George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough
George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough, styled Marquess of Blandford until 1758, was a British courtier and politician from the Spencer family. He served as Lord Chamberlain between 1762 and 1763 and as Lord Privy Seal between 1763 and 1765, he is the great-great-great grandfather of Sir Winston Churchill. Styled by the courtesy title Marquess of Blandford from birth, He was the eldest son of Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough, the Honourable Elizabeth Trevor, daughter of Thomas Trevor, 2nd Baron Trevor. According to George III, who mentioned it to Fanny Burney, the Duke suffered from severe red-green colourblindness; as he was unable to tell scarlet from green, Fanny therefore remarked that this was unlucky for someone in possession of so sumptuous a home as Blenheim Palace. Marlborough entered the Coldstream Guards in 1755 as an Ensign, becoming a Captain with the 20th Regiment of Foot the following year. After inheriting the dukedom in 1758, Marlborough took his seat in the House of Lords in 1760, becoming Lord-Lieutenant of Oxfordshire in that same year.
The following year, he bore the sceptre with the cross at the coronation of George III. In 1762, he was made Lord Chamberlain as well as a Privy Counsellor, after a year resigned this appointment to become Lord Privy Seal, a post he held until 1765. An amateur astronomer, he built a private observatory at Blenheim Palace, he kept up a lively scientific correspondence with Hans Count von Brühl, another aristocratic dilettante in astronomy. The Duke was made a Knight of the Garter in 1768, was elected to the Royal Society in 1786. Marlborough married Lady Caroline Russell, daughter of John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford, in 1762, by whom he had eight children: Lady Caroline Spencer, married Henry Agar-Ellis, 2nd Viscount Clifden and had issue, including George Agar-Ellis, 1st Baron Dover. Lady Elizabeth Spencer, had issue. George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough Lady Charlotte Spencer, married Rev. Edward Nares and had issue. Lord Henry John Spencer Lady Anne Spencer, married Cropley Ashley-Cooper, 6th Earl of Shaftesbury and had issue.
Lady Amelia Spencer, married Henry Pytches Boyce. Lord Francis Almeric Spencer, created Baron Churchill in 1815; the Duchess of Marlborough died at Blenheim Palace in November 1811, aged 68. The Duke of Marlborough died at Blenheim Palace in January 1817, aged 78, was buried there. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Spencer, George". Dictionary of National Biography. 53. London: Smith, Elder & Co; the Collected Correspondence of Baron Franz von Zach, Volume 3, 2008. Edited by Clifford J. Cunningham. Star Lab Press
Hardeep Singh Kohli
Hardeep Singh Kohli is a Scottish presenter of Sikh heritage who has appeared on radio and television. Kohli was moved to Glasgow in Scotland when he was four, his parents came to Britain from India in the 1960s. The family's roots lie in the Punjab, his mother was a social worker, his father a teacher. In the Bishopbriggs suburb, he became a wealthy property landlord, his first school was Hillhead Primary School in the West End of Glasgow, after which he attended Meadowburn Primary in Bishopbriggs. At age eight, he moved to John Ogilvie Hall, the primary school of St Aloysius' College, a private Roman Catholic school in central Glasgow. Kohli studied Law at the University of Glasgow, graduating in 1990. While at university he worked in a vegetarian restaurant and worked as an usher at the Citizens Theatre. After graduating from university Kohli joined the BBC Scotland graduate production trainee scheme, he worked in BBC Television Centre, directing children's TV, before moving to Youth and Entertainment Features in Manchester to become a series director on Janet Street-Porter's series Reportage.
He was a director of It'll Never Work, the first children's TV show to win an award from the Royal Television Society and BAFTA in its first season. Kohli left the corporation in 1996 to work independently, he directed commercials and worked in TV development and broadcast on BBC Radio 5Live. He wrote and starred in Channel 4's Meet the Magoons in 2004; the critical response was lukewarm and it failed to find an audience. Thomas Sutcliffe said the first episode "went beyond desperate and started to sound as if the comedy was pleading for its life", he observed that "Kohli didn't have much to offer in the way of Indian flavour besides a ready-meal approach to comic insult." The kinder reviewers listed here include Nancy Banks Smith who wrote it was "modern to the point of surreal" with A. A. Gill put forward a hope that it might "evolve into something classic" The show was entered for a Rose at the Montreux Comedy Festival but did not make the final list In September 2006, Kohli took part in the first series of BBC One's Celebrity MasterChef programme, reaching the final along with Roger Black, finishing second to the ultimate winner, Matt Dawson.
In January 2007, he had a three-part series on Channel 4, £ 50 Says. The series was the first documentary exploring all forms of gambling; the show involved Kohli taking part in a celebrity card game. In October 2006, February 2007 and January 2009 he appeared on the BBC political panel programme Question Time, was an occasional presenter on Newsnight Review, Saturday Live on BBC Radio 4 and Loose Ends. In 2008 Kohli presented "New British Kitchen" a cookery series for UKTV with John Torode; that was followed by Kohli's solo show "the City" for the same channel. He appeared on Gordon Ramsay: Cook Along Live, he participated in a celebrity edition of The Apprentice to raise money for charity. Sport Relief Does The Apprentice was part of the BBC's annual charity initiative Sport Relief and aired on 12 and 14 March 2008, he was the first Celebrity Apprentice to be "fired". He appeared in the Scottish segment of the BBC's 2008 Children in Need appeal, anchored by Jackie Bird and Des Clarke. In 2008, Kohli filmed a documentary about Scientology the so-called Free Zone, titled The Beginner's Guide to L. Ron Hubbard.
Kohli presented a documentary In Search of the Tartan Turban, which explored cultural identity as a Briton and a Scot belonging to an ethnic minority. The show won a Schools BAFTA. Channel 4 commissioning a five part series called "Hardeep Does..." that covered a variety of topical issues including sex and pets. It was not renewed. Kohli was the presenter of the second series of CBBC game show Get 100. In June 2009, he was one of five volunteers who took part in a BBC series of three programmes Famous and Homeless about living penniless on the streets of London. Kohli has appeared as a panellist on The Wright Stuff on Channel Five, he hosted the programme when Matthew Wright was on holiday or ill. Kohli was a reporter for The One Show, but suspended in 2009 for six months amidst allegations of sexual harassment of a researcher, his contract was never renewed. On 16 August 2018, Kohli entered the UK television show, Celebrity Big Brother as a celebrity housemate. Kohli was nominated four times for eviction while in the Celebrity Big Brother, before he was eliminated on 07 September 2018.
Kohli became the fifth housemate to be evicted, Kohli wrote and presented BBC Radio 4's "Hippy Trail" described by the Telegraph's Gillian Reynolds as "he patently had no real interest in the European and American hippies who trekked overland to India in the 1960s. At times, he seemed positively contemptuous, as if he were wondering why he was bothering" He presented BBC Radio 4 commissions, "Where Scotland Meets England" and "Where England Meets Wales". In 2010 Radio 2 broadcast "Great British Faith", a city based series looking at the spiritual life and history of six British cities. Described as "terrific" by Kohli's friend Elisabeth Mahoney in The Guardian she was "impressed by the depth and scope of their portraits. Kohli brought to the programmes a real sense of the spiritual textures of these urban landscapes."Under producer Adam Fowler, he presented a BBC Radio 4 documentary'The Loneliness of the Goalkeeper' won a prize in Illinois in 2010 as Third Coast Directors' Choice Award for Ladbroke Productions.
In 2011 Kohli presented a series about words and language “15 by 15” which took a Silver at the New York Radio Festival. In 2012 Kohli recorded his first series of Hardeep’s Sunday Lunch, a programme that
John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough
John Winston Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, styled Earl of Sunderland from 1822 to 1840 and Marquess of Blandford from 1840 to 1857, was a British Conservative cabinet minister, politician and nobleman. He was the paternal grandfather of Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill. John Spencer-Churchill was born at Garboldisham Hall, the eldest son of George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough, Lady Jane Stewart, daughter of Admiral George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway, he was educated at Oriel College, Oxford. He commenced his career as a Lieutenant in the 1st Battalion Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars in 1843. Spencer-Churchill was Member of Parliament for Woodstock from 1844 to 1845 and again from 1847 to 1857, he was responsible for the "Blandford Act" of 1856, enabling populous parishes to be divided for purposes of Church work. In 1857 he entered the House of Lords, he served under Lord Derby as Lord Steward of the Household from 1866 to 1867, under Derby and Benjamin Disraeli as Lord President of the Council—with a seat in the cabinet—from 1867 to 1868.
He was an influential Freemason. On the formation of Disraeli's second cabinet in 1874, he was offered, but declined, the Viceroyalty of Ireland, he again held office under Disraeli as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1876 to 1880. Spencer-Churchill was president of the Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' Royal Benevolent Society for many years, he died of angina pectoris at 29 Berkeley Square, London, on 4 July 1883. After lying in state at Blenheim Palace, he was buried in the private chapel on 10 July. On 12 July 1843, Spencer-Churchill married Lady Frances Anne Emily Vane, eldest daughter of the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry and Lady Frances Anne Emily Vane-Tempest, they had eleven children: George Charles Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough Lord Frederick John Winston Spencer-Churchill Lady Cornelia Henrietta Maria Spencer-Churchill, married 25 May 1868 Ivor Bertie Guest, 1st Baron Wimborne, by whom she had issue. Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill, married 15 April 1874 Jennie Jerome.
Their issue included John Strange Spencer-Churchill. Lady Rosamund Jane Frances Spencer-Churchill, married 12 July 1877 William Fellowes, 2nd Baron de Ramsey, by whom she had issue. Lady Fanny Octavia Louise Spencer-Churchill, married 9 June 1873 Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth, by whom she had issue. Lady Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill, married 11 June 1874 James Innes-Ker, 7th Duke of Roxburghe, by whom she had issue. Lord Charles Ashley Spencer-Churchill Lord Augustus Robert Spencer-Churchill Lady Georgiana Elizabeth Spencer-Churchill, married 4 June 1883 Richard George Penn Curzon, 4th Earl Howe, by whom she had issue. Lady Sarah Isabella Augusta Spencer-Churchill, a war correspondent during the Boer War. Marlborough died on 4 July 1883, aged 61, was succeeded in the title by his eldest son, George, his wife died sixteen years on 16 April 1899, aged 77. Marlborough was portrayed by Cyril Luckham in the 1974 Thames TV mini-series Jennie: Lady Randolph Churchill. Notable Freemasons Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Boase, George Clement.
"Churchill, John Winston Spencer". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough Pedigree at Genealogics at Archive.today
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Christina Onassis was an American-born Greek businesswoman and heiress to the Onassis fortune. She was the only daughter of Tina Onassis Niarchos. Christina Onassis, the only daughter of the Greek Argentine shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis and his first wife, Tina Onassis Niarchos, was born in New York City at LeRoy Sanitarium, her maternal grandfather was founder of the Livanos shipping empire. Onassis had Alexander, she and Alexander were raised and educated in France and England. She attended the Headington School in Oxford and Queen's College, London from 1968 to 1969. Christina's parents divorced in 1960, precipitated by her father's affair with opera singer Maria Callas, he married former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, widow of President John F. Kennedy, in 1968. Christina and Alexander distrusted Kennedy and never warmed to her. Christina's mother married Stavros Niarchos in 1971. Within a 29-month period, Christina lost her entire immediate family, her brother, died in a plane crash in Athens in 1973 at the age of 24, which devastated the family.
Her mother died of a suspected drug overdose in 1974. Following Alexander's death, her father's health began to deteriorate, he died in March 1975. After losing her father, Christina renounced her U. S. citizenship and donated the American portion of her holdings in her father's company to the American Hospital of Paris. Upon Alexander's death, Aristotle Onassis began grooming his daughter to take over the family business, she was sent to New York City to work in his office. After Aristotle's death, she inherited 55% of his fortune estimated to be worth $500 million; the remaining 45% funded a foundation established in Alexander's memory, the Alexander S. Onassis Foundation. After a legal settlement, Jacqueline Onassis received $26 million from the estate. Christina was the focus of her father's attention until his death, she carried the mantle of the Onassis shipping empire running the business after her father's death. Christina received considerable media attention for her lavish lifestyle, spending habits, turbulent personal life.
Despite her wealth, she was unhappy with her frequent weight battles and inability to find lasting love. She went on frequent crash diets and would lose large amounts of weight, but gained it back when she became depressed. Diagnosed with clinical depression at the age of 30, she was prescribed barbiturates and sleeping pills. Onassis became addicted and was hospitalized for overdosing on sleeping pills in the 1970s. Onassis had each ending in divorce, she wed her first husband, real estate developer Joseph Bolker, at age 20 in 1971. Bolker was a divorced father of 27 years her senior. Onassis's father disapproved and pressured her to divorce him; the marriage ended after nine months. Her second husband was Greek shipping and banking heir Alexander Andreadis, whom she married shortly after her father's death in 1975, they divorced after 14 months. Onassis's third husband was Russian shipping agent Sergei Kauzov, whom she married in 1978, they divorced the following year. Her fourth and final marriage was to French businessman Thierry Roussel in 1984.
Onassis and Roussel had a daughter, Athina, in 1985. They divorced after Onassis discovered that Roussel had fathered a child with his long-time mistress, Swedish model Marianne "Gaby" Landhage, during the marriage. On 19 November 1988, Christina's body was found by her maid in the bathtub of a mansion in Buenos Aires, where she had been staying. An autopsy found no evidence of suicide, drug overdose or foul play, but found that Onassis had died of a heart attack caused by acute pulmonary edema, she was 37 years old. A private, Greek Orthodox funeral was held for her on 20 November at a chapel on the Onassis-owned island of Skorpios, whereafter she was buried in the Onassis family plot in the Island of Skorpios Cemetery, alongside her father and brother. Onassis willed her fortune, worth an estimated $250 million at the time of her death, to her only child, Athina. Raised in Switzerland by her father, Thierry Roussel, his wife, Marianne "Gaby" Landhage, Athina gained control of half of the estate on her 18th birthday.
Musician Patty Griffin dedicated the song "Christina" to Onassis. The Spanish composer Joaquín Sabina dedicated a song to Onassis called "Pobre Cristina" on his 1990 album Mentiras Piadosas. Christina O, the Onassis family yacht, was named after Christina by her father. Sources Christina Onassis at Find a Grave
Michael Allan Warren is an English portrait photographer known for his images of members of high society. After growing up in post-war London with his mother, Warren attended Terry's Juveniles, a stage school based in the Drury Lane Theatre, it was during this period. One such piece of work was as a child presenter in "The Five O'clock Club", which afforded him the opportunity to associate with a variety of people, including a young Marc Bolan who would employ Warren as his first manager. Warren started his photographic career at the age of 17 when he was acting in Alan Bennett's play Forty Years On with John Gielgud in the West End at the Apollo Theatre. Around this time Warren bought his first second-hand camera and began to take photographs of his fellow actors, his first major assignment was when his friend Mickey Deans asked him to cover his wedding to Judy Garland, which marked the beginning of Warren's work as a professional photographer. When in New York for personal reasons, he attended an audition for the Broadway production of Minnie's Boys.
However, he declined the role offered to him in favour of returning to London and pursuing photography as his vocation. After this decisive event Warren embarked on his photography career, throughout which he took portraits of personalities including many actors, musicians and members of the British royal family. In the early 1980s Warren embarked on a quest to photograph all 30 British dukes. Together with Angus Montagu, 12th Duke of Manchester he set up the Duke's Trust, a charity for children in need. Warren has uploaded many pictures from his archive to Wikimedia Commons. In the early 1990s, Warren embarked on writing plays. One of his works, The Lady of Phillimore Walk, was directed by Frank Dunlop and critics went as far as comparing it to Sleuth, a thriller written by Anthony Shaffer; the cast of "The Lady of Phillimore Walk" consisted of Philip Lowrie. Warren invented the Hankybreathe, a handkerchief which allows the user to inhale air through a carbon filter at the mouth, to filter out the noxious effects of exhaust emissions.
The invention, meant to be dabbed in eucalyptus oil, harks back to the nosegay and stems from Warren's experience with asthma in polluted London. In January 2018, Allan Warren was used as a clue in the Times Daily Quiz. Nobs & Nosh – Eating with the Beautiful People, 1975 Confessions of a Society Photographer, 1976 The Dukes of Britain, 1986 The Lady of Phillimore Walk, 1991 Dukes and Other Stories, 1999 Strangers in the Buff, August 2007 Carpet Dwellers, October 2007 Nein Camp, December 2012 Stand By To Repel All Boarders, December 2014 Official website Allan Warren on IMDb
Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough
Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough, Princess of Mindelheim, Princess of Mellenburg, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Countess of Godolphin was the daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, general of the army, Sarah Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, close friend and business manager of Queen Anne. She was born Henrietta Churchill, became The Hon. Henrietta Churchill when her father was made a Scottish Lord of Parliament in 1682 and Lady Henrietta Churchill in 1689, when her father was created Earl of Marlborough, she married The Hon. Francis Godolphin in 1698, she became Viscountess Rialton in 1706 when her father-in-law was created Earl of Godolphin, Countess of Godolphin in 1712 when her husband succeeded as 2nd Earl of Godolphin. An act of English parliament in 1706 allowed the 1st Duke's daughters to inherit his English titles. Following his death in 1722, Lady Godolphin became suo jure Duchess of Marlborough, she bore five children during her marriage to Lord Godolphin: William Godolphin, Marquess of Blandford, married Maria Catherina de Jong, no issue Lord Henry Godolphin Lady Henrietta Godolphin, married the 1st Duke of Newcastle, no issue Lady Margaret Godolphin Lady Mary Godolphin, married the 4th Duke of Leeds and had issue.
It was rumored that Lady Mary Godolphin was not, in fact, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Godolphin, but rather daughter of the playwright William Congreve and Henrietta Godolphin. The Duchess died in 1733, aged 52, in Harrow and she was buried on 9 November 1733 in Westminster Abbey, her titles passed to the 5th Earl of Sunderland. 1681–1682: Miss Henrietta Churchill 1682–1689: The Honourable Henrietta Churchill 1689–1698: Lady Henrietta Churchill 1698–1706: Lady Henrietta Godolphin 1706–1712: Viscountess Rialton 1712–1722: The Right Honourable The Countess of Godolphin 1722–1733: Her Grace The Duchess of MarlboroughThe Duchess did not inherit her father's imperial princely title as the Empire operated Salic Law, preventing female succession. However, she was a princess of the Holy Roman Empire and a Princess of Mindelheim, subsequently a Princess of Mellenburg after her father's lands in the empire were exchanged for one another. Sambrook, James. "Godolphin, suo jure duchess of Marlborough".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/92329. Retrieved 2009-06-28