Allegheny County Courthouse
The Allegheny County Courthouse in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is part of a complex designed by H. H. Richardson; the buildings are considered among the finest examples of the Romanesque Revival style for which Richardson is well known. The complex is bordered by wide thoroughfares named for city founders James Ross, John Forbes and James Grant; the current building, completed in 1888, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. Richardson referred to it as his "great achievement". Pittsburgh's original courthouse, first occupied in 1794, was a wooden structure located on one side of Market Square; the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and from December 7, 1818, until 1841 the Western District of Pennsylvania held court sessions at Market Square. Land for a new courthouse was purchased in April 1834; this was a tract of land on Grant's Hill. Construction took place between 1836 and 1840; this court house was built with polished gray sandstone, quarried at Coal Hill, opposite Water Street along the Monongahela River.
The building was designed by John Chislett. The Greek Revival design included a domed cupola housing a rotunda 60 feet in diameter and 80 feet high; the building was completed in 1841. The building's second floor again served as the headquarters for both the Commonwealth Supreme Court Pittsburgh region and the Federal Western District, serving the latter until a new U. S. Customs House/Post Office opened on Fifth and Smithfield in 1853. Due to corrosion caused by coal smoke, the building deteriorated: the dressed surface of the facade dropped off, some of the cornices near the roof began to fall, the building had a scaly appearance. In its deteriorated state, it was a handsome structure. On May 7, 1882, a fire ruined the building. Subsequently, it was demolished; the third, present, courthouse was erected on the same spot. Following the destruction of the second courthouse, Allegheny County Commissioners decided to hold a competition to design a replacement; the winner of the competition was Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson and construction of the buildings was begun by the Norcross Brothers, Richardson's construction firm of choice, in 1884.
The design of the main building, which Richardson considered to be his finest, was innovative in that the building is built around an interior courtyard, thus allowing natural light and fresh air to reach most of the building. The courtyard is surrounded by four stories in three sides. A tower rises five stories from the courtyard's open side; as was the case with Richardson's buildings, the roof is steep with dormers placed at all the corners. A prison is connected to the courthouse via the "Bridge of Sighs"; the design was based on the Bridge of Sighs in Venice. The entire complex was built of large rusticated blocks of granite, with the entrance ways and windows topped with wide arches; this gives the building a heavy and dignified appearance. In the 1900s the street level in front of the building was lowered as part of a general re-grading of Pittsburgh. Richardson had anticipated this and courses of finished masonry had been buried underground, now to be revealed; this left the ceremonial entrance a full story above the street.
A grand stairway was built, but removed during street widening in the 1930s- the low arched doorways were extended downwards to street level, with the result that the visitor is not greeted by the grand entrance hall Richardson planned, but by the low corridors which were once the basement. Muralist Vincent Nesbert completed five murals for the building on its first floor in 1937: "Industry," "Justice," "Peace," "Fort Duquesne" and "The Battle of Grant's Hill."In 1973, the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1976, it was designated a National Historic Landmark; the design of the Allegheny County Courthouse has influenced buildings in many cities across America, such as Minneapolis City Hall, Altgeld Hall on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and James W. McLaughlin's Wayne County Courthouse in Richmond, Indiana. In 2007, the American Institute of Architects asked Harris Interactive to survey 2,000 people, who were shown 247 photographs of buildings and other structures in different categories chosen by 2,500 architects.
The Allegheny County Courthouse was ranked 35th overall on the list and above every other courthouse in the nation except the United States Supreme Court Building. Several big-budget films have portrayed the Courthouse. Striking Distance and Hoffa used interior shots, while Desperate Measures and The Next Three Days used both interior and exterior shots, with Boys on the Side and Mrs. Soffel featuring the Ross Street side of the complex and the "Bridge of Sighs"; the designs of Toronto City Hall, Minneapolis City Hall, the Milwaukee Federal Building and Altgeld Hall on the campus of the University of Illinois were influenced by the Allegheny County Courthouse. Allegheny County Courthouse and Jail Architectural Records, 1883-1948, AIS.1980.20, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh Smoke Control Lantern Slide Collection, University of Pittsburgh Archives Service Center, AIS.1978.22, Digital Research Library Historic American Buildings Survey No. PA-610, "Allegheny County Courthouse & Jail, 436 Grant Street, 420 Ross Street, Allegheny County, PA", 13 photos, 35 measured drawings, 3 data pages, 1 photo caption page "Pittsburgh, The Story of an American City," 5th edition, Stefan Lorant, Esselmont Books, LLC.
Pittsburgh, PA, 1999. Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, Pilgrimage to H. H. Richardson, unpublished manuscript Och
Michael Leib was an American physician, scientist, inventor and philosopher from Pennsylvania. He served Pennsylvania in both houses of the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in both the U. S. House and the United States Senate. Leib was born in Pennsylvania to George and Dorothea Leib, he studied and practiced medicine in Philadelphia, receiving commission as a surgeon in the Philadelphia Militia in 1780 and serving during the American Revolutionary War. Following the war, Leib continued the practice of medicine, he was elected as a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and served from 1795 to 1798. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania's 2nd congressional district and served from 1799 to 1803, he continued in the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district from 1803 to 1806. He resigned to return to the Pennsylvania House. In 1807, he was elected Brigadier-General of the Second Brigade of the Philadelphia Militia.
Leib was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the United States Senate by the state legislature in December 1808. Leib was elected to the term beginning on March 4, 1809, but assumed office on January 9, 1809, following the resignation of Samuel Maclay. In 1809, he was a member of the committee that formed the "Whig Society of Pennsylvania", he served as a U. S. Senator until February 14, 1814, when he resigned to become postmaster of Philadelphia, he returned to the Pennsylvania House for a third time, from 1817 until 1818 and served as a Pennsylvania State Senator for the 1st district from 1818 until 1821. He became prothonotary of the United States district court in Philadelphia in November 1822 and served in that role until his death on December 8, 1822, he was interred at St. John's Lutheran Churchyard in Philadelphia. In 1924, he was reinterred to the Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia when the church and burial ground were demolished during the construction of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge.
He was influenced and mentored by Benjamin Franklin. United States Congress. "Michael Leib". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Ross County, Ohio
Ross County is a county located in the Appalachian region of the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 78,064, its county seat is the first and third capital of Ohio. Established on August 20, 1798, the county is named for Federalist Senator James Ross of Pennsylvania. Ross County comprises the Chillicothe, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical Area; as of 1848, Ross County was described as having "one hundred enclosures of various sizes, five hundred mounds" by Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis in their book, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. They describe the Indian-built earthworks as ranging from five to 30 feet in size, enclosures of one to 50 acres large. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 693 square miles, of which 689 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles is water. Ross County is the second-largest county by land area in Ohio, after Ashtabula County, as well as the fifth-largest by total area.
Pickaway County Hocking County Vinton County Jackson County Pike County Highland County Fayette County Hopewell Culture National Historical Park As of the census of 2000, there were 73,345 people, 27,136 households, 19,185 families residing in the county. The population density was 106 people per square mile. There were 29,461 housing units at an average density of 43 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.74% White, 6.20% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 27,136 households out of which 32.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families. 24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 31.60% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 108.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,117, the median income for a family was $43,241. Males had a median income of $35,892 versus $23,399 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,569. About 9.10% of families and 12.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.10% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 78,064 people, 28,919 households, 19,782 families residing in the county; the population density was 113.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,148 housing units at an average density of 46.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.7% white, 6.2% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.0% were German, 15.2% were Irish, 12.5% were American, 10.5% were English. Of the 28,919 households, 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were non-families, 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age was 39.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,626 and the median income for a family was $50,081. Males had a median income of $42,721 versus $32,374 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,595. About 13.1% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. County officials are: County Auditor Tom Spetnagel Jr. County Board of Elections Stephen A. Madru Beth Neal Don Fuller Ron Fields Clerk of Courts Ty D. Hinton Board of Commissioners Stephen A. Neal Doug Corcoran Dwight A. Garrett Ross County Court of Common Pleas: Judge Michael M. Ater Judge Matthew Schmidt Probate and Juvenile Court Judge J. Jeffrey Benson Magistrate John Di Cesare County Coroner John Gabis County Engineer Charles R. Ortman County Prosecutor Jeffrey Marks County Recorder Kathleen "Kathy" Dunn County Treasurer Jerald A. "Jerry" Byers County Sheriff George Lavender Ross is a Republican county in Presidential and Congressional elections, although Democratic candidates perform well in the county.
The last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964, while Bill Clinton won a plurality in Ross in 1996. In 2008, Republican John McCain won 53% of the county's vote. Ross is part of Ohio's 2nd and 15th congressional districts, which are held by Republicans Brad Wenstrup and Steve Stivers, respectively. Pickaway-Ross lies in the Northern part of the county. Students from the following affiliated Ross and Pickaway county districts at the vocational school. Adena Local School District Chillicothe City School District Huntington Local School District Paint Valley Local School District Southeastern Local School District Unioto Local School District Zane Trace Local School Dist
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816, they appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to Revolutionary France; the party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies; these supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, their political opponents, the Democratic-Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson, denounced most of the Federalist policies the bank and implied powers. The Jay Treaty passed and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s, they held a strong base in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the hard-fought presidential election of 1800, the Federalists never returned to power, they recovered some strength through their intense opposition to the War of 1812, but they vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815.
The Federalists left a lasting legacy in the form of a strong Federal government with a sound financial base. After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through the person of Chief Justice John Marshall. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. Hamilton proposed the ambitious Hamiltonian economic program that involved assumption of the state debts incurred during the American Revolution, creating a national debt and the means to pay it off and setting up a national bank, along with creating tariffs. James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788 though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles.
Parties were considered to be harmful to republicanism. No similar parties existed anywhere in the world. By 1790, Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition. Realizing the need for vocal political support in the states, he formed connections with like-minded nationalists and used his network of treasury agents to link together friends of the government merchants and bankers, in the new nation's dozen major cities, his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress "brought strong" responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a national faction and as the new Federalist Party; the Federalist Party supported Hamilton's vision of a strong centralized government and agreed with his proposals for a national bank and heavy government subsidies. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between Great Britain; the majority of the Founding Fathers were Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and many others can all be considered Federalists.
These Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed. Hamilton was made Secretary of the Treasury and when he came up with the idea of funding the debt he created a split in the original Federalist group. Madison disagreed with Hamilton not just on this issue, but on many others as well and he and John J. Beckley created the Anti-Federalist faction; these men would form the Republican party under Thomas Jefferson. By the early 1790s, newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and their opponents "Democrats", "Republicans", "Jeffersonians", or—much later—"Democratic-Republicans". Jefferson's supporters called themselves "Republicans" and their party the "Republican Party"; the Federalist Party became popular with businessmen and New Englanders as Republicans were farmers who opposed a strong central government. Cities were Federalist strongholds whereas frontier regions were Republican.
However, these are generalizations as there are special cases such as the Presbyterians of upland North Carolina, who had immigrated just before the Revolution and been Tories, became Federalists. The Congregationalists of New England and the Episcopalians in the larger cities supported the Federalists while other minority denominations tended toward the Republican camp. Catholics
Canonsburg is a borough in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 18 miles southwest of Pittsburgh. Canonsburg was laid out by Colonel John Canon in 1789 and incorporated in 1802; the population was 8,992 at the 2010 census. The town is in a rich coal district, most of the town's work force once worked in local steel mills or coal mines. Interstate 79 and U. S. Route 19 pass through the town, as does Ohio Central Railroad. A trolley used to operate from Washington, Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh through the borough until 1953; the town is home to Sarris Candies and All-Clad Metalcrafters, makers of cookware and other bonded metals. It is adjacent to the Southpointe office park located in Cecil Township, which has a number of large corporate tenants. Yenko Chevrolet, one of largest and most notorious custom muscle car shops of the late 1960s and early 1970s, was located in Canonsburg. Canonsburg is home to the Pittsburgh Cougars junior hockey league team; the second-largest Fourth of July parade in the state of Pennsylvania, second only to Philadelphia, is held in Canonsburg.
In the weeks leading up to the parade, the town gains media attention for its residents setting up folding chairs along the town's main street to stake claim to prime viewing areas. Additionally, Canonsburg is home to an annual Oktoberfest. In the television series Supernatural, the town is featured in Season 4, Episode 5, set in the borough during the Oktoberfest celebration; the exact date of the first settlement near the current site of Canonsburg is unclear. Colonel John Canon, a common miller who served as justice of the Virginia courts at Fort Dunmore, purchased some land from the state of Virginia around Chartiers Creek, sometime before May 1780; the state had claimed what is now southwestern Pennsylvania in a dispute that would not be settled until in the decade. In 1781 Pennsylvania carved Washington County out of Westmoreland County, the county seat was established at Washington; the notes of the first session of the Washington County Court during that year indicate a call for a road from Canon's mill to Pittsburgh.
The road to Pittsburgh, called Pitt Street, remains in part today as an archaic and indirect route to the city. The first surviving plat of the town is from April 15, 1788. Lots were sold around Canon's property, the emerging town took the name of Canonsburg shortly thereafter. Many of the participants in the Whiskey Rebellion of July 1794 were residents of present-day Washington County, which includes Canonsburg; some of the insurrectionists are believed to have gathered in the town's Black Horse Tavern. However, records do not indicate whether any Canonsburg residents participated in any of the violent acts which occurred during the rebellion; the town was the site of the first institution of higher learning west of the Allegheny Mountains, Jefferson College. Founded in 1802, it was the eleventh such institution in the United States; the Phi Gamma Delta and Phi Kappa Psi fraternities were both founded at Jefferson College. Phi Gamma Delta, of whom President Calvin Coolidge was a member, was founded in 1848.
Phi Kappa Psi, of whom President Woodrow Wilson and over 100 U. S. Congressmen claim membership, was founded in 1852; the school would go on to become Jefferson College in nearby Washington. For generations, Jefferson College financially supported Canonsburg by accounting for much of its income. However, in 1868, the college was moved to nearby Washington, leaving behind empty college rooming and boarding houses, known as the "forts". Canonsburg's largest financial draw having left, it would take the introduction of the railroad system to return the city to its former glory; the railroad system, on its way from Mansfield to Washington, was operational, as scheduled, on May 18, 1871. The first scheduled train departed from the Washington depot carrying "borough authorities, the committee of arrangement and reception, as well as Rankin’s Cornet Band and a number of…prominent citizens, invited to join the excursion." They traveled to Mansfield. The special had 12 coaches pulled by two locomotives and was filled with a large number of dignitaries, most the mayors of Pittsburgh and Allegheny.
The special made it down the newly laid tracks, passing stations full of spectators to cheer on the train. Canonsburg had a large crowd of supporters, many people climbed aboard the train to ride along to Washington. There, led by Pittsburgh's Great Western Band, the crowd marched to Town Hall for a round of speeches; the Washington Reporter editor pronounced the day "a grand success." In 1911, South Canonsburg was annexed. In 1903 the Washington and Canonsburg Railway Company linked the two towns with a trolley line; the company was bought by the Philadelphia Company in 1906 becoming part of the Pittsburgh Railway Company, linking through to Pittsburgh as part of their interurban service in 1909. The line closed on August 29, 1953, with the last three trolley cars travelling south through Canonsburg to the Pennsylvania Trolley Museum in 1954 shortly before the track was removed; the Canonsburg Armory, Hawthorne School and Roberts House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Standard Chemical Company operated a radium refining mill from 1911 to 1922 on a 19-acre plot of land.
From 1930 to 1942 the company purified uranium ore. Marie Curie was invited to the United States in 1921 and was given an honorary degree by the University of Pittsburgh, one gram of radium. From 1942 to 1957, Vitro Manufacturing Company refined uranium and other rare metals from various ores and onsite residues, government-
William Duane (journalist)
William Duane was an American journalist. Born in Champlain, New York, he moved to Calcutta in 1788, founded the Bengal Journal in 1791; that year, after the Governor-General of India John Shore, 1st Baron Teignmouth shut down the Bengal Journal for a libel against the French royalist government in exile in Calcutta, Duane founded his second newspaper, The World. He was deported for a libel in this newspaper in 1794 and emigrated to the United States where he founded the Aurora. According to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson attributed his presidential victory to this paper. Jefferson named Duane a lieutenant colonel, by the War of 1812 he was an adjutant general, he died in Philadelphia in 1835. William John Duane was his son
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe