Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Charles Gavan Duffy
Sir Charles Gavan Duffy KCMG, Irish-Australian nationalist, journalist and politician, was the 8th Premier of Victoria and one of the most colourful figures in Victorian political history. The suburb of Duffy in the Australian Capital Territory is named after him. Duffy was born in Dublin Street, Monaghan Town, County Monaghan, the son of a Catholic shopkeeper. Both his parents died while he was still a child and his uncle, Fr James Duffy, the Catholic parish priest of Castleblayney, became his guardian for a number of years, he was educated at St Malachy's College in Belfast. Duffy edited The Vindicator from its foundation in 1839 until 1842, while editing the Belfast based paper he studied law at the King's Inns in Dublin, was admitted to the Irish Bar in 1845. Before being admitted to the bar, Duffy was active on the Irish land question, in that connection in 1842 he became an ally of James Godkin. Duffy became a leading figure in Irish literary circles, he edited Ballad Poetry of Ireland and contributed works on Irish literature and political history, including Young Ireland: a fragment of Irish history, 1840-1850, The league of north and south.
An episode in Irish history, 1850-1854. Gavan Duffy became its first editor. All three were members of Daniel O'Connell's Repeal Association; this paper, under Gavan Duffy, transformed from a literary voice into a "rebellious organisation". As a result of The Nation's support for Repeal, Gavan Duffy, as owner, was arrested and convicted of seditious conspiracy in relation to the Monster Meeting planned for Clontarf, just outside Dublin, but was released after an appeal to the House of Lords. In 1849 Duffy toured Ireland with Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle to record the ongoing Great Hunger in Ireland, it seems Duffy had invited Carlyle - a staunch Calvinist and Unionist, to record the happenings of the time as he was a well respected writer in Britain at that time. When their journey concluded Duffy wrote a damning editorial about the political establishment in'The Nation'. While Carlyle showed little sympathy to the destitute Irish. In August 1850, Gavan Duffy formed the Tenant Right League to bring about reforms in the Irish land system and protect tenants' rights, in 1852 he was elected to the House of Commons for New Ross.
In November 1852, Lord Derby's government introduced a land bill to secure to Irish tenants on eviction, in accordance with the principles of the Tenant League, compensation for improvements prospective and retrospective made by them in the land. The bill passed the House of Commons in 1853 and 1854, but in both years failed to pass the House of Lords. In 1855 the cause of the Irish tenants, indeed of Ireland seemed to Duffy more hopeless than ever. Broken in health and spirit, he published in 1855 a farewell address to his constituency, declaring that he had resolved to retire from parliament, as it was no longer possible to accomplish the task for which he had solicited their votes. In 1842, he married Emily McLaughlin, who died in 1845, he married Susan Hughes in 1846, with. In 1856, despairing of the prospects for Irish independence, he resigned from the House of Commons and emigrated with his family to Australia. After being feted in Sydney and Melbourne, Duffy settled in the newly formed Colony of Victoria.
A public appeal was held to enable him to buy the freehold property necessary to stand for the colonial Parliament. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Villiers and Heytesbury in the Western District in 1856. A Melbourne Punch cartoon depicted Duffy entering Parliament as a bog Irishman carrying a shillelagh atop the parliamentary benches, he represented Dalhousie and North Gippsland. With the collapse of the Victorian Government's Haines Ministry, during 1857, another Irish Catholic, John O'Shanassy, unexpectedly became Premier and Duffy his second-in-charge. Duffy was Commissioner for Public Works, President of the Board of Land and Works, Commissioner for Crown Lands and Survey. Irish Catholics serving as Cabinet Ministers was hitherto unknown in the British Empire and the Melbourne-based Protestants "were not prepared to counternance so startling a novelty". In 1858–59, Melbourne Punch cartoons linked Duffy and O'Shanassy with images of the French Revolution to undermine their Ministry.
One famous Punch image, "Citizens John and Charles", depicted the pair as French revolutionaries holding the skull and cross bone flag of the so-called Victorian Republic. The O'Shanassy Ministry was defeated at a new government formed. Like other radicals, Duffy's main priority was to unlock the colony's lands from the grip of the squatter class, but his 1862 lands bill was amended into ineffectiveness by the Legislative Council. Historian Don Garden commented that "Unfortunately Duffy's dreams were on a higher plane than his practical skills as a legislator and the morals of those opposed to him." In 1871 Duffy led the opposition to Premier Sir James McCulloch's plan to introduce a land tax, on the grounds that it unfairly penalised small farmers. When McCulloch's government was defeated on this issue, Duffy became Chief Secretary. Victoria's finances were in a poor state and he was forced to introduce a tariff bill to provide government revenue, despite his adherence to British free trade principles.
An Irish Catholic Premier was unpopular with the Protestant majority in the colony, Duffy was accused of favouring Catholics in government appointments, an example being the appointment of John Cashel Hoey to a position in L
James Munro (Australian politician)
James Munro was an Australian colonial politician and the 15th Premier of Victoria. James Munro was born in Armadale, Scotland, to Donald Munro and his wife, Georgina. James Munro's grandparents were an Alexander Munro of the family of Foulis, Ross-shire and Barbara Mackay, a relative of the chief of Clan Mackay. After a primary education at a village school in Armadale, Sutherland he left home for Edinburgh and joined a firm of publishers, he married in December 1853, Jane Macdonald, had a family of four sons and three daughters. In 1858 he emigrated to Victoria. In the 1860s he expanded into banking and promoting building societies. In 1865 he founded the Victorian Permanent Building Society. By 1870 he was a wealthy man, he continued to engage in speculation in land, after entering politics, as was the common practice, he was a leading temperance advocate and prominent in the Presbyterian church. Munro was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as one of two members for North Melbourne in 1874.
In 1877 he was elected for the new seat of Carlton for North Melbourne again in 1881, where he was defeated in 1883. In 1886, he was elected as one of the three members for Geelong, retaining his seat until he resigned in 1892. A liberal, Munro was Minister for Public Instruction in the first government of the radical leader Graham Berry, but became conservative in the 1880s and did not hold office in Berry's governments, he was preoccupied with business in these years, since his companies, the Federal Bank and the Federal Building Society, were leading players in the speculative Land Boom that gripped the colony. Unlike many of the Land Boomers, he had a reputation for stern Scots integrity, as the Boom faded in 1890 he emerged as leader of the opposition to the government of Duncan Gillies. In November he moved a successful no-confidence motion in the Gillies government and became Premier — he was the third Scottish-born Premier in succession. Munro's government was liberal, but was weakened by the absence of Alfred Deakin, the leading Victorian liberal, who chose to concentrate on the campaign for Australian federation.
It was quite unable to cope with the accelerating financial collapse which began as soon as it took office. The crash climaxed in late 1891 with the failure of several major banks. Munro's own companies were soon in trouble as the bottom fell out of the land market, in December the Federal Bank and the Federal Building Society suspended payments. In February 1892 Munro, in debt, asked his Cabinet to appoint him Victorian Agent-General in London, he resigned as Premier and took ship from Port Melbourne. When the news broke there was a storm of protest, led by the many investors whose savings had been wiped out in Munro's companies. Munro's successor, William Shiels, agreed to recall him from London. To his credit, he returned voluntarily to Victoria, where he was declared bankrupt in February 1893, with personal debts of ₤97,000, his companies left debts of over ₤600,000 – a staggering amount at that time. A few weeks he was attacked and beaten unconscious in a Melbourne street by a man, ruined in the crash.
Munro has gone down in history as the most notorious of the corrupt Victorian politicians of the Land Boom period. The fact that he was an evangelical Christian who loudly criticised the morals of others has seen him branded a hypocrite as well. In fact it was never proved that he was guilty of corruption – unlike the four members of Parliament who went to jail, or the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Sir Matthew Davies, who fled the colony in disgrace and narrowly escaped jail, his business practices were dubious, but within the loose legal framework of business regulation of the time. After being discharged from bankruptcy he finished his days as an estate agent in Armadale. Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856–1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel.
A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Serle, Percival. "Munro, James". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Mitchell, Ann M. "Munro, James". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 27 August 2013. James Munro@ElectricScotland.com Genealogy of James Munro
Kilwinning is a town in North Ayrshire, Scotland. It is on north of Irvine, about 21 miles south of Glasgow, it is known as "The Crossroads of Ayrshire". Kilwinning was a Civil Parish; the 2001 Census recorded the town as having a population of 15,908. At the 2011 Census, Kilwinning had a population of 21,456. According to John Hay, once the headmaster of the parish school in Kilwinning, "North Ayrshire has a history of religion stretching back to the beginning of missionary enterprise in Scotland; the Celtic Christians or Culdees of the period of St Columba and St Mungo found here, in this part of Scotland, a fertile field for the propagation of the faith. Kilmarnock, Kilbirnie, are all, like Kilwinning, verbal evidence of the existence of'Cillean' or cells of the Culdee or Celtic Church." In the distant past, the town was called Sagtoun, or Saint’s Town, after St. Winning, the founder of an early seventh century church on this site. However, the actual identity of St. Winning is unclear; some scholars have associated him with the Irish saint known as St Finnian of Moville, who died in the late sixth century.
Others believe he was a Welshman by the name of Vynnyn, the Aberdeen Breviary of 1507 asserts that he was from Scotland. The work of Professor Owen Clancy of the University of Glasgow in 2001 makes another identification possible. Clancy argued that, in fact, Saint Ninian and Saint Finnian were the same person, the difference being attributed to an error on the part of a medieval scribe. If, so Ninian, a missionary to the Picts in Scotland, Winning, deemed a Scotsman in the Aberdeen Breviary, could theoretically be one and the same as the Irishman named Finnian; the Aberdeen Breviary implies. In early medieval times the term Scots/Scotland applied to Ireland, it speaks of the Saint originating from a Scottish province, setting sail with companions, landing at Cunninghame in Lesser Scotland, the latter being a term used in those times to refer to the country which would be designated by name Scotland. The original town was situated at the Bridgend and Corsehill while the other bank of the river was the site of the abbey, its outbuildings, doocot, etc.
The Kilwinning Community Archaeology Project carried out a dig in Kilwinning Abbey in 2010, which revealed much about the life of the people in the area during the medieval period. Kilwinning is notable for housing the original Lodge of Freemasonry in Scotland; when the Lodges were renumbered, Kilwinning was kept as Lodge Number'0', the Mother Lodge of Scotland. The origin of the Lodge is unclear with the first documentary evidence being a mention in The Schaw Statutes of 1598 and 1599, which identify it in its first paragraph as the "heid and secund ludge of Scotland"; the lodge's own legend attributes the formation to the building of the Abbey at Kilwinning in the 12th Century. There existed in this period corporations or fraternities of masons, endowed with certain privileges and immunities, capable of erecting religious structures in the Gothic style. A party of these foreign masons is supposed to have come from Italy, or Cologne, for the purpose of building the Abbey at Kilwinning and to have founded there the first constituted Operative Lodge in Scotland.
The Lodge is reputed to have been held in the Chapter House on the Eastern side of the cloisters. On the broken walls and moldering arches of the Abbey numerous and varied Masons' marks may be seen, some beautiful in design. Kilwinning is located on the banks of the River Garnock in Ayrshire, west/central Scotland. Kilwinning's neighbours are the coastal towns of Stevenston to the west, Irvine to the south. In 1966, Kilwinning fell within the area designated Irvine New Town. Kilwinning expanded with new estates built on surrounding farm land to meet the planned increase in population. Many of the town's new inhabitants were a direct result of Glasgow Overflow relocation. Today Kilwinning consists of the pedestrianised historic town centre, both now surrounded by the newer estates of Corsehill, The Blacklands, Pennyburn, Whitehirst Park, Woodside; the Main Street of Kilwinning has been refurbished as part of the regeneration of the Irvine Bay area by Irvine Bay Regeneration Company. The ancient seat of the Earls of Eglinton, it is located just south of Kilwinning.
Built between 1797 and 1802 in Gothic castellated style dominated by a central 100-foot large round keep and four 70-foot outer towers, it was second only to Culzean Castle in appearance and grandeur. The foundation stone of the new Eglinton Castle in Kilwinning was laid in 1797, the 12th Earl of Eglinton, was proud to have the ceremony performed by Alexander Hamilton of Grange, grandfather of the American Hero Alexander Hamilton; the Castle is chiefly remembered, in modern times, as the scene of the Eglinton Tournament in 1839, a magnificent display. Funded and organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, the revival-medieval tournament, attracted thousands of visitors to see the combatants and the ladies in their finery. Among the guests was the future Emperor of the French—Napoleon III; the tournament was an ironic contrast between the old and the new! Excursion trains, among the first were run from Ayr. Today the castle is a ruin; the Tournament marked a turning point, being a severe drain on the Eglinton family fortune, which coincided with bottomless expenditure on the Ardrossan harbour and the Glasgow and Ardrossan Canal.
The castle fell into disrepair after being unroofed in 1925 and was used for Commando demolition practice during World War
Electoral district of Castlemaine
Castlemaine was an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Victoria from 1859 to 1904. It included the towns of Castlemaine and Harcourt, it was preceded by the Electoral district of Castlemaine Boroughs, which existed from 1856 to 1859 and was one of the original districts of the Victorian Legislative Assembly. In 1904 the district of Castlemaine was abolished, a new electorate, the Electoral district of Castlemaine and Maldon, was created. One of the last members of Castlemaine, Harry Lawson, represented Castlemaine and Maldon from 1904 to 1927. Three members were elected. Two members from May 1877. B = by-election d = disqualified r = resigned