 81 and Tennessee 107 for the first time. At the northeastern end of Embreeville Mountain, the stream emerges from a large gap, turning west-southwest, is bridged by Tennessee 81 again. Here, it exits the Blue Ridge Mountains and enters the Ridge and Valley province, underlain by sedimentary rock of the Lower Paleozoic Era; the river continues west-southwest for several miles, paralleled by State Route 107.
The river leaves the roadside near Mt. Carmel. From there it flows northwest over a winding course to Davy Crockett Birthplace State Park near the Washington County–Greene County line. Many tributary creeks join the river in Greene Counties. At the county line one of the larger tributaries, Big Limestone Creek, joins the river. State Route 351 crosses the river west of Crockett's birthplace. From Crockett's birthplace the river flows southwestward, following the trends of the Ridge and Valley province's underlying geology. Bridged by Tennessee 107 again just east of Tusculum, the stream continues southwestward bridged by State Route 350 just above an impoundment caused by Nolichucky Dam; this dam was constructed as a hydroelectric project by the former Tennessee Electric Power Company in 1912. The dam was sold to the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1939; the TVA continued to operate the dam for electrical power purposes until the 1970s. The degree of siltation of the reservoir, called Davy Crockett Lake, had made continued efforts to operate the facility for hydroelectric purposes impracticable.
The agency retired the dam as a power source but continues to maintain it and to use it for flood control and recreational purposes. Just west of the dam, the river crosses State Route 70 and State Route 107 for a third and final time. Continuing due west, the river is bridged by U. S. Highway 321. Just before reaching the Greene County–Cocke County line, the river is bridged by State Route 340. Just past this point, the river becomes the Greene County–Cocke County line. A few miles below this point it is bridged by a Cocke County road. South of Interstate 81, Greene County, Cocke County, Hamblen County come to a point at a bend in river, where Lick Creek joins the river. From this point on, the meandering stream forms the Hamblen County–Cocke County line; the confluence of the Nolichucky with the French Broad River occurs in the upstream portion of the Douglas Lake impoundment, caused by Douglas Dam, a World War II-era TVA project located downstream along the French Broad. The mouth of the Nolichucky lies near the point where Hamblen and Jefferson County meet.
Near the mouth is the Rankin Wildlife Management Area, a reserve operated by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. While the origins of the name-place have long been debated and remain unclear, it is believed to be derived from the name of the Cherokee village Na’na-tlu gun’yi, or "Spruce-Tree Place," that once stood near modern Jonesborough, Tennessee. Others argue that, according to local lore, it means "Rushing Water", "Dangerous Water", or "Black Swirling Water". During the 1770s, European frontiersmen established the "Nolichucky settlements" along the river in modern Greene County, Tennessee, in what was part of Cherokee territory; these settlements were aligned with the Watauga settlements in, Tennessee. As hostilities intensified in the mid-1770s between the settlers and a faction of the Cherokee, known as the "Chickamaugas," who were opposed to the settlements, John Sevier, at the time a young militia officer, began overseeing the construction of Fort Lee. After an invasion was launched by Chickamauga leader Dragging Canoe in July 1776, Sevier abandoned the unfinished fort and fled to the Watauga settlements.
Sevier would acquire the nickname "Nolichucky Jack," or "Chucky Jack," for his exploits along the river and in its vicinity. Famed frontiersman Davy Crockett was born along the river near Limestone, Tennessee, in 1786; the site
Fort Nashborough was the stockade established in early 1779 in the French Lick area of the Cumberland River valley, as a forerunner to the settlement that would become the city of Nashville, Tennessee. The log stockade covered 2 acres, it was protection for the settlers against wild animals and Indians. Today, a reconstructed fortification, maintained by Nashville Parks and Recreation, stands near the site of the original structure; the American Revolution broke out one month after Richard Henderson's purchase agreement with the Cherokee for the lands of the proposed Transylvania settlement was signed. Most Cherokee towns wished to stay neutral in the growing contest between the colonists and Britain, but Chief Dragging Canoe considered the war an opportunity to resist the continual encroachment by frontiersmen on traditional Cherokee territories. American retaliatory raids against his Cherokee towns in eastern Tennessee forced Dragging Canoe to move his people farther to the south and west –down the Tennessee River.
In 1779 they settled along Chickamauga Creek. They were forced to move further west and southwest, where they established the "Five Lower Towns", were thereafter referred to as the "Lower Cherokee". Dragging Canoe had promised to make any white settlers pay a "heavy price" if they moved into the Cumberland River valley, he was to make good his word. Aside from a short-lived trading post established in 1689 by fur trader Martin Chartier, no attempt had been made to permanently settle the area known only as French Lick along the banks of the Cumberland River. In 1779, John Buchanan Sr. migrated with his family from Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, to North Carolina. He first went to the "over-mountain" area of Virginia in order to leave the party's women and small children in a secure area; the settlers headed down the Cumberland River and, in early 1779, built a fortified station at French Lick. In February 1779, Overmountain leader James Robertson set out with a nine-man exploration party to the same area.
Robertson had been a member of the Regulator Movement, as well as a founding leader of the Watauga settlement. A 3,000 acre land grant was negotiated with Richard Henderson, arrangements were made for the movement of the group's families to the area; the colonists agreed to pay Henderson 26 pounds of silver per hundred acres, considered an expensive price. Robertson charged three of his men to stay behind and plant corn in preparation for the arrival of the much larger group, which had remained behind in the Washington District. Robertson journeyed to the Illinois Country to meet with General George Rogers Clark, dispensing "cabin rights" on favorable terms. Robertson, whose 1772 Watauga settlement had been opposed to the control of the area by the Province of North Carolina, thought it possible that the yet-to-be established extended border between the Virginia and North Carolina frontiers might throw control of any new Cumberland River settlement to Virginia. Therefore, he wished to get secure and clear land titles to eliminate any future complications over ownership.
After making provisional arrangements with General Clark, Robertson prepared for the colonization of the Cumberland country. On 1 November 1779, Robertson led some 200 settlers from Fort Patrick Henry toward Fort Nashborough to prepare for the arrival of the party's women and children, who were to be led out of the east over waterways. Robertson's brothers and John, were in the party, as well as his oldest son, 11-year-old Jonathan, who drove the sheep; the men allied families. This group decided to settle at French Lick, rather than continue upriver into that area which became the State of Kentucky, their journey ended due to delays caused by the winter. Starting out in early 1780, Donelson's group was halted after traveling only three miles on their river voyage. Ice and cold had set in and the frozen river made progress impossible. There was no further movement until mid-February, when the boats were cut loose, they were hampered again by the swell of the river due to incessant heavy rains.
Donelson's group suffered from Dragging Canoe's promise of vengeance. On their way to French Lick they had to pass the Chickamauga towns on the westward flow of the Tennessee River; when the Donelson party had succeeded in that and made the turn to the north, the natives attacked them as they went past the Tennessee River's "Big Bend". The war party captured one boat with 28 people on board.</ref> On March 20, 1780, they arrived at the mouth of the Tennessee River and set up camp on a lowland, now the site of Paducah, Kentucky. Weary and low on provisions, they were confronted by new difficulties, their boats, having been constructed to float downstream, were scarcely able to ascend the rapid current of the Ohio, which due to heavy spring rains was high and fast. They were ignorant of the distance yet to be traveled, the length of time which would be required to reach their final destination; some of the company decided to abandon the journey to French Lick. A part of them floated down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to N
John Sevier was an American soldier and politician, one of the founding fathers of the State of Tennessee. He played a leading role in Tennessee's pre-statehood period, both militarily and politically, he was elected the state's first governor in 1796, he served as a colonel of the Washington District Regiment in the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780, he commanded the frontier militia in dozens of battles against the Cherokee in the 1780s and 1790s. Sevier arrived on the Tennessee Valley frontier in the 1770s. In 1776, he was elected one of five magistrates of the Watauga Association and helped defend Fort Watauga against an assault by the Cherokee. At the outbreak of the War for American Independence, he was chosen as a member of the Committee of Safety for the association's successor the Washington District. Following the Battle of Kings Mountain, he led an invasion that destroyed several Chickamauga towns in northern Georgia. In the 1780s, he served as the only governor of the State of Franklin, an early attempt at statehood by the trans-Appalachian settlers.
He was brigadier general of the Southwest Territory militia during the early 1790s. Sevier served six two-year terms as Tennessee's governor from 1796 until 1801, from 1803 to 1809, with term limits preventing a fourth consecutive term in both instances, his political career was marked by a growing rivalry with rising politician Andrew Jackson, which nearly culminated in a duel in 1803. After his last term as governor, Sevier was elected to three terms in the United States House of Representatives from Tennessee, serving from 1811 until his death in 1815. John Sevier was born in 1745 in Augusta County in the Colony of Virginia, near what is now the town of New Market, he was the oldest of seven children of Valentine "Joanna Goad. His father had immigrated to Baltimore in 1740 and made his way to the Shenandoah Valley. Sevier's father worked variously, as a tavernkeeper, fur trader, land speculator. Young John pursued a similar career path. At a young age, he opened his own tavern, helped plant the town of New Market, near his birth site.
In 1761 at age 16, he settled into a life of farming. Some sources suggest Sevier served as a captain in the Virginia Colonial Militia, under George Washington, in Lord Dunmore's War in 1773 and 1774. In the early 1770s, Sevier and his brother Valentine began making trips to various settlements on the trans-Appalachian frontier, in what is now northeastern Tennessee. In late 1773, Sevier moved his family to the Carter Valley settlements along the Holston River. Three years he relocated further south to the Watauga settlements, in what is now Elizabethton, Tennessee; the Wataugans had leased their lands from the Cherokee in 1772 and had formed a fledgling government known as the Watauga Association. Sevier was appointed clerk of the Association's five-man court in 1775 and was elected to the court in 1776; the Royal Proclamation of 1763 forbade English settlement on Indian lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. As the Watauga settlements were in Cherokee territory, the British colonial officials considered them illegal.
In March 1775, the settlers purchased the lands from the Cherokee, with Sevier listed as a witness to the agreement. The British refused to recognize the purchase and continued to demand that the settlers leave. A band of Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe disagreed with the tribe's sale of communal lands, began making threats against the settlers. With the outbreak of the American Revolution, in April 1775, the Wataugans, most of whom were sympathetic to the Patriot cause, organized the Washington District and formed a 13-member Committee of Safety; the committee, which included Sevier, submitted the "Watauga Petition" to Virginia in the spring of 1776, formally asking to be annexed, but Virginia refused.. The Wataugans petitioned North Carolina. Fearing an invasion by Dragging Canoe, receiving arms from the British, the Overmountain settlers built Fort Caswell to guard the Watauga settlements, Eaton's Station to guard the Holston settlements. Sevier had begun building Fort Lee to guard settlements in the Nolichucky Valley.
After receiving word of an impending Cherokee invasion from Nancy Ward, the Nolichucky settlers fled to Fort Caswell, Sevier soon followed. The Cherokee attacks began in mid-July 1776. Dragging Canoe went north to attack the Holston settlements, while a detachment led by Old Abraham of Chilhowee invaded the Watauga settlements. On July 21, Old Abraham's forces reached Fort Caswell, garrisoned by 75 militia commanded by John Carter, with Sevier and James Robertson as subordinates. Catherine Sherrill, Sevier's future wife, failed to make it into the fort before the gate was locked, but Sevier managed to reach over the palisades and pull her to safety; the fort's garrison beat back the Cherokee assault, after a two-week siege, Old Abraham retreated. The Cherokee sued for peace following an invasion of the Overhill country by William Christian in October 1776; the Wataugans sent five delegates, among them Sevier, to North Carolina's constitutional convention in November 1776. The new constitution created the "District of Washington,".
The new district elected Sevier to one of its two seats in the state's House of Representatives. The district became Washington County, North Carolina in 1777. Sevier was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the new county's Washington County
Elizabethton is a city in, the county seat of Carter County, United States. Elizabethton is the historical site of the first independent American government located west of both the Eastern Continental Divide and the original Thirteen Colonies; the city is the historical site of the Transylvania Purchase, a major muster site during the American Revolutionary War for both the Battle of Musgrove Mill and the Battle of Kings Mountain. It was within the secessionist North Carolina "State of Franklin" territory; the population of Elizabethton was enumerated at 14,008 during the 2010 census. Elizabethton is located within the "Tri-Cities" area of northeast Tennessee. Time offset from Coordinated Universal Time: UTC-5. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.9 square miles, of which 9.7 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 1.62%, is water. The elevation at Elizabethton Municipal Airport is 1,593 feet ASL, the airport is located on the eastern side of the city along State Highway 91 Stoney Creek Exit.
Elizabethton is connected to larger commercial and cargo flights out of Tri-Cities Regional Airport northwest of Johnson City. Lynn Mountain reaches 2,060 feet ASL at the summit and is located directly across the U. S. Highway 19E from the downtown Elizabethton business district. Elizabethton is bordered on the west by Johnson City. While most of the Tennessee public water-supply systems withdrawing spring water for their supplies are found in East Tennessee, the Elizabethton municipal water system during 2010 extracted and distributed 5.39 Mgal/d of clean spring water from three springs owned by the city --- a unique local supply of flowing spring water that exceeds the volume of spring water extracted and distributed than any other local water resource system across the entire state of Tennessee. The Doe River forms in Carter County, near the North Carolina line, just south of Roan Mountain State Park; the river flows north and is first paralleled by State Route 143. S. Route 19E; the Doe River flows to the east of Fork Mountain.
Below the confluence of the Doe River and the Little Doe River at Hampton, the Doe River travels in a northern downstream direction through the Valley Forge community, is rejoined by U. S. Route 19E. Pushing through a mountain gap just north of Hampton, the volume of the river is amplified by the waters flowing from McCathern Spring. Further downstream, the Doe River flows by the East Side neighborhood parallel with Tennessee State Route 67 and underneath the historic Elizabethton Covered Bridge, built in 1882 and located within the Elizabethton downtown business district. Connecting 3rd Street and Hattie Avenue, the covered bridge is adjacent to a city park and spans the Doe River; the covered bridge, although now closed to motor traffic, is still open for bicycles and pedestrians. Most of Elizabethton's downtown is listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its historical and architectural merits; the Elizabethton Historic District contains a variety of properties ranging in age from the late 18th century through the 1930s.
The Elizabethton Covered Bridge is a well-known landmark in the state. In addition to the covered bridge, the downtown historic district contains the 1928 Elk Avenue concrete arch bridge, just a little further downstream on the Doe River, Tennessee State Route 67 passes another similar concrete arch bridge locally known as the Broad Street Bridge. Elizabethton celebrates in the downtown business area for one week each June with the Elizabethton Covered Bridge Days featuring country and gospel music performances, activities for children, Elk Avenue car club show, many food and crafts vendors. Two Tennessee Valley Authority reservoirs in Carter County—impounded behind the Watauga Dam and the downstream Wilbur Dam—are located southeast and upstream of Elizabethton on the Watauga River; the Appalachian Trail crosses the Watauga River and the TVA reservation in Carter County to the southeast of Elizabethton. The Watauga River flows westward past Elizabethton, which lies on the south bank of the Watauga and along either side of its principal tributary, the Doe River.
The downtown business district is located one-quarter mile upstream of the confluence of the Doe River and the Watauga River. The Doe River flows underneath the historic wooden covered bridge, located within the Elizabethton downtown business district; the city of Elizabethton was at one time promoted as "The City of Power", as the town is located just southeast of the Wilbur Dam hydrogeneration site spanning the Watauga River. Construction of Wilbur Dam first began during 1909, two hydroelectric generating units were online with power production at Wilbur Dam when it was completed in 1912. A third generating unit was added to Wilbur Dam in 1926, a fourth hydrogeneration unit was added to Wilbur Dam after the Tennessee Valley Authority acquired the power production facility in 1945; the Bee Cliff Rapids—a popular summer destination on the Watauga River for whitewater rafters during the summer months—are located southeast of Elizabethton and downstream of the TVA Wilbur Dam. The Watauga River downstream of the western side of Elizabethton has one of the
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
Wake County, North Carolina
Wake County is a county in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of July 1, 2015, the population was 1,024,198, making it North Carolina's second-most populous county. From July 2005 to July 2006, Wake County was the 9th fastest-growing county in the United States, with the town of Cary and the city of Raleigh being the 8th and 15th fastest-growing cities, respectively, its county seat is Raleigh, the state capital. Eleven other municipalities are in Wake County, the largest of, Cary, the third largest city of the Research Triangle region and the seventh largest municipality in North Carolina, it is governed by the Wake County Board of Commissioners, coterminous with the Wake County Public School System school district, with law enforcement provided by the Wake County Sheriff's Department. It is part of the wider Triangle J Council of Governments which governs regional planning. Present day Wake County was once part of the Tuscarora nation. Wake County was formed in 1771 from parts of Cumberland County, Johnston County, Orange County.
The first courthouse was built at a village called Wake Courthouse, now known as Bloomsbury. In 1771, the first elections and court were held, the first militia units were organized. Wake County lost some of its territory through the formation of other counties. Parts were included in Franklin County in 1787, in Durham County in both 1881 and 1911. During the colonial period of North Carolina, the state capital was New Bern. For several years during and after the Revolutionary War there was no capital, the General Assembly met in various locations. Fayetteville was the state capital from 1789 to 1793, when Raleigh became the permanent state capital. In 1792, a commission was appointed to select a site to build a permanent state capital; the commission members favored land owned by Colonel John Hinton across the Neuse River, but the night before the final vote the committee adjourned to the home of Joel Lane for an evening of food and spirits. The next day, the vote went in Lane's favor. Lane named Wake County in honor of wife of colonial Governor William Tryon.
Raleigh was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, established in 1792 on 1,000 acres purchased from Lane. Raleigh had never set foot in North Carolina, but he had sponsored the establishment of the first English colony in North America on North Carolina's Roanoke Island in 1585; the city of Raleigh became the new seat of Wake County. The Battle at Morrisville Station was fought April 13–15, 1865 in Morrisville, North Carolina during the Carolinas Campaign of the American Civil War, it was the last official battle of the Civil War between the armies of Major General William T. Sherman and General Joseph E. Johnston. General Judson Kilpatrick, commanding officer of the Union cavalry advance, compelled Confederate forces under the command of Generals Wade Hampton III and Joseph Wheeler to withdraw in haste, they had been frantically trying to transport their remaining supplies and wounded by rail westward toward the final Confederate encampment in Greensboro, NC. Kilpatrick used artillery on the heights overlooking Morrisville Station and cavalry charges to push the Confederates out of the small village leaving many needed supplies behind.
However, the trains were able to withdraw with wounded from the Battle of Bentonville and the Battle of Averasboro. General Johnston sent a courier to the Federal encampments at Morrisville with a message for Major General Sherman requesting a conference to discuss an armistice. Several days the two generals met at Bennett Place near Durham on April 17, 1865, to begin discussing the terms of what would become the largest surrender of the war. In the 20th century, the average per capita income for the county was of $54,988, the median income for a family was of $67,149. In the same period, the per capita income decreased from $44,472 to $31,579 for women. About 7.80% of the population was below the federal poverty line. In August 2014, the population hit 1,000,000 people. In November 2017, commissioners of Wake and Harnett counties discussed the possibility of redrawing the line between the counties using the latest technology; this could affect 27 homeowners who would end up in a different county or have their property divided between the two.
The county is governed by the Wake County Board of Commissioners, a seven-member board of County Commissioners, elected at large to serve four-year terms. Terms are staggered so every two years, three or four Commissioners are up for election; the commissioners enact policies such as the establishment of the property tax rate, regulation of land use and zoning outside municipal jurisdictions, adoption of the annual budget. Commissioners meet on the third Mondays of each month. Current members of the Wake County Board of Commissioners are Jessica Holmes, Sig Hutchinson, John Burns, Matt Calabria, Greg Ford, Erv Portman, James West. David Ellis is the County Manager. Wake County is a member of the regional Triangle J Council of Governments. While North Carolina is a conservative state, Wake County is a swing voting area. From 1828 to 1964, the county was won by Democratic presidential candidates in all but six elections. From 1968 to 2004, Republicans won the county in every election but one, when Bill Clinton carried it in 1992.
However, the races have always been close, such as in 1980, when Ronald Reagan won by a landslide nationwide, but by a mere one percent in Wake County. Republican George W. Bush won the county in 2000 with 53 percent of the vote and defeated J
The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia; the Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to 4,862 feet in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they slope down into the associated Allegheny Plateau, which extends into Ohio and Kentucky; the principal settlements of the Alleghenies are Altoona, State College, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The name is derived from the Allegheny River, which drains only a small portion of the Alleghenies in west-central Pennsylvania.
The meaning of the word, which comes from the Lenape Indians, is not definitively known but is translated as "fine river". A Lenape legend tells of an ancient tribe called the "Allegewi" who lived on the river and were defeated by the Lenape. Allegheny is the early French spelling, Allegany is closer to the early English spelling; the word "Allegheny" was once used to refer to the whole of what are now called the Appalachian Mountains. John Norton used it around 1810 to refer to the mountains in Georgia. Around the same time, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In 1861, Arnold Henry Guyot published the first systematic geologic study of the whole mountain range, his map labeled the range as the "Alleghanies", but his book was titled On the Appalachian Mountain System. As late as 1867, John Muir—in his book A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf—used the word "Alleghanies" in referring to the southern Appalachians. There was no general agreement about the "Appalachians" versus the "Alleghanies" until the late 19th century.
From northeast to southwest, the Allegheny Mountains run about 400 miles. From west to east, at their widest, they are about 100 miles. Although there are no official boundaries to the Allegheny Mountains region, it may be defined to the east by the Allegheny Front. To the west, the Alleghenies grade down into the dissected Allegheny Plateau; the westernmost ridges are considered to be the Laurel Highlands and Chestnut Ridge in Pennsylvania, Laurel Mountain and Rich Mountain in West Virginia. The mountains to the south of the Alleghenies—the Appalachians in westernmost Virginia, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee—are the Cumberlands; the Alleghenies and the Cumberlands both constitute part of the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachians. The eastern edge of the Alleghenies is marked by the Allegheny Front, sometimes considered the eastern terminus of the Allegheny Plateau; this great escarpment follows a portion of the Eastern Continental Divide in this area. A number of impressive gorges and valleys drain the Alleghenies: to the east, Smoke Hole Canyon, to the west the New River Gorge and the Blackwater and Cheat Canyons.
Thus, about half the precipitation falling on the Alleghenies makes its way west to the Mississippi and half goes east to Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic seaboard. The highest ridges of the Alleghenies are just west of the Front, which has an east/west elevational change of up to 3,000 feet. Absolute elevations of the Allegheny Highlands reach nearly 5,000 feet, with the highest elevations in the southern part of the range; the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains is Spruce Knob, on Spruce Mountain in West Virginia. Other notable Allegheny highpoints include Thorny Flat on Cheat Mountain, Bald Knob on Back Allegheny Mountain, Mount Porte Crayon, all in West Virginia. There are few sizable cities in the Alleghenies; the four largest are: Altoona, State College and Cumberland. In the 1970s and'80s, the Interstate Highway System was extended into the northern portion of the Alleghenies, the region is now served by a network of federal expressways—Interstates 80, 70/76 and 68. Interstate 64 traverses the southern extremity of the range, but the Central Alleghenies have posed special problems for highway planners owing to the region's rugged terrain and environmental sensitivities This region is still served by a rather sparse secondary highway system and remains lower in population density than surrounding regions.
In the telecommunications field, a unique impediment to development in the central Allegheny region is the United States National Radio Quiet Zone, a large rectangle of land—about 13,000 square miles —that straddles the border area of Virginia and West Virginia. Created in 1958 by the Federal Communications Commission, the NRQZ restricts all omni