Capital University is a private research university in Bexley, Ohio, a suburb of Columbus. Capital was founded as the Theological Seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio in 1830, was associated with that synod's successor, the American Lutheran Church; the university has graduate programs, as well as a law school. Capital University is the oldest university in Central Ohio and is one of the oldest and largest Lutheran-affiliated universities in North America. Capital University was founded on June 3, 1830, as the "Theological Seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio" in nearby Canton, Ohio, 40 years before what would become The Ohio State University, securing its title as the oldest university in Central Ohio, it was renamed as Capital University on March 2, 1850, when the seminary was reformed as the Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary of Columbus, when the denomination was renamed as the Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and Other States and grew into a nationwide church body.
In 1930, the Joint Synod was merged with two other smaller German language groups, the Iowa Synod and the Buffalo Synod into a major nationwide grouping entitled the American Lutheran Church, headquartered in Columbus. The ALC existed only three decades, until 1960, when it in turn participated in a larger merger with several other groups of Lutherans in the Norwegian and Swedish traditions and was renamed The American Lutheran Church; the second ALC lasted until the formation of the current Evangelical Lutheran Church in America in 1988, with offices in Chicago, Illinois. The neighboring ELTS in Bexley merged with the theological department known as Hamma Divinity School of nearby Wittenberg University in Springfield, Ohio, in 1978, reopened on the Columbus campus as Trinity Lutheran Seminary, where it continues today as a theological seminary of the ELCA; the university moved to downtown Columbus in 1832, but moved its main campus to the rural periphery of the state capital in the community of Bexley.
This rural area has since developed into an upscale suburb. Capital University's educational mission is based on Lutheran values of free inquiry, critical thinking, leadership. A current motto used at the school is "Ask. Think. Lead", a continuing reminder of its educational mission. In recognition of several buildings' historic architectural merit, in 1982 a portion of the campus was entered on the National Register of Historic Places as the "Capital University Historic District"; the district comprises Mees Hall, Bexley Hall, the Kerns Religious Life Center, Leonard Hall. The district encompassed Lehmann Hall and Loy Hall, both of which have since been demolished. In May 2004, the university received approval to close Mound Street between College Avenue and Pleasant Ridge Avenue from the city of Bexley; the university in 2006 constructed a pedestrian mall on the closed portion of Mound Street which included parking, improved lighting and landscaping. The $2.5 million project unified the northern and southern portions of campus.
On April 20, 2015, University President Denvy A. Bowman announced his intention to retire as president effective July 1, 2016, ending his ten-year tenure as president. On February 9, 2016, Capital announced, she is the first woman to hold the position at the university. Dr. Paul comes to Capital after serving as provost at Stetson University in Florida. In the fall of 2016, Capital University and Trinity Lutheran Seminary announced that the two would reunite after 58 years of operating separately; the two operated as one institution from 1830 to 1959. The goal is to have the reunion plan completed by summer of 2017 with implementation to follow over the next two years. Capital is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Capital's tuition for a full-time undergraduate student is $33,282 for the 2016-2017 academic year. Room and board expenses total about $9,422 per year; the student-faculty ratio at Capital University is 11:1. Capital University has 51 minors to choose from; some majors include education, economics, athletic training, accounting and many others.
Capital University has a strong and well-established music program with renowned faculty including James Swearingen and diverse majors such as Music Education, Performance Majors, Music Technology, Music Industry. The academic buildings on campus include Battelle Hall, Ruff Learning Center, Troutman Hall, Kerns Religious Life Center, Huber-Spielman Hall, Conservatory of Music, Renner Hall. On June 8, 2015 the Board of Trustees approved the demolition of Loy Hall to proceed with the construction of a Convergent Media Center; the project is estimated to cost $16 million with an anticipated completion date in August 2016. The building will be the new home for Cap TV, WXCU Radio, The Chimes (student newspaper, conservatory rehearsal space, as well as conference rooms and classrooms; the original hardwood floor of Loy Hall will be repurposed into tables in the new building. Capital University Law School is an ABA-accredited private law school located in downtown Columbus. Capital Law was voted a "Best Value Law School" on the basis of tuition by the National Jurist magazine in 2009.
In 2011, the National Jurist magazine, as well as preLaw magazine named Capital as one of the nation's top law schools in preparing students for legal careers in public service. In 2012, the magazines listed Capital as one of the nation's top law schools
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
American Bandmasters Association
The American Bandmasters Association was formed in 1929 by Edwin Franko Goldman to promote concert band music. Goldman sought to raise esteem for concert bands among audiences; the reputations of concert bands suffered in comparison to symphony orchestras due to factors including "the concert band’s concert venue out-of-doors, the difficulty of conductors to obtain a quality music education, a limited repertoire that with the exception of marches was borrowed from the libraries of the orchestra, a lack of camaraderie among the leading bandmasters/conductors of the period." The ABA's current Constitution states that the organization shall: honor outstanding achievement by invitation to membership. Membership is extended to the leaders of the wind band movement and is considered to be the highest honor given within the wind studies realm; the current president is Lowell E. Graham. Previous presidents include Goldman, Karl King, Charles O'Neill, Herbert L. Clarke, Henry Fillmore, William D. Revelli.
John Philip Sousa was the first honorary life president. Membership is extended through invitation to conductors/teachers/directors considered to be exemplary professionals within the field. Associate Membership is available through invitation to "firms and individuals engaged in the music industry or related field" who are affiliated with the ABA; the association has contributed to the wind and percussion band community through the spheres of literature and pedagogy. The ABA is responsible for the commissioning of many of the wind band's most revered works, including Lincolnshire Posy by Percy Grainger, Pageant by Vincent Persichetti, Strange Humors by John Mackey, Endurance by Timothy Mahr. A list of the current and historical officers and membership can be found in the publication Lest We Forget, updated regularly; the ABA sponsors the Sousa/Ostwald Award. The organization produces the Journal of Band Research; the American Bandmasters Association Website The American Bandmasters Association Archives, Special Collections in Performing Arts at the University of Maryland The American Bandmasters Association Research Center, Special Collections in Performing Arts at the University of Maryland
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity of America is an American collegiate social fraternity for men with a special interest in music. The fraternity is open to men "who, through a love for music, can assist in the fulfillment of Object and ideals either by adopting music as a profession, or by working to advance the cause of music in America." Phi Mu Alpha has initiated more than 260,000 members, known as Sinfonians, the fraternity has over 7,000 active collegiate members in 249 collegiate chapters throughout the United States. Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia was founded as the Sinfonia Club at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts on October 6, 1898, by Ossian Everett Mills, bursar of the conservatory. Two years on October 6, 1900, a delegation of members from the Sinfonia Club visited the Broad Street Conservatory of Music in Philadelphia, a group of students there petitioned to form a chapter of the club, thus establishing the organization as a national fraternity. By 1901, two additional chapters had been formed and the 1st National Convention was held in Boston to establish a national constitution.
Phi Mu Alpha operates independently from any of the major governing councils for collegiate fraternities in the United States such as the North-American Interfraternity Conference, though it is a member of other interfraternal organizations such as the Association of Fraternity Advisors, the Fraternity Communications Association, the National Interfraternity Music Council. Since 1970, Phi Mu Alpha headquarters are located at Lyrecrest, an estate on the northern outskirts of Evansville, Indiana. Membership in Phi Mu Alpha is divided into four classes: probationary, collegiate and honorary. Probationary members are those who are participating in an educational program of between four and 12 weeks in length in preparation for initiation as full, active collegiate members. Collegiate members transfer to alumni membership. Honorary membership can be bestowed under guidelines established by the National Constitution; the fraternity has local and national levels of governance. The most fundamental local unit is the collegiate chapter chartered at a university.
Phi Mu Alpha charters local alumni associations, which are issued to groups of alumni members in a particular geographic area. Chapters and alumni associations are grouped into provinces. A National Executive Committee, elected by a National Assembly at each triennial National Convention, governs the national organization. Phi Mu Alpha has several identifying symbols, including a membership badge. Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia was founded as the Sinfonia Club by Ossian Everett Mills at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. Ossian Everett Mills, bursar of the conservatory, had been holding devotional meetings with a small group of male students since 1886. Mills was profoundly interested in the physical, mental and spiritual development of the conservatory's students. Mills sought to encourage the personal development of the young men at the conservatory through wholesome social interaction among them; this led Mills to suggested that the "Old Boys" of the conservatory invite the "New Boys" to a "get acquainted" reception on September 22, 1898.
Several of the men who attended the reception began to discuss the possibility of organizing a more permanent social club, a meeting was planned for October 6, 1898, for that purpose. The origin of the name "Sinfonia" is attributed to George W. Chadwick, the director of the New England Conservatory at the time the Sinfonia Club was founded. Chadwick was elected as the second honorary member of the club after Ossian Mills, he suggested the name "Sinfonia" after the name of a student organization he was a member of in Leipzig, Germany. Prior to 1947, the legal corporate name of the fraternity was Sinfonia Fraternity of America, though the Greek letters Phi, Mu, Alpha had been associated with the fraternity since at least 1904; the delegates to the 29th National Convention in 1946 approved changing the corporate name to Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity of America, which it remains today. The Sinfonia Club became a national fraternity in 1900 with the admission of a group of men at the Broad Street Conservatory of Music in Philadelphia, under the direction of Gilbert Raynolds Combs.
The traditional date given in fraternity resources for the founding of Beta Chapter at Broad Street Conservatory is October 6, 1900. However, while the petitioning letter submitted by the men from Philadelphia is dated October 6, a notation made by Ralph Howard Pendleton, secretary of Alpha Chapter at the New England Conservatory, at the bottom of the letter indicates that the petition was not approved until October 8. Phi Mu Alpha continued to grow and to maintain an emphasis on the development of high character among male musicians through the next two decades. Percy Jewett Burrell, sixth Supreme President, was influential during the fraternity's early years, both because of his long tenure in office and because of his extensive writing. Burrell wrote many articles calling for members to develop within themselves the noble virtues espoused by the fraternity's exoteric and esoteric teachings; as the fraternity continued to grow in both the number of members and chapters, so did its emphasis on the advancement of music.
In 1927, the original Object statement was altered so that "to advance the cause of music in America" was put in a place of prominence. After the American victory in World War II, the young men who returned from battle to re-enter the nation's