Harris County, Texas
Harris County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas, located in the southeastern part of the state near Galveston Bay. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 4,092,459, making it the most populous county in Texas and the third most populous county in the United States, its county seat is the largest city in Texas and fourth largest city in the United States. The county was founded in 1836 and organized in 1837, it is named for John Richardson Harris, who founded the town of Harrisburg on Buffalo Bayou in 1826. According to a July 2017 Census estimate, Harris County's population had grown to 4,652,980, comprising over 16 percent of Texas's population. Harris County is included in the nine-county Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan statistical area, the fifth most populous metropolitan area in the United States. Human remains date habitation to about 4,000 BCE. Other evidence of humans in the area dates from about 1400 BCE, 1 CE, in the first millenium; the region became uninhabited from 1 AD until European contact.
On the other hand, little European activity predates 1821. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca may have visited the area in 1529. French traders recorded passing through in the 18th century. Spaniards attempted to establish a fort in the area around the same time, but did not persist for long; the first recorded European settlers in Harris County arrived in 1822. Their schooner ran aground on the Red Fish Bar; some of those passengers traveled further up the bay system, but it is not known whether they settled up Buffalo Bayou or the San Jacinto River. One of these passengers, a Mr. Ryder, settled at what is now known as Texas. In 1822, John Iiams settled his family at Cedar Point after sailing from Berwick’s Bay, Louisiana. Dr. Johnson Hunter arrived just after Iiams, he wrecked his boat near Galveston. He was a grantee of land there. Nathaniel Lynch operated a ferry. In 1824, the land empresario, Stephen F. Austin convened at the house of William Scott for the purpose of conveying titles for Mexican headrights.
He was joined by the land commissioner, Baron von Bastrop, Austin’s secretary, Samuel May Williams. About thirty families gained legal titles to land in what would be known as Harris County. A few immigrants settled on Buffalo Bayou in these early years, including Moses Callahan, Ezekial Thomas, the Vince brothers. Nicolas Clopper arrived in the Galveston Bay area from Ohio in the 1820s, he attempted to develop Buffalo Bayou as a trading conduit for the Brazos River valley. He acquired land at Morgan’s Point in 1826. John Richardson Harris, for whom the county was named, arrived in 1824. Harris had moved his family to Sainte Genevieve, Missouri Territory, where they had been residing until the early 1820s. Harris was granted a league of land at Buffalo Bayou, he platted the town of Harrisburg in 1826, while he established a trading post and a grist mill there. He ran boats transporting goods between New Orleans and Harrisburg until his death in the fall of 1829; the First Congress of the Republic of Texas established Harrisburg County on December 22, 1836.
The original county boundaries included Galveston Island, but were redrawn to its current configuration in May 1838. The area has had a number of severe weather events, such as: 1900 Galveston Hurricane Hurricane Carla Hurricane Alicia Tropical Storm Allison Hurricane Rita Tropical Storm Erin Hurricane Ike Hurricane Harvey According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,777 square miles, of which 1,703 square miles is land and 74 square miles is covered by water. Both its total area and land area are larger than the state of Rhode Island. Montgomery County Liberty County Chambers County Galveston County Brazoria County Fort Bend County Waller County As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 4,530,268, non-Hispanic whites 1,323,437. Black Americans 817,096. Other non-Hispanic 395,206. Hispanics and Latinos 1,994,529; as of the 2010 Census, the population of the county was 4,092,459, White Americans made up 56.6% of Harris County's population.
Black Americans made up 25.9% of the population. Native Americans made up 0.7% of Harris County's population. Asian Americans made up 6.2% of the population. Pacific Islander Americans made up just 0.1% of the population. Individuals from other races made up 14.3% of the population. Hispanics and Latinos made up 40.8% of Harris County's population. As of the 2010 census, there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. As of the census of 2000, 3,400,578 people, 1,205,516 households, 834,217 families resided in the county, making it the largest county by population in Texas; the population density was 1,967 people per square mile. The 1,298,130 housing units averaged 751 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.7% White, 18.5% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 5.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 14.2% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. About 32.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. About 63.8 % spoke only English at home, while 28.8 % spoke 1.6 % Vietnamese.
In 2000, o
French colonization of Texas
The French colonization of Texas began with the establishment of a fort in present-day southeastern Texas. It was established in 1685 near Arenosa Creek and Matagorda Bay by explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle, he intended to found the colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River, but inaccurate maps and navigational errors caused his ships to anchor instead 400 miles to the west, off the coast of Texas. The colony survived until 1688; the present-day town of Inez is near the fort's site. The colony faced numerous difficulties during its brief existence, including Native American raids and harsh conditions. From that base, La Salle led several expeditions to find the Mississippi River; these did not succeed. During one of his absences in 1686, the colony's last ship was wrecked, leaving the colonists unable to obtain resources from the French colonies of the Caribbean; as conditions deteriorated, La Salle realized the colony could survive only with help from the French settlements in Illinois Country to the north, along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.
His last expedition ended along the Brazos River in early 1687, when La Salle and five of his men were murdered during a mutiny. Although a handful of men reached Illinois Country, help never made it to the fort. Most of the remaining members of the colony were killed during a Karankawa raid in late 1688, four children survived after being adopted as captives. Although the colony lasted only three years, it established France's claim to possession of the region, now Texas; the United States claimed, this region as part of the Louisiana Purchase because of the early French colony. Spain learned of La Salle's mission in 1686. Concerned that the French colony could threaten Spain's control over the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the unsettled southeastern region of North America, the Crown funded multiple expeditions to locate and eliminate the settlement; the unsuccessful expeditions helped Spain to better understand the geography of the Gulf Coast region. When the Spanish discovered the remains of the French colony at the fort in 1689, they buried the cannons and burned the buildings.
Years Spanish authorities built a presidio at the same location. When the presidio was abandoned, the site of the French settlement was lost to history; the fort was rediscovered by historians and excavated in 1996, the area is now an archaeological site. In 1995, researchers located the ship La Belle in Matagorda Bay, with several sections of the hull remaining intact, they constructed a cofferdam, the first to be used in North America to excavate the ship as if in dry conditions. In 2000, excavations revealed three of the original structures of the fort, as well as three graves of Frenchmen. By the late 17th century, much of North America had been claimed by European countries. Spain had claimed Florida as well as modern-day Mexico and much of the southwestern part of the continent; the northern and central Atlantic coast was claimed by Britain, New France comprised much of what is now eastern Canada as well as the central Illinois Country. The French feared. In 1681, French nobleman Robert Cavelier de La Salle launched an expedition down the Mississippi River from New France, at first believing he would find a path to the Pacific Ocean.
Instead, La Salle found a route to the Gulf of Mexico. Although Hernando De Soto had explored and claimed this area for Spain 140 years before, on April 9, 1682, La Salle claimed the Mississippi River valley for French king Louis XIV, naming the territory Louisiana in his honor. Unless France established a base at the mouth of the Mississippi, Spain would have an opportunity to control the entire Gulf of Mexico and pose a threat to New France's southern borders. La Salle believed. On his return to France in 1684, he proposed to the Crown the establishment of a colony at the mouth of the river; the colony could provide a base for promoting Christianity among the native peoples as well as a convenient location for attacking the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya and gaining control of its lucrative silver mines. He argued that a small number of Frenchmen could invade New Spain by allying themselves with some of the more than 15,000 Native Americans who were angry over Spanish enslavement. After Spain declared war on France in October 1667, King Louis agreed to support La Salle's plan.
He was to return to North America and confirm "the Indians' allegiance to the crown, leading them to the true faith, maintaining intertribal peace". La Salle planned to sail to New France, journey overland to the south and Illinois Country, travel down the Mississippi River to its mouth. To spite Spain, Louis XIV insisted that La Salle sail through the Gulf of Mexico, which Spain considered its exclusive property. Although La Salle had requested only one ship, on July 24, 1684, he left La Rochelle, France with four: the 36-gun man of war Le Joly, the 300-ton storeship L'Aimable, the barque La Belle, the ketch St. François. Although Louis XIV had provided both Le Joly and La Belle, La Salle desired more cargo space and leased L'Aimable and St. François from French merchants. Louis provided 100 soldiers and full crews for the ships, as well as funds to hire skilled workers to join the expedition. La Salle was forced to purchase trade goods himself for expected encounters with Native Americans..
The ships carried a total of nearly 300 people, including soldiers and craftsmen, six Catholic missionaries, eight merchants, over a dozen women and children. Shortly after their departure, F
William J. Hutchins
William J. Hutchins was a businessman and a Mayor of Houston. Hutchins was born in Duchess County New York, he spent most of his childhood in New Bern, North Carolina, where he stayed until the age of twenty-two. In 1835, he relocated to Tallahassee, establishing himself as a merchant for three years before selling his interest, he arrived in Houston in 1838, after the town was established as the capital of the Republic of Texas. He worked there as a merchant. In addition to his activities as a commission merchant, Hutchins invested in several infrastructure development companies, he co-founded the Houston Plank Road Company. Around 1860, Hutchins started construction of a new four-story, brick building on the site of the old City Hotel. Completed after the Civil War, the Hutchins House was open until it burned in the early 1900s. Hutchins served variously as a director and president of the Houston and Texas Central Railway, he and a partner purchased the railroad at auction in 1861 for $10,000. Hutchins purchased the Houston Tap and Brazoria Railway at auction in 1869 for $500.
Hutchins was Vice-President of the Houston Insurance Company. According to the 1860 Census, Hutchins estimated his assets at $700,000, the second largest estate in Houston. Hutchins served as Alderman for Houston’s Second Ward for several terms, he served a single term as Mayor of Houston in 1861. During the Civil War, he headed the Texas Cotton Board, charged with collecting cotton for the Confederate States and getting it to foreign markets in exchange for supplies and war materials. Hutchins, TX was named in his honor
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
Lincoln County, Tennessee
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,361, its county seat and largest city is Fayetteville. The county is named for Major General Benjamin Lincoln, an officer in the American Revolutionary War. Lincoln County was created in 1809 from parts of Bedford County; the land occupied by the county was part of a land session obtained from the Cherokee and Chickasaw in 1806. The Lincoln County Process, used in the distillation of Tennessee whiskey, is named for this county, as the Jack Daniel Distillery was located there. However, a subsequent redrawing of county lines resulted in the establishment of adjacent Moore County, which includes the location of the distillery. Another distillery opened in Lincoln County in 1997 – the Benjamin Pritchard's Distillery. However, it does not use the Lincoln County Process for making its Tennessee whiskey; when a law was established in 2013 to require the Lincoln County Process to be used for making all Tennessee whiskey, the Benjamin Pritchard's Distillery was exempted by a grandfather clause.
As a result, no current Lincoln County business uses its namesake process. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 571 square miles, of which 570 square miles are land and 0.4 square miles are water. Bedford County Moore County Franklin County Madison County, Alabama Limestone County, Alabama Giles County Marshall County Flintville Hatchery Wildlife Management Area As of the 2010 census, there were 33,361 people, 15,241 households, 4,239 families residing in the county; the population density was 55 people per square mile. There were 13,999 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.45% White, 6.80% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. 2.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,241 households out of which 28% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58% were married couples living together, 11% had a female head of household with no husband present, 27% were non-families.
25% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 8% from 18 to 24, 28% from 25 to 44, 25% from 45 to 64, 16% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,434, the median income for a family was $41,454. Males had a median income of $30,917 versus $21,722 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,837. About 10% of families and 14% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17% of those under age 18 and 20% of those age 65 or over. Prior to 1968, Lincoln County was a Democratic Party stronghold in presidential elections similar to most other counties in the Solid South; the county backed segregationist George Wallace in 1968, & remained Democratic-leaning up through 1992.
Since it has become a Republican Party stronghold, with its candidates winning the county by increasing margins with each succeeding presidential election starting with 1996. Donald Trump won the county in 2016 by nearly 59 points over Hillary Clinton; the governing body of Lincoln County is the Lincoln County Commission, divided into eight districts and 24 commissioners, three from each district. The body is chaired by the County Mayor; the government center of Lincoln County is the Lincoln County Courthouse in Fayetteville. Ardmore Fayetteville Petersburg Flintville Park City National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Tennessee Official site Lincoln County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Lincoln County at Curlie
History of Texas (1865–99)
Following the defeat of the Confederate States in the American Civil War, Texas was mandated to rejoin the United States of America. Union Army soldiers occupied the state starting on June 19, 1865. For the next nine years, Texas was governed by a series of provisional governors as the state went through Reconstruction. Texas rejoined the United States in 1901, with a new state constitution approved in 1903. Much of the politics of the remainder of the century centered on land use. Guided by the federal Morill Act, Texas sold public lands to gain funds to invest in higher education. In 1876, the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened, seven years the University of Texas at Austin began conducting classes. New land use policies drafted during the administration of Governor John Ireland enabled individuals to accumulate land, leading to the formation of large cattle ranches. Many ranchers ran barbed wire around public lands, to protect their access to water and free grazing; this caused several range wars.
Governor Lawrence Sullivan Ross guided the Texan legislature to reform the land use policies. The state continued to deal with the issues of racism, with hundreds of acts of violence against blacks as whites tried to establish white supremacy. Ross had to intervene to resolve the Jaybird-Woodpecker War. During the American Civil War, Texas had joined the Confederate States; the Confederacy was defeated, U. S. Army soldiers arrived in Texas on June 19, 1865 to take possession of the state, restore order, enforce the emancipation of slaves; the date is now commemorated as the holiday Juneteenth. On June 25, troops raised the American flag in the state capital. U. S. President Andrew Johnson appointed Union General Andrew J. Hamilton, a prominent politician before the war, as the provisional governor on June 17, he granted amnesty to ex-Conre. Angry returning veterans seized state property and Texas went through a period of extensive violence and disorder. Most outrages took place in northern Texas and were committed by outlaws who had their headquarters in the Indian Territory and plundered and murdered without distinction of party.
On March 30, 1870, the United States Congress readmitted Texas into the Union, although Texas did not meet all the formal requirements for readmission. Like other Southern states, by the late 1870s white Democrats regained control with a mix of intimidation and terrorism by paramilitary groups operating for the Democratic Party, they passed a new constitution in 1876 that segregated schools and established a poll tax to support them, but it was not required for voting. In 1901 the Democratic-dominated legislature imposed a poll tax as a requirement for voting, succeeded in disfranchising most blacks; the number of voters decreased from 100,000 in the 1890s to 5,000 by 1906. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. In addition, the legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment.
The state's involvement in the Civil War precluded further efforts to establish publicly funded higher education in Texas. In 1866, there were discussions in the legislature concerning the establishment of two separate universities in Texas, one styled "The University of Texas", the other styled "East Texas University." On November 12, 1866 the legislature considered a bill to amend the Act of 1858 that established the University of Texas, to provide for a second public university. No action was taken to establish a second public university and the Seventeenth Legislature, with the agreement of the State Teachers' Association of Texas, would clarify that the intent of the legislature was to establish but one public university. On April 17, 1871, 13 years after the establishment the University of Texas, the legislature took advantage of the Morrill Act and obtained funding for a land grant college styled the "Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas," and known as "Texas A. M. C.". Section 5 of the 1871 act establishing the Agricultural and Mechanical College stated the control and supervision of the agricultural college was to be subject to the Act of 1858 that established the University of Texas.
Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas." Article 7, Section 10 specifically mandated the establishment of an Agricultural and Mechanical Department within the university. While Section 7, Article 13 of the Constitution mandated the Agricultural and Mechanical College would be a branch of the university, the fact that the college was constitutionally mandated as a distinct department lead to the college being governed by a Board of Directors, independent of the university Board of Regents in all aspects; the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened its doors in 1876 as the state's first public institution of higher education to begin operation. On March 30, 1881 the legislature set forth the structure and organization of the state university and call