A simulation is an approximate imitation of the operation of a process or system. This model is a well-defined description of the simulated subject, represents its key characteristics, such as its behaviour and abstract or physical properties; the model represents the system itself. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, training and video games. Computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Simulation is used with scientific modelling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their functioning, as in economics. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may not exist. Key issues in simulation include the acquisition of valid source information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviours, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes.
Procedures and protocols for model verification and validation are an ongoing field of academic study, refinement and development in simulations technology or practice in the field of computer simulation. Simulations used in different fields developed independently, but 20th-century studies of systems theory and cybernetics combined with spreading use of computers across all those fields have led to some unification and a more systematic view of the concept. Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing; these physical objects are chosen because they are smaller or cheaper than the actual object or system. Interactive simulation is a special kind of physical simulation referred to as a human in the loop simulation, in which physical simulations include human operators, such as in a flight simulator, sailing simulator, or a driving simulator. Continuous simulation is a simulation where time evolves continuously based on numerical integration of Differential Equations.
Discrete Event Simulation is a simulation where time evolves along events that represent critical moments, while the values of the variables are not relevant between two of them or result trivial to be computed in case of necessityStochastic Simulation is a simulation where some variable or process is regulated by stochastic factors and estimated based on Monte Carlo techniques using pseudo-random numbers, so replicated runs from same boundary conditions are expected to produce different results within a specific confidence band Deterministic Simulation is a simulation where the variable is regulated by deterministic algorithms, so replicated runs from same boundary conditions produce always identical results. Hybrid Simulation corresponds to a mix between Continuous and Discrete Event Simulation and results in integrating numerically the differential equations between two sequential events to reduce the number of discontinuities Stand Alone Simulation is a Simulation running on a single workstation by itself.
Distributed Simulation is operating over distributed computers in order to guarantee access from/to different resources. Modeling & Simulation as a Service where Simulation is accessed as a Service over the web. Modeling, interoperable Simulation and Serious Games where Serious Games Approaches are integrated with Interoperable Simulation. Simulation Fidelity is used to describe the accuracy of a simulation and how it imitates the real-life counterpart. Fidelity is broadly classified as 1 of 3 categories: low and high. Specific descriptions of fidelity levels are subject to interpretation but the following generalization can be made: Low – the minimum simulation required for a system to respond to accept inputs and provide outputs Medium – responds automatically to stimuli, with limited accuracy High – nearly indistinguishable or as close as possible to the real systemHuman in the loop simulations can include a computer simulation as a so-called synthetic environment. Simulation in failure analysis refers to simulation in which we create environment/conditions to identify the cause of equipment failure.
This was the fastest method to identify the failure cause. A computer simulation is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables in the simulation, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system, it is a tool to investigate the behaviour of the system under study. Computer simulation has become a useful part of modeling many natural systems in physics and biology, human systems in economics and social science as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems
A wafer is a crisp sweet thin and dry biscuit used to decorate ice cream, used as a garnish on some sweet dishes. Wafers can be made into cookies with cream flavoring sandwiched between them, they have a waffle surface pattern but may be patterned with insignia of the food's manufacturer or may be patternless. Some chocolate bars, such as Kit Kat and Coffee Crisp, are wafers with chocolate around them. A communion wafer is a type of unleavened bread consumed as part of the Christian ritual of communion. Special "spa wafers" are produced in the spa towns of the Slovak Republic. Christmas wafers, whose patterns depict religious scenes, are an Eastern European Roman Catholic Christmas tradition celebrated in Polish, Slovak and Italian families during Wigilia. A variation of a wafer, considered a part of the traditional cuisine in Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, El Salvador, México, is known as an oblea, it is eaten as a dessert with two pieces filled with arequipe, dulce de leche, and/or sweetened condensed milk in the middle.
In some places, they might contain fruits, or chantilly cream, among others. A pink wafer is a wafer-based confectionery made by Edinburgh's Crawford's Biscuits in the United Kingdom, it is now made by United Biscuits, the company that took over the firm in 1960, still using the Crawford's name. The snack consists of crème sandwiched between wafers. Freska is an Egyptian wafer sold only on beaches in the summertime, it is made from two thin circular wafers filled with a thin layer of honey syrup. Some wafers are produced with a chocolate covering. Media related to Wafers at Wikimedia Commons
National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems with headquarters in Santa Clara, United States. The company produced power management integrated circuits, display drivers and operational amplifiers, communication interface products and data conversion solutions. National's key markets included wireless handsets, displays and a variety of broad electronics markets, including medical, automotive and test and measurement applications. On September 23, 2011, the company formally became part of Texas Instruments as the "Silicon Valley" division. National Semiconductor was founded in Danbury, Connecticut, by Dr. Bernard J. Rothlein on May 27, 1959, when he and seven colleagues, Edward N. Clarke, Joseph J. Gruber, Milton Schneider, Robert L. Hopkins, Robert L. Koch, Richard R. Rau and Arthur V. Siefert, left their employment at the semiconductor division of Sperry Rand Corporation; the founding of the new company was followed by Sperry Rand filing a lawsuit against National Semiconductor for patent infringement.
By 1965, as it was reaching the courts, the preliminaries of the lawsuit had caused the stock value of National to be depressed. The depressed stock values allowed Peter J Sprague to invest in the company with Sprague's family funds. Sprague relied on further financial backing from a pair of West Coast investment firms and a New York underwriter to take control as the chairman of National Semiconductor. At that time Sprague was 27 years old. Jeffrey S. Young characterized the era as the beginning of venture capitalism; that same year National Semiconductor acquired Molectro. Molectro was founded in 1962 in Santa Clara, California, by J. Nall and D. Spittlehouse, who were employed at Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation; the acquisition brought to National Semiconductor two experts in linear semiconductor technologies, Robert Widlar and Dave Talbert, who were formerly employed at Fairchild. The acquisition of Molectro provided National with the technology to launch itself in the fabrication and manufacture of monolithic integrated circuits.
In 1967, Sprague hired five top executives away from Fairchild, among whom were Charles E. Sporck and Pierre Lamond. At the time of Sporck's hiring, Robert Noyce was de facto head of semiconductor operations at Fairchild and Sporck was his operations manager. Sporck was appointed CEO of National. To make the deal better for Sporck's hiring and appointment at half his former salary at Fairchild, Sporck was allotted a substantial share of National's stock. In essence, Sporck took four of his personnel from Fairchild with him as well as three others from TI, Perkin-Elmer, Hewlett-Packard to form a new eight-man team at National Semiconductor. Incidentally, Sporck had been Widlar's superior at Fairchild before Widlar left Fairchild to join Molectro after a compensation dispute with Sporck. In 1968, National shifted its headquarters from Connecticut, to Santa Clara, California. However, like many companies, National retained its registration as a Delaware corporation, for legal and financial expediency.
Over the years National Semiconductor acquired several companies like Fairchild Semiconductor, Cyrix. However, over time National Semiconductor spun off these acquisitions. Fairchild Semiconductor became a separate company again in 1997, the Cyrix microprocessors division was sold to VIA Technologies of Taiwan in 1999. From 1997 to 2002, National enjoyed a large amount of publicity and awards with the development of the Cyrix Media Center, Cyrix WebPad, WebPad Metro and National Origami PDA concept devices created by National's Conceptual Products Group. Based on the success of the WebPad, National formed the Information Appliance Division in 1998; the Information Appliance Division was sold to AMD in 2003. Other businesses dealing in such products as digital wireless chipsets, image sensors, PC I/O chipsets have been closed down or sold off as National has reincarnated itself as a high-performance analog semiconductor company. Peter Sprague, Pierre Lamond and the affectionately called Charlie Sporck worked hand-in-hand, with support of the board of directors to transform the company into a multinational and world-class semiconductor concern.
After becoming CEO, Sporck started a historic price war among semiconductor companies, which trimmed the number of competitors in the field. Among the casualties to exit the semiconductor business were General Electric and Westinghouse. Cost control, overhead reduction and a focus on profits implemented by Sporck was the key element to National surviving the price war and subsequently in 1981 becoming the first semiconductor company to reach the US$1 billion annual sales mark. However, the foundation that made National successful was its expertise in analog electronics, TTL and MOSFET integrated circuit technologies; as they had while employed in Fairchild and Lamond directed National Semiconductor towards the growing industrial and commercial markets and began to rely less on military and aerospace contracts. Those decisions coupled with inflationary growth in use of computers provided the market for the expansion of National. Meanwhile, sources of funds associated with Sprague coupled with creative structuring of cash flow buffering due to Sporck and Lamond provided the financing required for that expansion.
Lamond and Sporck had managed to attract and extract substantial funds to finance the expansion. Among Sporck's cost control efforts was his offshore outsourcing of labour. National Semiconductor was among the pioneers in the semicon
San Francisco Chronicle
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000, it is the only major daily paper covering the county of San Francisco. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a rapid fall in circulation in the early 21st century, was ranked 24th by circulation nationally for the six months to March 2010; the newspaper publishes two web sites: and sfchronicle.com, which reflects the articles that appear in the print paper, SFGate, which has a mixture of online news and web features. The Chronicle was founded by brothers Charles and M. H. de Young in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle, inside of 10 years, it had the largest circulation of any newspaper west of the Mississippi River.
The paper's first office was in a building at the corner of Kearney Streets. The brothers commissioned a building from Burnham and Root at 690 Market Street at the corner of Third and Kearney Streets to be their new headquarters, in what became known as Newspaper Row; the new building, San Francisco's first skyscraper, was completed in 1889. It was damaged in the 1906 earthquake, but it was rebuilt under the direction of William Polk, Burnham's associate in San Francisco; that building, known as the "Old Chronicle Building" or the "DeYoung Building", still stands and was restored in 2007. It is the location of the Ritz-Carlton Club and Residences. In 1924, the Chronicle commissioned a new headquarters at 901 Mission Street on the corner of 5th Street in what is now the South of Market neighborhood of San Francisco, it was designed by Charles Peter Weeks and William Peyton Day in the Gothic Revival architecture style, but most of the Gothic Revival detailing was removed in 1968 when the building was re-clad with stucco.
This building remains the Chronicle's headquarters in 2017, although other concerns are located there as well. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Newhall took a bold and somewhat provocative approach to news presentation. Newhall's Chronicle included investigative reporting by such journalists as Pierre Salinger, who played a prominent role in national politics, Paul Avery, the staffer who pursued the trail of the self-named "Zodiac Killer", who sent a cryptogram in three sections in letters to the Chronicle and two other papers during his murder spree in the late 1960s, it featured such colorful columnists as Pauline Phillips, who wrote under the name "Dear Abby," "Count Marco", Stanton Delaplane, Terence O'Flaherty, Lucius Beebe, Art Hoppe, Charles McCabe, Herb Caen. The newspaper grew in circulation to become the city's largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner; the demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner and the Chronicle to battle for circulation and readership superiority.
The competition between the Chronicle and Examiner took a financial toll on both papers until the summer of 1965, when a merger of sorts created a Joint Operating Agreement under which the Chronicle became the city's sole morning daily while the Examiner changed to afternoon publication. The newspapers were owned by the San Francisco Newspaper Agency, which managed sales and distribution for both newspapers and was charged with ensuring that one newspaper's circulation did not grow at the expense of the other. Revenue was split which led to a situation understood to benefit the Examiner, since the Chronicle, which had a circulation four times larger than its rival, subsidized the afternoon newspaper; the two newspapers produced a joint Sunday edition, with the Examiner publishing the news sections and the Sunday magazine and the Chronicle responsible for the tabloid entertainment section and the book review. From 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation; this arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle in 2000.
Beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco. The newspaper had long enjoyed a wide reach as the de facto "newspaper of record" in Northern California, with distribution along the Central Coast, the Inland Empire and as far as Honolulu, Hawaii. There was little competition in the Bay Area suburbs and other areas that the newspaper served, but as Knight Ridder consolidated the San Jose Mercury News in 1975; the Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper. The sections covered San Francisco, four different suburban areas, they each featured enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community. The newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. Despite the push to focus on suburban coverage, the Chronicle was hamstrung by the Sunday edition, being produced by the San Francisco-centric "un-Chronicle" Examiner, had none of the focus on the suburban communities that the Chronicle was striving to cultivate.
The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27, 2000, when it was sold to Hearst Communications, Inc. which owned the Examiner. Following the sale, the
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Idaho, is the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River in southwestern Idaho, the population of Boise at the 2010 Census was 205,671, the 99th largest in the United States, its estimated population in 2016 was 223,154. The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area known as the Treasure Valley, includes five counties with a combined population of 709,845, the most populous metropolitan area in Idaho, it contains. Boise is the 80th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Accounts differ regarding the name's origin. One account credits Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville of the U. S. Army as its source. After trekking for weeks through dry and rough terrain, his exploration party reached an overlook with a view of the Boise River Valley; the place where they stood is called Bonneville Point, located on the Oregon Trail east of the city. According to the story, a French-speaking guide, overwhelmed by the sight of the verdant river, yelled "Les bois!
Les bois!" —and the name stuck. The name may instead derive from earlier mountain men. In the 1820s, French Canadian fur trappers set trap lines in the vicinity. Set in a high-desert area, the tree-lined valley of the Boise River became a distinct landmark, an oasis dominated by cottonwood trees, they called this "La rivière boisée", which means "the wooded river." The area was called Boise long before the establishment of Fort Boise by the federal government. The original Fort Boise was 40 miles west, near Parma, down the Boise River near its confluence with the Snake River at the Oregon border; this private sector defense was erected by the Hudson's Bay Company in the 1830s. It was abandoned in the 1850s, but massacres along the Oregon Trail prompted the U. S. Army to re-establish a fort in the area in 1863 during the U. S. Civil War; the new location was selected because it was near the intersection of the Oregon Trail with a major road connecting the Boise Basin and the Owyhee mining areas, both of which were booming.
During the mid-1860s, Idaho City was the largest city in the Northwest, as a staging area, Fort Boise grew rapidly. The first capital of the Idaho Territory was Lewiston in north central Idaho, which in 1863 was the largest community, exceeding the populations of Olympia and Seattle, Washington Territory and Portland, Oregon combined; the original territory was larger than Texas. But following the creation of Montana Territory, Boise was made the territorial capital of a much reduced Idaho in a controversial decision which overturned a district court ruling by a one-vote majority in the territorial supreme court along geographic lines in 1866. Designed by Alfred B. Mullett, the U. S. Assay Office at 210 Main Street was built in 1871 and today is a National Historic Landmark. Most native and longtime residents use the pronunciation / ˈbɔɪsiː /; the pronunciation is sometimes used as a shibboleth, as outsiders tend to pronounce the city's name as /ˈbɔɪziː/. Boise is in southwestern Idaho, about 41 miles east of the Oregon border, 110 miles north of the Nevada border.
The downtown area's elevation is 2,704 feet above sea level. Most of the metropolitan area lies on a flat plain, descending to the west. Mountains rise to the northeast, stretching from the far southeastern tip of the Boise city limits to nearby Eagle; these mountains are known to locals as the Boise foothills and are sometimes described as the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. About 34 miles southwest of Boise, about 26 miles southwest of Nampa, the Owyhee Mountains lie in neighboring Owyhee County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 80.05 square miles, of which, 79.36 square miles is land and 0.69 square miles is water. The city is drained by the Boise River; the City of Boise is considered part of the Treasure Valley. Boise occupies a large area — 64 sq mi according to the United States Census Bureau. Like all major cities, it has several neighborhoods, including the Bench, the North End, West Boise and Downtown. In January 2014, the Boise Police Department partnered with the folksonomic neighborhood blogging site Nextdoor, the first city in the Northwest and the 137th city in the U.
S. to do so. Since the app, which enables the city's police and parks departments to post to self-selected localized areas, first became available in October 2011, 101 neighborhoods and sections of neighborhoods have joined. Downtown Boise is Boise's cultural home to many small businesses and a few mid-rises. While downtown Boise lacks a major retail/dining focus like Seattle and Portland, the area has a variety of shops and growing option for dining choices. Centrally, 8th Street contains a pedestrian zone with sidewalk restaurants; the neighborhood has many local restaurants and boutiques and supports a vibrant nightlife. The area contains the Basque Block, which gives visitors a chance to learn about and enjoy Boise's Basque heritage. Downtown Boise's main attractions include the Idaho State Capitol, the classic Egyptian Theatre on the corner of Capitol Boulevard and Main Street, the Boise Art Museum on Capitol in front of Julia Davis Park, Zoo Boise on the grounds of Julia Davis Park. Boise's economy was threatened in the late 1990s by commercial development at locations away from the downtown center, such as Boise Towne Square Mall and at shopping centers near new housing developments.
Cultural events in Dow
Cadence Design Systems
Cadence Design Systems, Inc. is an American multinational electronic design automation software and engineering services company, founded in 1988 by the merger of SDA Systems and ECAD, Inc. The company produces software and silicon structures for designing integrated circuits, systems on chips and printed circuit boards. Cadence Design Systems, headquartered in San Jose, California, in the North San Jose Innovation District, is a supplier of electronic design technologies and engineering services in the electronic design automation industry; the company develops software used to design chips and printed circuit boards, as well as intellectual properties covering a broad range of areas, including interfaces, analog, SoC peripherals, dataplane processing units, verification. Cadence products target SoC design engineers, are used to move a design into packaged silicon, with products for custom and analog design, digital design, mixed-signal design and package/PCB design, as well as a broad selection of IP, hardware for emulation and FPGA prototyping.
To help integrate and implement complex digital SoCs, there are solutions that encompass design IP, timing analysis and signoff and tools and methodologies. The company provides products that assist with the development of complete hardware and software platforms that support end applications. Cadence Design Systems was the result of a merger perfected in 1988 of Solomon Design Automation, co-founded in 1983 by Richard Newton, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli and James Solomon, ECAD, co-founded by Glen Antle and Paul Huang in 1982. Joseph Costello was appointed as CEO from 1988–1997, Cadence became the largest EDA company during his tenure. Following Costello as CEO were Jack Harding, Ray Bingham, Mike Fister. Following the resignation of Fister, the board appointed Lip-Bu Tan as acting CEO. In January 2009, the company confirmed Lip-Bu Tan as President and CEO. Tan had been most CEO of Walden International, a venture capital firm, remains chairman of the firm, he has served on the Cadence Board of Directors since 2004, where he served on the Technology Committee for four years.
In 2013, Cadence celebrated its 25th anniversary. In 2015, it was named one of the top 100 places to work by Fortune magazine. At the end of 2016, the company employed more than 7,100 people and reported 2016 revenues of $1.82 billion. In November 2007 Cadence was named one of the "50 Best Places to Work in Silicon Valley" by San Jose Magazine. According to Glassdoor, it is the fifth highest-paying company for employees in the United States as of April 2017. Cadence's product offerings are targeted at various types of design and verification tasks which include: Custom IC technologies - Virtuoso Platform - Tools for designing full-custom integrated circuits. Used for analog, mixed-signal, RF, standard-cell designs, but memory and FPGA designs. Digital & Signoff technologies - RTL to GDS II implementation: Genus Synthesis, Stratus High Level Synthesis, Joules Power Analysis, Innovus Place & Route, Tempus Timing SIgnoff, Voltus Power Integrity Signoff, Modus Automatic Test Pattern Generation. System & Verification technologies - Verification Suite - JasperGold Formal Verification, Xcelium simulation, Palladium Z1 emulation, Protium S1 FPGA prototyping, Perspec software-driven tests, vManager plan & metrics, Indago debug, Verification IP catelog.
Intellectual Property - Design IP targeting areas including memory / storage / high-performance interface protocols, Tensilica DSP processors for audio, wireless modems and convolutional neural nets. PCB & Packaging technologies: Allegro Platform - Tools for co-design of integrated circuits, PCBs, including the Specctra auto-router. OrCAD/PSpice - Tools for smaller design teams and individual PCB designers, and Sigrity technologies - Tools for signal and power verification for system-level signoff verification and interface compliance. In addition to EDA software, Cadence provides contracted methodology and design services as well as silicon design IP, has a program aimed at making it easier for other EDA software to interoperate with the company's tools. Cadence was involved in a 6-year-long legal dispute with Avanti Corporation, in which Cadence claimed Avanti stole Cadence code, Avanti denied it. According to Business Week "The Avanti case is the most dramatic tale of white-collar crime in the history of Silicon Valley".
The Avanti executives pleaded no contest and Cadence received several hundred million dollars in restitution. Avanti was purchased by Synopsys, which paid $265 million more to settle the remaining claims; the case resulted in a number of legal precedents. The Cadence group Quickturn was involved in a series of legal events with Mentor Graphics/Aptix. Mentor purchased rights to an Aptix patent sued Cadence. In this case, the CEO of Aptix, Amr Mohsen, forged a notebook in order to make the patent case stronger; when suspicions were raised, he staged a break-in of his own car to get rid of the evidence, resulting in charges of obstruction of justice. Trying to avoid this, he attempted to flee the country, only to be caught with an illegal passport and a pile of cash. While in jail for this offense, he was recorded offering money to intimidate witnesses and kill the judge. In order to fight the new charges, he tried to feign psychological problems, but left a trail of evidence of his research into this defense, how it might be done.
Association for Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing Machinery is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society; the ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, with nearly 100,000 members as of 2019. Its headquarters are in New York City; the ACM is an umbrella organization for scholarly interests in computer science. Its motto is "Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession"; the ACM was founded in 1947 under the name Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, changed the following year to the Association for Computing Machinery. ACM is organized into over 171 local chapters and 37 Special Interest Groups, through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 university chapters; the first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Many of the SIGs, such as SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences, which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields.
The groups publish a large number of specialized journals and newsletters. ACM sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer. ACM publishes over 50 journals including the prestigious Journal of the ACM, two general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include: ACM XRDS "Crossroads", was redesigned in 2010 and is the most popular student computing magazine in the US. ACM Interactions, an interdisciplinary HCI publication focused on the connections between experiences and technology, the third largest ACM publication. ACM Computing Surveys ACM Computers in Entertainment ACM Special Interest Group: Computers and Society A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions; some of the more notable transactions include: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics ACM Transactions on Computational Logic ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction ACM Transactions on Database Systems ACM Transactions on Graphics ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing and Applications IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.
ACM has made all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. ACM offers insurance, online courses, other services to its members. In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing, written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach; the book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry. The ACM Portal is an online service of the ACM, its core are two main sections: the ACM Guide to Computing Literature. The ACM Digital Library is the full-text collection of all articles published by the ACM in its articles and conference proceedings; the Guide is a bibliography in computing with over one million entries. The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines and conference proceedings.
Online services include a forum called Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature; this secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature. ACM adopted a hybrid Open Access publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement. ACM was a "green" publisher. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record. All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription. There is a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement.
Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Journal of Machine Learning Research and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology. In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers"; the number of Fellows, Distinguished Members, Senior Members cannot exceed 1%, 10%, 25% of the total number of professional members, respect