Order of the Thistle
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland. The current version of the Order was founded in 1687 by King James VII of Scotland who asserted that he was reviving an earlier Order; the Order consists of the Sovereign and sixteen Knights and Ladies, as well as certain "extra" knights. The Sovereign alone grants membership of the Order; the Order's primary emblem is the national flower of Scotland. The motto is Nemo me impune lacessit; the same motto appears on the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom for use in Scotland and some pound coins, is the motto of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, Scots Guards, The Black Watch of Canada and Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. The patron saint of the Order is St Andrew. Most British orders of chivalry cover the whole United Kingdom, but the three most exalted ones each pertain to one constituent country only; the Order of the Thistle, which pertains to Scotland, is the second-most senior in precedence. Its equivalent in England, The Most Noble Order of the Garter, is the oldest documented order of chivalry in the United Kingdom, dating to the middle fourteenth century.
In 1783 an Irish equivalent, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, was founded, but has now fallen dormant. The claim that James VII was reviving an earlier Order is not supported by the evidence; the 1687 warrant states that during the 786 battle of Athelstaneford with Æthelstan of East Anglia, the cross of St Andrew appeared in the sky to Achaius, King of Scots. This seems unlikely. An alternative version is that the Order was founded in 809 to commemorate an alliance between Achaius and Emperor Charlemagne, yet another is Robert the Bruce instituted the order after his victory at Bannockburn in 1314. Most historians consider the earliest credible claim to be the founding of the Order by James III, during the fifteenth century, he adopted the thistle as the royal badge, issued coins depicting thistles and conferred membership of the "Order of the Burr or Thissil" on Francis I of France. However, there is no conclusive evidence for this. Writing around 1578, John Lesley refers to the three foreign orders of chivalry carved on the gate of Linlithgow Palace, with James V's ornaments of St Andrew, proper to this nation.
Some Scottish order of chivalry may have existed during the sixteenth century founded by James V and called the Order of St. Andrew, but lapsed by the end of that century. James VII issued letters patent "reviving and restoring the Order of the Thistle to its full glory and magnificency" on 29 May 1687, his intention was to reward Scottish Catholics for their loyalty but the initiative came from John, 1st Earl and 1st Jacobite Duke of Melfort Secretary of State for Scotland. Only eight members out of a possible twelve were appointed. After James was deposed by the 1688 Glorious Revolution and no further appointments were made until his younger daughter Anne did so in 1703, it remains in existence and is used to recognise Scots'who have held public office or contributed to national life.' James, Earl of Perth. When James VII revived the Order, the statutes stated that the Order would continue the ancient number of Knights, described in the preceding warrant as "the Sovereign and twelve Knights-Brethren in allusion to the Blessed Saviour and his Twelve Apostles".
In 1827, George IV augmented the Order to sixteen members. Women were excluded from the Order. From time to time, individuals may be admitted to the Order by special statutes; such members do not count towards the sixteen-member limit. Members of the British Royal Family are admitted through this procedure. King Olav V of Norway, the first foreigner to be admitted to the Order, was admitted
Henry Erskine, 10th Earl of Buchan
Henry David Erskine, 10th Earl of Buchan FRS, styled Lord Auchterhouse until 1745, was a Scottish peer. Buchan was the eldest surviving son of David Erskine, 9th Earl of Buchan, by Frances, daughter of Henry Fairfax, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1734. A freemason, he was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland between 1745 and 1746. Lord Buchan married Agnes, daughter of Sir James Steuart, 7th Baronet, on 31 January 1739, they had six children: Lady Anne Agnes Erskine David Erskine, Lord Cardross David Stewart Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan Henry Erskine Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine Lady Isabella Erskine Lord Buchan died at Walcot, Somerset, in December 1767, aged 57, was succeeded in the earldom by his second but eldest surviving son, David. The Countess of Buchan died at Edinburgh, Scotland, in December 1778, aged 61. Emily Morgan Taylor Erskine is his great great great great great great granddaughter, at the age 18 she will be granted family fortunes and will be placed on the family throne.*
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
An earl is a member of the nobility. The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form jarl, meant "chieftain" a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it was replaced by duke. In medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count. However, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could mean a sovereign prince. For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "earl/count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the hakushaku of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era. In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage, ranking below a marquess and above a viscount. A feminine form of earl never developed; the term earl has been compared to the name of the Heruli, to runic erilaz. Proto-Norse eril, or the Old Norse jarl, came to signify the rank of a leader.
The Norman-derived equivalent count was not introduced following the Norman conquest of England though countess was and is used for the female title. Geoffrey Hughes writes, "It is a speculation that the Norman French title'Count' was abandoned in England in favour of the Germanic'Earl' because of the uncomfortable phonetic proximity to cunt". In the other languages of Britain and Ireland, the term is translated as: Welsh iarll and Scottish Gaelic iarla, Scots yarl or yerl, Cornish yurl. An earl has the title Earl of when the title originates from a placename, or Earl when the title comes from a surname. In either case, he is referred to as Lord, his wife as Lady. A countess who holds an earldom in her own right uses Lady, but her husband does not have a title; the eldest son of an earl, though not himself a peer, is entitled to use a courtesy title the highest of his father's lesser titles, for instance the eldest son of The Earl Of Wessex is styled as James, Viscount Severn. Younger sons are styled The Honourable, daughters, The Lady.
In the peerage of Scotland, when there are no courtesy titles involved, the heir to an earldom, indeed any level of peerage, is styled Master of, successive sons as younger of. In Anglo-Saxon England, earls had authority over their own regions and right of judgment in provincial courts, as delegated by the king, they collected fines and taxes and in return received a "third penny", one-third of the money they collected. In wartime they led the king's armies; some shires were grouped together into larger units known as earldoms, headed by an ealdorman or earl. Under Edward the Confessor earldoms like Wessex, East Anglia and Northumbria—names that represented earlier independent kingdoms—were much larger than any shire. Earls functioned as royal governors. Though the title of Earl was nominally equal to the continental duke, unlike them, earls were not de facto rulers in their own right. After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror tried to rule England using the traditional system but modified it to his own liking.
Shires became the largest secular subdivision in England and earldoms disappeared. The Normans did create new earls like those of Herefordshire and Cheshire but they were associated with only a single shire at most, their power and regional jurisdiction was limited to that of the Norman counts. There was no longer any administrative layer larger than the shire, shires became "counties". Earls no longer aided in tax collection or made decisions in country courts and their numbers were small. King Stephen increased the number of earls to reward those loyal to him in his war with his cousin Empress Matilda, he gave some earls the right to hold royal castles or control the sheriff and soon other earls assumed these rights themselves. By the end of his reign, some earls held courts of their own and minted their own coins, against the wishes of the king, it fell to Stephen's successor Henry II to again curtail the power of earls. He took back the control of royal castles and demolished castles that earls had built for themselves.
He did not create new earldoms. No earl was allowed to remain independent of royal control; the English kings had found it dangerous to give additional power to an powerful aristocracy, so sheriffs assumed the governing role. The details of this transition remain obscure, since earls in more peripheral areas, such as the Scottish Marches and Welsh Marches and Cornwall, retained some viceregal powers long after other earls had lost them; the loosening of central authority during the Anarchy complicates any smooth description of the changeover. By the 13th century, earls had a social rank just below the king and princes, but were not more powerful or wealthier than other noblemen; the only way to become an earl was to inherit the title or marry into one—and the king reserved a right to prevent the transfer of the title. By the 14th century, creating an earl included a special public ceremony where the king tied a sword belt around the waist of the new earl, emphasizing the fact that the earl's rights came from him.
Earls still held influence and, as "companions of the king", were regarded as supporters of the king's power. They showed that power for the first time in 1327 when they deposed Edward II, they would do th
Alexander Montgomerie, 9th Earl of Eglinton
Alexander Seton Montgomerie, 9th Earl of Eglinton was a Scottish peer. He was born about 1660, the eldest son of Alexander, 8th Earl of Eglinton and Lady Elizabeth Crichton, eldest daughter of William, 2nd Earl of Dumfries. From the time of the death of his grandfather, Hugh, in 1669 he was boarded with Matthew Fleming, the minister of Culross, who superintended his education at the school of Culross until 1673, when he was sent to the University of St. Andrews, where he remained till Lammas 1676. A few months after leaving the university he married Lady Margaret Cochrane, eldest daughter of William Cochrane, Lord Cochrane, the son of the William Cochrane, 1st Earl of Dundonald, on which occasion his father made over to him the Eglinton estates. After the revolution he was chosen a privy counsellor by King William, a lord commissioner of the treasury. In 1700, he obtained a letter from the king to sit and vote in the Scots parliament in place of the lord high treasurer, he succeeded to the earldom on the death of his father in 1701.
On Queen Anne's accession in 1702, Eglinton was chosen a privy counsellor, in 1711 he was named one of the commissioners of the chamberlain's court. In 1710, again in 1713, he was elected one of the Scottish representative peers. Lockhart, his son-in-law, states that when he himself proposed to bring in a bill for resuming the bishops' revenues in Scotland, applying them to the episcopal clergy there, Eglinton gave his support to the measure, assured Queen Anne that the presbyterians would not oppose it; this is corroborated by Wodrow, who asserts that Lockhart, either in the House of Peers or in the privy council, proposed'that as we are one in civil we should be one in church matters'. Wodrow states that his speech on patronage and toleration was'so good' that it was supposed'it was done by somebody for him'. In June 1712, he proposed a bill for prolonging the time for taking the oath of abjuration till 1 November. Lockhart affirms that Eglinton at last professed himself a Jacobite, promised him three thousand guineas'to help the Pretender in his restoration'.
Wodrow relates that shortly before the rebellion in 1715 Eglinton was at a meeting of the Jacobites where the rebellion, as to the manner of carrying out, was concerted, heard all their proposals'. During the crisis he raised and disciplined the Ayrshire fencibles, with which on 22 August he joined the Earls of Kilmarnock and Glasgow and Lord Semple at Irvine in support of the government, he died at Eglinton on 18 February 1729. Between nine hundred and a thousand beggars are stated to have attended his funeral, £50 being divided among them, he was succeeded by Alexander Montgomerie, 10th Earl of Eglinton. Eglinton was married three times. By his first wife, Margaret Cochrane, he had three sons and six daughters: Hugh, Lord Montgomerie, died in 1696. By his second wife, Lady Anne Gordon, daughter of George Gordon, 1st Earl of Aberdeen, he had one daughter, Mary married to Sir David Cuningham of Milncraig, Ayrshire a celebrated beauty, whose charms are sung by Hamilton of Bangour. By his third wife, daughter of Sir Archibald Kennedy, 1st Baronet of Culzean, Ayrshire, he had three sons and eight daughters: James, Lord Montgomerie, died young.
Clan Montgomery Barony and Castle of Giffen Susanna Montgomery, Countess of Eglinton Eglinton Castle Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Henderson, Thomas Finlayson. "Montgomerie, Alexander". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 38. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Family tree